Studies & Degrees in Architecture, Building and Landscape




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3D architecture Architectural Composition Architectural Restoration and Rehabilitation Architecture Architecture Foundations Bioclimatic Architecture Biodigital Architecture Building Construction Drafting Ephemeral Architecture Landscape Architecture Landscape Design Landscaping and Environment Monument Conservation and Restoration Naval Arquitecture Technical Architecture Urban Architecture & Design

Study 3D architecture

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Study Architectural Composition

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Study Architectural Restoration and Rehabilitation

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The field of Architectural restoration and rehabilitation has been responsible for the continued existence of famous historical monuments seen still standing today. The Great Sphinx and Pyramids of Egypt, the Parthenon of Greece, the Coliseum of Rome as well as the Pantheon, St. Mark's Cathedral in Venice, St. Sophia in Istanbul, the Alhambra in Granada and even the Great Wall of China, all have underwent restoration and rehabilitation. Restoring and rehabilitating structures, especially those of great historical value, like the ancient wonders mentioned are such monumental tasks to undertake.

These are types of projects that will take years; mostly decades due to so much attention to details needed. A wrong restoration methodology could spell disaster. Not only does restoration of historical edifices take enormous amount of time but also millions of money.

Like in the case of the Great Sphinx, which had slowly succumbed to chipping and erosion as a result of years of subjection to the harsh weather elements of Egypt; restoration just became an imperative call. Historical landmarks like the Sphinx is too precious to watch get merged with the Egyptian desert. Further degradation of the Sphinx would not only say goodbye to a grandeur that reminds Egypt that it once held the world in its palms but also to the contribution of that single edifice to the coffers of the country as a tourist destination.

The restoration and rehabilitation of the Great Sphinx actually began allegedly from 1400 BC under Thutmosis IV. Under Roman rule, the Sphinx also got rehabilitated as they were used as backdrop for Roman plays. In 1955, the Government started a campaign for restoration and rehabilitation and again in 1989. It was only in 1989 that the architects got their restoration methodology right. The office of Egyptian Antiquities Office shelved out £60 million in a total span of ten years to finally rehabilitate the Great Sphinx.

These types of endeavors takes into account into everything from location, historical records, function, architectural elements like columns, doors, windows among others, type of materials, changes and modifications done in the past, and costs, to engineering elements such as air quality, subsurface water, characteristics of soil and rocks, and temperature variations of the environment, level of degradation, and structural stability assessment. When all factors are considered, how these factors interplay with each other, only then can a project starts to go to the drawing board. At the planning stage, the formulations of what specific restoration measures and methodologies to adopt. Once methodology is established, actual work can be executed.

Architectural restoration, of course, does not only apply to historical monuments but to any kind of structure which mainly includes buildings and houses. Restoration of buildings and skyscrapers are also challenging work for architects. Unlike in historical monuments, which are undertaken or commissioned for preservation purposes, high-rise buildings undergo restoration to make sure that the structure is fit for human use. A single skyscraper can house thousands of humans so the integrity of the building has to be doubly sure that it is fit for use.

In the future, the field of Architectural Restoration and Rehabilitation will have a great potential as an industry as thousands of buildings will be due for restoration and rehabilitation in the next 10 or 20 years.

Job positions for Architectural Restoration and Rehabilitation:

Electrical RCDD Engineer

In the 1980s, 17,000 Electrical Engineers distributed around the world banded together to form a non-profit association to certify experts in the field of designing low-voltage cabling systems. This group of 17,000 Engineers decided to call their certifying body, BICSI. In 1985, the Registered Communications Distribution Designer (RCDD) program was instituted and since then has produced only 5,000 RCDDs.

How does one become an RCDD? First, an application to BICSI has to be fully accomplished. BICSI will also require an applicant to submit three letters attesting their previous work experiences. Questions are written and formulated by industry experts. The exam would cover all aspects of the BICSI Telecommunications Distribution Methods. Mostly, subjects covered are designing horizontal cabling systems, equipment rooms, campus backbone systems, private CATV distribution systems, fire stopping, wireless systems, field testing and other related chapters.
Because of the rigidity of passing the RCDD program, Electrical RCDD Engineers are a special breed of engineers. Having an RCDD status would mean an edge in the field of Electrical Engineering, Telecommunications and Architecture.

