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The Government and Political System in Peru

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Peru is governed by a presidential representative democratic type of government based on the 1933 Constitution.  It is administered by 3 main branches: Executive, Legislative, and Judicial.  Citizens between 18 and 70 are eligible to vote.  The President is the head of the state and government and represents the country in official global affairs.  He or she is elected for a 5-year term and is qualified for reelection.  The President assigns the Prime Minister and the rest of the Council of Ministers.  The unicameral Congress is composed of 120 representatives elected for five years.  The Judicial branch is directed by the Supreme Court of the Republic.  The second hierarchal level is the Superior Court followed by Courts of First Instance and Courts of Peace.  The judiciary is technically independent however political interventions are still prevalent.  There are 28 Judicial Districts overall.  The Peruvian military consists of the army, navy, and air force. 

Most of Peru’s foreign relationships have been controlled by territorial conflicts with neighboring nations.  During the 20th century, several of its border issues have already been resolved.  Peru is an active member of many recognized organizations such as the United Nations, Organization of American States, and Andean Community of Nations. 

The current president of Peru is Alan Garcia of the Peruvian Aprista Party, elected in the general elections of 2006.  Congress is presently composed of Peruvian Aprista Party (36 seats), Peruvian Nationalist Party (23 seats), Union for Peru (19 seats), Parliamentary Alliance (9 seats) and the Democratic Special Parliamentary Group (5 seats). 

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