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The Government and Political System in Oman

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Oman is under the rule of a monarchy with a sultan as the Head of State. The sultan is given counsel by an appointed cabinet but all the same remains the highest and absolute authority. The sultan is likewise the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces and the country’s Police force.

Oman has no established constitution or legislature bodies. Similarly, there are no political parties; more so, and rather rarely, the country’s entire judicial system is founded on the Islamic law. A chief court and court of appeals are located in Masqat.

Oman became part of the League of Arab States (or the Arab League) in 1971 mainly out of the efforts and influence of Qabus bin Said - the reigning sultan at that time. The Arab League is an organization of Arab States, formed in 1945, with initially six member states: Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria. Later in the same year, Yemen joined the roster. The goal of the League of Arab States is to establish and reinforce relations between the member states, form an alliance working to preserve the Arab states’ safety, autonomy, and interests. Currently, there are twenty two member states in the League and four others as observers.

In the duration of his reign, Sultan Qabus bin Said constantly moved toward the formation of a government. By the middle of the 1970s he had managed to create several ministries to aid him in overseeing the various state affairs.

In 1981, the Consultative Council was created by order of the Sultan. This became a venue for Oman’s citizens to participate in efforts to further the development of the country and collaborate with the government toward this goal. With the establishment of the Council, even the private sector became well represented.

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