An RCDD certification in a resume is synonymous to excellence. Usually RCDD Engineers are regarded highly not only among engineers and architects but also by many private and state organizations internationally. Electrical RCDD Engineers are often asked to design and install mission critical technical facilities. Examples of mission critical technical facilities are command or control centers, data centers, and communication centers. RCDD Engineers are also oftentimes approached to design and build telecommunication systems for buildings and school campuses. Electrical RCDD Engineers wouldn’t have a hard time integrating a new design into an existing telecommunication system. Anything to do with voice, data, video, audio and low voltage controls, an RCDD Engineer can design and install them all, be it digital or analog devices in whatever type of cabling used.
Although the C in RCDD means “Communications,” Electrical RCDD Engineers are not limited to designing telecommunications related infrastructures but are also very much capable of designing building power, lighting, fire alarm, transport, internet network and even security systems. Electrical RCDD Engineers are also good in development tasks, calculations, cost estimates and specifications.
Employers will get their money’s worth as they can also assist in improving a company’s quality standards and procedures.

Usually, Electrical RCDD Engineers are telecommunications designers, consultants, project managers and system integrator
Naturally, having to do tasks that only an Electrical RCDD Engineer can do, expect salary and wages to be commensurate. RCDD Engineers are very much in high demand due to the high-level of technical expertise they possess.

Now, in relation to an architectural restoration project, an Electrical RCDD Engineer would be an invaluable member of the team. He can work side by side with an Infrastructure Generalist to come up with a workable system tailored fit for a particular project. He can also work with developmental programs, a command center, cost estimates and specifications.

Moreover, an RCDD Engineer can design whatever the chief architect wants him to design as designing things is the forte of an Electrical RCDD Engineer.

Study Architecture

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The world is almost entirely covered by different infrastructures, all created to meet man’s needs. Malls, hotels, business establishments, schools, and houses are seen far and wide, most looking so similar to each other. But a certain few standout like the Hyatt Regency Hotel in San Francisco, California, USA and the Nakagin Capsule Tower in Tokyo, Japan. These infrastructures stand out because of their uniqueness in structure and shape. Many more are spread all over the world, always receiving expressions of awe from those who lay their eyes on them. Who could be responsible for these wonderful and majestic creations, you may ask? Of course, architects. They have studied and perfected the craft well enough to translate them into tangible and standing works of art. But, before we applaud the artists, we must first understand the craft.

Many experts in the field have tried to define architecture based on their perceptions of it. Van der Rohe defines it as ‘The will of the epoch translated into space.” Schelling calls it “frozen music.” In dictionaries, Architecture is defined as the art and science of designing and building structures. Yes, Architecture is the marriage of science and art. It deals with both aesthetics and technicalities. It focuses on user-sensitivity and functionality.

Architecture came forth from man’s need for shelter to answer to their problems related to climate. The simplest form of Architecture known has got to be the lean-to. It’s a matrix of leaves and twigs leaning on a few branches to protect the user from the heat of the sun and the strong winds. It was the kind of Architecture that was collapsible and portable. In Europe, it began with the use of mud bricks or stones. A proto-ziggurat was built in the Middle East in 3200 BC, the first pyramid, the Step Pyramid of Djoser, was built in Egypt in 3000 BC, and the Stonehenge in Europe in 2000 BC. These are a few of history’s greatest mega structures.

Now, we have far greater structures under different kinds of architectural styles like gothic and modern. Gothic architecture mainly comprised structures that were tall with sharp points, pointing straight up. This was the common style of churches before, representing man’s belief in a being that lived high above us. Today’s latest trend in architectural design is modern architecture. Examples of such are the Casa Mila in Barcelona, Spain and the famous Walt Disney Concert Hall, futuristic and definitely created without boundaries in mind. Other examples are baroque, classical, neo-gothic, and minimalist, spanning eras and cultures.

As the years passed, the infrastructures being put up became more refined as building technicalities and creativity came in. From mega structures, fortresses and villages were born, and soon, cities, countries, and nations. Architecture has shaped our world in ways far greater than we have ever imagined or expected it to. Year after year, new buildings are being put up, better than what we have seen before.

The creative juices of the world’s architects don’t seem to stop flowing. May they not and may we forever stand in awe in these individual’s works of wonder.

Job positions for Architecture:

Architect

During the early stages of human settlement, when man needed shelter, he gathered twigs and branches to create one. But shelter has taken a far greater form as men moved into building advancement. Man gained a higher level of intelligence in building and decided to use sturdier materials to create larger infrastructures. From mere organic materials, man experimented with stone. But building in the modern era is reserved for engineers and architects. Engineers focus on the structure’s stability as well as electrical and plumbing matrices. Architects focus on the aesthetics and functionality.

