Medicine is the science and art of medicinal healing. It encompasses a wide range of health care practices developed to maintain and restore health by the prevention of disease and treatment of infirmities. In diagnosing and treating of disease and injury, contemporary medicine applies health science, biomedical research and medical technology basically through proper medication measures, surgery and therapies. Medicine is derived from the Latin word ars medicina which means the art of healing.
The Father of Modern Medicine is the Persian philosopher Avicenna. His contribution, the Canon of Medicine which was written during the Islamic Golden Age tackled the nature of contagious disease, discovered anesthetics and medicinal drugs, introduced quarantine and experimental medicine and the idea of clinical trials. Through the development of science and technology, medications were greatly relied on by medicine. Edward Jenner and Louis Pasteur discovered the importance of vaccinations.
In clinical practice, it is the physician’s responsibility to assess patients in diagnosing, treating and preventing the occurrence of disease conditions through the utilization of clinical judgment. The doctor-patient relationship starts initially with an interactive examination of the patient’s past and present medical history, medical records, followed by a medical interview and physical examination. A stethoscope and tongue depressor are the basic diagnostic medical devices that are typically used. Medical tests follow the initial examination of signs and symptoms such as blood tests, urine examinations, biopsy, or the prescription of pharmaceutical drugs or other therapies. It is important that the doctor informs the patient properly about relevant facts to enhance the trust in the doctor-patient relationship. It is in the medical records where the medical encounter is documented and filed.
As a part of the interdisciplinary team, most highly-trained health professionals besides medical practitioners are involved in the modern health care delivery. Some of the health professionals include nurses, emergency technicians and paramedics, laboratory scientists, respiratory therapists, dietitians, radiographers and the like.
Medicine has many specializations and sub-specializations. It varies from country to country depending on which specialties certain subspecialties are in. A medicine specialty is a branch of medical science. After a student completes medical school, physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific medicine specialty by completing a multiple-year residency. When medical specialists engage in a medical specialty, they are called Medical Practitioners.
Medical specialist usually receives an annual salary of $175, 011 in the United States; and $272, 000 for surgeons. The annual salary range does vary however because of commodity inflation, increasing negligent costs, steep price rise of rental and the like.
There are also different specialties offered from every country. In Australia and New Zealand, specialty training is overseen by specialty colleges such as the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons and the Royal Australasian College of Physicians. In Canada, it is the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada that oversees the specialty training. In India, it is the responsibility of the Medical Council of India to offer post-graduate training as well as the National Board of Examinations. In the United States, there are three recognized agencies which collectively oversee the physician board certification of MD and DO physicians in the 26 approved medical specialties acknowledged. The organizations are the American Board of Medical Specialties, American Medical Association, the American Osteopathic Association Bureau of Osteopathic Specialists and the American Osteopathic Association; the American Board of Physician Specialties and the American Association of Physician Specialists. These agencies and their associated national medical organizations each function at its various specialty academies, colleges and societies.
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