The term architect was derived from the Greek word arkhitekton which means chief builder. To become an Architect, you could take a 5-year bachelor’s degree on Architecture intended for those without any previous architectural training, a 2-year Master’s degree on Architecture when you have had architectural training, or a 3 to 4-year Master’s program for those enrolled in degrees in other disciplines. After taking the necessary education, one must earn a professional degree, complete internship or on-job-trainings related to architecture, or pass the Architect Registration Examination (ARE).

Only then, will you be employed as a professional Architect. In the United States, architects earn roughly $2,500 – 4,500 monthly, depending on their level and length of stay in the industry. Architects usually work 40 hours a week but with all the client meetings and deadlines, there seems to be no rest available for them.

Architects must have the knowledge in the field of geometry, trigonometry, physics, and technical drawing and design skills.

Architects spend a huge percentage of their life drawing, conceptualizing, meeting clients, and traveling. Most Architects say that traveling and photography are a requirement once you are a working architect because this keeps your mind open and fresh. Architects must forever search for beauty to fuel their creative minds in order to be able to design wonderful structures.

Architectural designers are concerned about how the people will use the infrastructures they will create. Architects claim that the difference between a civil engineer and an architect is the amount of attention given to user sensitivity. Sensitivity is important to architects because they design for the user. They design for the comfort and ease of the people. In the process of design conceptualization, they will incorporate their knowledge about human behavior and sensitivity.

After this, they will then establish the necessary spatial divisions within the structure. They decide where each room goes. With this kind of power, their task is almost godlike because the placing and arrangement of rooms and spaces will dictate how an individual will move from one area to the other.

So, in this ever evolving world, Architects add that element of art in structural science. They have, indeed, made cities look more interesting with every design their minds come up with.

Study Architecture Foundations

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Study Bioclimatic Architecture

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Study Biodigital Architecture

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Study Building Construction

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To learn about the history of construction would take us back in 12,000 BC; when men first invented tools and first built their shelters like tents and huts which were usually made using woods and dried leaves.

Men also made shelters by making stone structures but these were without shape and only served as roof above their heads. During the Agricultural Age, men learned to cultivate the land and settle down in one place thus creating villages which did not only consist of residential structures but also of communal structures like a house of worship. The Bronze Age saw the villages grew into towns then into cities. The structures also evolved because of newfound materials like stones and bricks. This also gave birth to a new class of professional craftsmen whose craft were the ancestors of modern-day construction crafts. These craftsmen, including bricklayers and carpenters, formed guilds during the Middle Ages and, during the steam-powered 19th century, became operators of electric-powered vehicles like cranes, excavators, and bulldozers. In the past, these professionals learned their craft by undergoing a long time of apprenticeship.

Building Construction is a job-entry major that aims to prepare student should they choose to enter the construction industry. Students will learn the principles and the technologies behind residential and commercial construction as well as layout, construction materials, construction methods, cost estimation, project management, and construction safety. Some schools even require students to take classes in engineering designing, real estate, land development, and mechanical or electrical systems. Topics about planning and scheduling, bidding strategies, financing, contracts, economics, and company operations will also be covered as well as other subjects in English, math, science, computer application, and social sciences; making each student more competitive in the industry. Students who take this major are not trained to be workers in a construction site but are rather taught to become managers and project leaders. In fact, many schools expose students to the basic principles and practices of management, and communication which are important when taking leadership roles.

Many schools require students to learn through internships, part-time work, or co-op opportunities. This will help them practice what they learn and be able to practice safe work habits, identify work hazards, and demonstrate responsible attitudes and high quality of work. Students will also be able to demonstrate basic manipulative skills need in lay outing or planning work; interpret plans, drawings, specifications, lines, symbols, and abbreviation as well as lay-out and build residential and commercial structures. Students will also be able to describe the organization, financing, labor relations, selling pricing, customer service, management, and many other aspects of business in the construction industry. Students will also be able to analyze specifications and contract drawings to make accurate quantity take-offs and labor estimations.

With all these knowledge in marketing and economics, as well as technical know-how and management skills, it is small wonder why graduates of this major are in-demand in many countries. Graduates often get positions in the industry as supervisors, contractors, construction technicians, or as construction superintendents.

Study Drafting

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Drafting, as an activity, has a very long history. Even if we went back to the time when modern construction equipments were far from conception, men had used technical albeit simple drawings to represent the design of whatever they wanted to build—from loom machines to castles and fortresses. Many artists also used technical drawing when drafting their own inventions. In face, should one look through Leonardo da Vinci’s portfolio, one would see drawings and drafts of machines—whether invented or not. As time passed, Drafting also evolved as the drawings became more accurate. Draftsmen also became more creative and rather bold in designing structures, thanks to the possibilities construction equipments like bulldozers gave. With the emergence of modern technology, many computer-aided design programs became available even to the laymen. These programs made Drafting more accurate in details and less labor intensive, making it possible for laymen to make their own designs.

Drafting is the foundation of every construction—from small desks, computers, and mechanical equipments to large houses, buildings, and structures. As a major, it is offered more as a job-preparation major or a post-secondary education rather than an academic one. This major allows students to know, understand, and apply the graphical language which is used in technical drawing. Students will also learn to develop an appreciation for it and the numerous industries where it can be used. They will also be able to maintain a high standard of quality for drawings; appreciate the concept of scale and proportion; use and understand drafting-related terminologies; represent three-dimensional objects presented on a two-dimensional plane; describe size and shape in a multi-view drawing; produce working drawings for mechanical or architectural projects; and to create drawings of basic objects in a three-dimensional environment. Students will also be able to make high quality works that they can include in their portfolios which is helpful, not only academically, but also in their careers after graduation. Students are also required to take courses in algebra, geometry, trigonometry, physics, and drawing; all of which are the foundations of Drafting. Courses in management and communication will also help students prepare themselves for leadership roles in the future.

There are two kinds of Drafting: manual and computer-aided, with the latter requiring skills with Computer Assisted Drawing (CAD) software. CADs are the most popular kind of drafting nowadays. There are some schools that produce CAD professionals by concentrating on training students with designing software. This is perfect for those who, like professional engineers and architects, want to take this major as an additional knowledge to their current field. On the other hand, many schools still encourage student to first learn and master manual drafting before moving on and developing their skills in computer-aided drafting. This is perfect for students who want to become professional draftsmen.

Students who finish this major, especially those who have excellent skills in computer-aided drafting (CAD) have a lot of job opportunities waiting for them after graduation. Most draftsmen work for architectural, engineering, and construction firms as in-house draftsmen. Some also work in government agencies, mining firms, and manufacturing industries. Others, on the other hand, work in industry as managers, supervisors, and inspectors where their skills in reading and interpreting technical drawings became very valuable.

Study Ephemeral Architecture

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Study Landscape Architecture

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Landscape Architecture is one of the newer disciplines being offered for environment-related professions in different colleges worldwide. Landscape architects, who are the practitioners of this field, are usually required to finish two or four year courses as well as pass licensure examinations that would allow them to start their own practice on said field.

Despite the discipline being a relatively new one in a classroom environment, the art, science and philosophy of Landscape Architecture had been applied centuries ago by the Romans themselves. This is obvious enough in the grid-like design of the streets of most Roman towns. The purpose of landscape architecture then is to design places that would not only be pleasing to the eyes but would also provide comfort to the people who would be visiting said places.

Because of the wide variety of other disciplines that a landscape architect must deal with in their line of work, it is not surprising for them to be experts of several applications at the same time. Landscape Architecture is known to involve other sciences from geology to mathematics, the arts and even some of the social sciences. This would ensure the landscape architect, or ‘place makers’ as they can be called, to be able to design environments that would maximize all the positive points of a certain area while using their knowledge, coupled with man-made materials to make the area even better than when they have started out.

Landscape architects are usually concerned with the designs and location for parks, buildings and other infrastructure and even work environments. Keeping in mind ecological issues in mapping out their designs, it is also considered a great concern in Landscape Architecture to leave as much of the natural state of an environment unmoved, along with the plants and animals already existing there.

There are of course several specialized fields a landscape architect may train for. One of them would be landscape designing. This field has to do with the designs of fields with plants and other kinds of vegetation. Landscape designers are quite similar to garden designers and they do not have to be registered as practitioners of said field.

Landscape scientists are those who specialize in the scientific fields that Landscape Architecture is concerned with. This would include botany and geology among others. The job of a landscape scientist would be to conduct a survey on the area being targeted for development and determining the impact the project would have on the ecological balance of that particular area. This is important since developers would not want to kill off the species already existing in that place.

Still another specialization a landscape architect might be concerned with is landscape planning, which is concerned with the different aspects of a certain area, whether located in the city or the country. This would include location, the scenic value and other aspects of a certain place to be developed for the recreation of people. In other words, landscape planning would involve looking out for a place that can be developed for the use of many people.

Once an area has been chosen to be developed, a landscape manager would be needed to make decisions about the maintenance of the area. Nature conservation, agriculture and forestry are other fields that a landscape manager would be busy with.

Study Landscape Design

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Landscape Design, which is mostly mistaken for landscape architecture because of the similarity of functions, is basically involved in producing aesthetically pleasing landscapes. Landscape designers, as opposed to landscape architects, are more concerned with artistic considerations whereas landscape architects have to consider aspects such as structural engineering. Those designating themselves as landscape designers do not need a license to practice their profession unlike landscape architects who are required to get a license. There are places, though, that are not strict with landscape contractors as long as they don’t use the title “landscape architects.” Not to be confused, landscape architects are also practitioners of landscape design. It just so happens that a lot of garden landscape artists called themselves landscape designers during the time when sophisticated-sounding job titles became a fad. Because of the proliferation of garden landscapists, the term landscape design became synonymous with landscape architects who also do projects like garden landscaping.

Landscape design takes into account soils, drainage, climate and other things that may contribute to survival of plants. Plants are essential elements in landscape design as they contribute significant effects to the overall landscape. Consider the high palm trees lined along the streets in posh Beverly Hills. Usually, movies with location shooting in Beverly Hills would usually show the palm trees and then the shops along Rodeo Drive. This is because the palm trees give Beverly Hills the posh feel that people came to regard it now. The palm trees were such a hit that developers of first-class residential areas use palm trees now to give it that distinct first-class ambiance. Aside for aesthetic purposes, some plants are also used because of their special functions. The Eucalyptus tree’s ability to ward off insects and the Indian tree’s fence-like and shading attributes, landscape artists tend to favor selecting them on projects.

Another major factor in the success of a landscape designer is the effective mixing and matching of colors. Since landscape designers view everything as one big picture, aside from the colors plants provide, the paint of a structure that is part of a landscape are also given much attention. Knowing what colors go with what colors is a must for landscape designers. Color schemes can give the tone of a place. Places with black and white motif usually give a classy look to it, butter yellow painted places usually have a sunny feel to them and brown tones usually give a country flavor.

Another thing that may set a landscape designer apart from the rest is how he conceptualizes a particular landscape. What the focus or foci should be? If a symmetrical or asymmetrical design is more apt for a particular site? Choosing a central piece or focus is very important. The focus is the main attraction of a landscape so a choice of what will be the focus could be the most important decision a landscape designer would have to take. Usual points of focus are fountains, statues, monuments, big plants or sculpture pieces. For indoors, a good focus piece is a grand chandelier, works of art or even a simple antique furniture.

Job positions for Landscape Design:

Arboculturalist

Another specialist essential to landscape designers are arboculturalists or arborists or in laymen's terms, tree surgeons. Arboriculture is the science of managing and maintaining ornamental or shade trees which would include shrubs and vines. An arboculturalist is a specialized branch of ornamental horticulture focusing only in trees used in landscaping projects. Arboculturalists are responsible for looking after the health of the trees. Not to be mistaken for a lumberjack and a forester, although both of them deal with trees, arboculturalists are more focused on a tree's condition. Forester study trees on a more scientific level while lumberjacks are mainly wood cutters. More or less, the difference of these three is how they treat trees. To be called an arboculturalist means obtaining a certified license. Different countries have different ways of giving the title of aborculturalist. In the United States, an aborculturalist aspirant have to pass a comprehensive written test given by the International Society of Arboriculture and must have at least three years experience.

Being an arboriculturalist may require additional trainings like being a Certified Line Clearance so that when trees are near electrical wires permissions need not be necessary. Another possible training needed, especially for those dealing with really large trees, are operation of cranes and other machines that may lift, transport and those that may be used trimming purposes. Having additional skills are always an advantage.

For not so big landscape projects, usually, ornamental holticulturists would suffice but for projects that involve a lot of trees like parks, theme parks or village masterplans, arboriculturalists are the go-to guys. The Yellowstone Park maintains an arboculturalist or possibly a team of arboculturalists as trees generally define the landscape as they are essential to its famous inhabitants – the bears.

Arboculturalist, generally have a wide scope of work in relation to trees but it should be noted that, still, aesthetics is still their forte with regards to the general landscape. In fact, as far as pruning and trimming is concerned, bonsai, the famous miniature trees, falls also under their jurisdiction. Arboriculture and ornamental horticulture do sometimes overlap in functions but in regards to bonsai, an arboriculturalist should have the upper hand as basically it is tree maintenance rather than mere aesthetics.

Application of right chemicals to for controlling insect infestation and diseases brought about by pests should also be in the armory of an arboriculturalists' knowledge. Different techniques of application like spraying, soil application and stem injections require.

Other duties of an arboriculture may also include assessment of the safety of trees to its proximity to human pathways or community. They have the power to determine if indeed a tree may cause danger to humans.

Landscape designers employ arboculturalists as their knowledge in trees both in aesthetic purposes and maintenance are essential in a project. There have been some instances when trees where transplanted on a landscape without consulting tree experts but then after a few months the trees died and the intended appeal of the landscape also vanished with it. However, nowadays, masterplanning are incorporating arboriculturalist's inputs so incidents of dying trees so soon won't happen again.

Ornamental Horticulturist

One of the most important elements in Landscape Design is the utilization of plants. For purposes of aesthetics with regards to Landscape design, ornamental horticulturists are the authority and experts in the field. Generally, ornamental horticulture can identify plants, which would come in handy when selecting a particular plant for a particular site, knows about garden maintenance, arboriculture and nursery work. There are some landscape designers that have preference to some ornamental plants that the only way to get assurance of supply is to grow the plant themselves. The knowledge of growing, nurturing and culturing of ornamental plants usually falls to the ornamental horticulturist. The process of growing the plant is already a very complicated aspect as even irrigation systems and machineries that come with it have to be designed by the horticulturist when really necessary.

Since plants are grown, naturally, soils and other types of medium are also needed to be an area of expertise among horticulturists. There are some plants that would only grow in some types of soils so it is really a must that a horticulturist should know these things. In some cases, though, the soil contributes to the overall picture of the landscape. Another strong point of a horticulturist is pest management and control. One such landscape spoilers are insects. There are pests that eat the leaves thereby negating the purpose of placing the plant as part of a landscape. Some plants are used to give shape to the landscape, some are to give colors and some are plainly just to give shade. No matter what purpose or reason that a plant is present in a landscape, still the prospect of pests eating away at it would mean the despoiling of the landscape. A good knowledge of controlling and getting rid of these nasty insects would save the plants and the landscape. Of course, topography is always taken into consideration as different types of plants adapt to different type of topographies.

Generally, different kinds of plants are used for different purposes. Modern landscapes usually incorporate ornamental grasses. Ornamental grasses can provide the needed green effect and needs only little effort to maintain. Another favorite of landscape designers are vines. Vines are very versatile because they can serve a lot of purposes. One thing about vines is they can add layer or veil of color to any architectural structure. Landscape designers also consider plants that can be pruned to be shaped according to what shape is required. Large estates with landscapes usually have plants that have been groomed to shape like a giant ball or to the shape of a dinosaur or giraffe. Plants that can be shaped are good center pieces of a mini landscape but the drawback, of course, is it requires heavy maintenance. And then, the most common reason plants are chosen is because of how they mix and match with other plants. Landscapers consider also the color of the building. If the building has yellow streaks in it then most probably, plants with yellow streaks are matched with it.

Opportunities for ornamental horticulturist are tied up with the state of the landscape design industry. A vast knowledge in plants and keeping up with modern trends would surely spell success for an aspiring ornamental horticulturist.

Study Landscaping and Environment

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Landscape and Environment is one of the degrees that can bring not just an immense number of potential research studies but a great learning opportunity to express complex ideas that pertain to the relationship of nature, the environment and landscape. Students of the course will be taking a multidisciplinary program of arts and humanities that will have a significant impact in their future career lives as Landscape Scientist, Horticulturist, Ecological Designer, Landscape Designer, Geoscientist, Environmental Educators or Landscape Architects.

With these many career opportunities, students have stretched career choices to pursue as they contribute their responsibilities and duties in maintaining and conserving the essential life systems which are all necessary for human survival. With the highest quality of education and in-depth awareness in learning the views, theories, and practices of landscape and environment, graduates of the course will be able to express and convey their artistic creativity and concern in making the world a better place to live in.

People have developed complex ideas that are needed in establishing their own perspectives in designing and managing the resources available. However, to produce results and finish works that will retain the beauty and bond of their relationship with the past and present nature, students taking Landscape and Environment studies will be trained to become sensitive, persistent, and careful in dealing with alterations of the land and environment or landscape. By studying and exploring different disciplines related to the course namely history, archeology, and ecology, students will be able to determine the fundamentals and tools in strategic land use planning under the contexts of spatial planning, regional planning, and environmental planning.

Teaching students planning is crucial as they need to internalize the importance of preservation and development of landscapes to keep the sustainable capacity of nature and to protect and maintain its scenic beauty. As the study focuses on how people encompass the entire eco-system with their practical training and technical knowledge, they will be most qualified in accepting duties and positions in both private and public organizations. With their acquired variety of skills that pertain to dealing with landscape and environment, they will be most equipped in executing ecological restoration, landscape maintenance and construction, design, horticulture, nursery operations, and management of natural resources.

The program offered by colleges and universities across the globe is more defined and identified as landscape architecture studies but the bottom line is that: it offers the same emphases. It aims to prepare students to perform creative practices supported by theories and use their knowledge in investigating more projects and theoretical studies. They will be exposed to research methodologies which they can use in framing research questions that will be drawn from arts, sciences, and humanities. Also, cultural concepts which are mainly based on environmental sciences will provide students with holistic approaches needed in recognizing the most appropriate methods in handling and managing environmental issues.

As they employ the principles behind Landscape and Environment, they can further their study and specialize in environmental psychology, environmental policy, environmental engineering, environmental justice, and industrial ecology.

Study Monument Conservation and Restoration

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Monuments, establishments, and buildings that have historical and cultural value should be restored as demolition of such historical places is deeply discouraged. If there are changes to be made and parts that need to be renovated and restored, then it must be done in order to preserve and maintain its value. This is basically the idea of the program Monument Conservation and Restoration. Students of the course will be taught the guidelines of conserving and restoring monuments and sites. Each academic institution has their own set of laws and rules when it comes to restoring historical sites and monuments—but it all boils down to one thing: monuments that have value, regardless of whether the value is enormous or little, should be immortalized at all cost.

The state that supports preservation and conservation of valuable monuments acknowledge the fact that anything that depicts ancient culture and portrays cultural significance are of high importance. Students taking the course will be trained to have and feel this way as they reflect on measure of importance of historical monuments. In fact such monuments can even become tourism booster of the state if the communities that will look after such architectural pieces are aware of contributing their part in safeguarding the said monument. This even adds more cultural meaning to a specific monument as it gets protected for the future generation.

Throughout the course, students will be immersed with means needed to be executed in restoring archeological monuments and historical sites. Once restoration is done, then intervention has also taken place. The intervention should be efficient enough to maintain the original form or the social function that the monument plays for the state and the communities living within the area. In terms of conversation, which is described as permanent care maintenance for the monument, students will learn the theories and practices that will allow them to provide permanent care and save the monument from potential risks that may jeopardize its cultural significance. With the right education and scientific resources that will equip students with what they need to learn in order to conserve the integrity and cultural meaning of the monument, an in-depth exploration of the study should be done.

Monument Conservation and Restoration is a multidisciplinary field of study that will require students to conduct archeological investigation as they go through places that have historical monuments. The course is directly connected to different areas of studies too namely history of art, protection, restoration of monuments, preservation, history of technology, techniques of arts and crafts, and post-graduate level of studies, too. As future permanent restorer and even conservator, they need to be knowledgeable in assessing and grading monuments with cultural heritage. They can also conduct research studies and produce materials that will be useful in offering further education about the program.

Monument Conservation and Restoration is a specialized higher education program that will prepare students on becoming skilled professionals who are able to develop conservation techniques and perform the fundamentals of building materials. They will be trained to handle positions in project works, construction sites, academic institutions, workshops, museums, and many more.

Study Naval Arquitecture

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Study Technical Architecture

Choose where you would like to study Technical Architecture:

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There are several architectural domains that present the whole system of software architecture and one of which is Technical Architecture. Other domains include business architecture, applications architecture, and data architecture. The study of Technical Architecture will immerse students with the pillar that forms enterprise architecture (business structure) or solution architecture (design of specific information systems). Basically, the study covers and describes the behavior and structure of technological infrastructure of a specific enterprise or system.

The program is composed of courses that deal with client and server nodes of the hardware configuration, the infrastructure applications that are used to operate them, infrastructure services of applications, networks and protocols that link the applications and nodes. Moreover, it concerns issues that delve into performance, resilience, backup and storage of such applications based on architecture principles.

Better services, the ability to cope with technological and application pressures, creation of well-designed frameworks, integration business systems, and formulation of enterprise technology strategies are some of the goals of the program. Students who take the course will get full support from the academic institutions, university and college where they want to pursue their degree to look for approved standards in establishing the evolving and improving Technical Architecture. Known as the cornerstone for design, implementation of relevant information resources, development; the program will provide students with learning opportunities that will let them practice the theories behind technical management and engineering studies. Using comprehensive materials, students will be able to earn proper guidance in developing and designing systems that involve all phases of the application’s systems life cycle.

Businesses and IT organizations need fresh minds and intellectuals to continuously conduct business processes that require technical architecture. At present, the role of Technical Architecture in executing system development life cycles is crucial. Hence, professionals who are knowledgeable and equipped with the right education in planning, designing, evaluating, selecting, modeling, and prototyping technology components within a given organization are highly needed.

Students of the program should also gain immeasurable experience in the industry prior to receiving duties and responsibilities that require abilities and skills in constructing basic technical architecture artifacts and documentations to create a strong foundation in becoming a skilled Technical Architect. Though technical skills are priceless in receiving better compensation and further career advancements, certain values and soft skills like the ability to lead, provide consultation services, make decisions, and communicate effectively to deliver concrete knowledge on methods needed to run applications are more valuable.

Students with the degree in Technical Architecture will acquire the global passport in becoming an indispensable part of high profiled organizations around the world. Their education and understanding on designing and building technology blueprints, conduct technology evaluations, construct technological roadmaps, and contribute in planning processes will give them the greatest edge and increase their employability without taking too many chances.

Yes, the demand for Technical Architect is high and the average salaries for professionals who have completed the course and have the relevant experience in handling the position are equally high as the demand.

Technical Architecture studies aim at training students in a varied range of activities in the construction field. The course involves gaining hands on experience in actual building work, cost control and construction management, modules regarding safety quality control measures etc. The major portion of the course focuses on technical and environmental design, and conservation. Most of the course modules on technical architecture are designed so as to allow students to work and study together.
 
Study on Technical Architecture is based on the idea that a considerably wide base of knowledge can be developed by thorough learning of fabrication process of ancient as well as contemporary buildings and artifacts. This not only helps in engaging in experimental endeavors but also building capability for following necessary technicalities.
 
Course Structure and Admission Requirements

Admission to Technical Architecture courses requires the candidate to be a graduate in architecture or architecture technology. However students are also allowed to move in from related engineering or design subjects. Additionally a Student might have to sit for an entrance examination of the university and/or an interview. Similar qualifications of commendable nature in related disciplines are also accepted as criterions for admission in many institutes. A good track record which is reflected in academic qualifications or work experience or both is what universities look for in potential technical architects.
 
The courses award Msc., PG Diploma or PG Certificate degrees. The duration of the course varies according to the degree awarded. A full time course in technical architecture continues for three years. The core modules which are found more or less in all universities offering a degree in Technical Architecture include study of advanced technical models and designs, advanced environmental theories and design, conservation techniques, etc. Optional papers are offered on topics like digital media studies, international architectural history, interdisciplinary practices, etc. Workshops and field trips form a necessary part of all the courses for obvious reasons.
 
Why Study Technical Architecture

Technical architecture has a very promising career prospect. Knowledge in technical architecture would enable you to draft projects for construction of new buildings, conservation and renovation of old buildings, and demolition procedures. A trained technical architect has got the ability to direct and supervise the physical execution of the construction. Programming of quality control and adoption of safety measures are duties of the architect. Similarly it is also his/her responsibility to manage the economic part of the project. This domain of study and practice forms the very base of an enterprise architecture or solution architecture.
 
With chances of getting to perform such interesting and challenging jobs, it is only natural that technical architecture is a lucrative profession to go for. The course involves use of advanced technology as well as creative aspects of the human brain. It aims at creating trained professionals with high evaluative and analytical skills. No wonder it increases employability. The career prospect is indeed bright for those who study Tarchitecture (as Technical Architecture is popularly known). Thereby one gets to learn and earn considerably throughout one’s life.

Study Urban Architecture & Design

Choose where you would like to study Urban Architecture & Design:

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What differentiates one country from another? Most will say it’s the economic stance. Sure, but these rich countries’ money is not something made available for viewing to just about anybody who steps in their territory. What about how the place is generally designed - the elegance of their buildings and infrastructure; the friendliness of their transportation; communication, water supply, and electric systems; the availability of must-have institutions (e.g., hospital, good schools, church, market, police stations, drugstore, restaurants, hotels, shopping malls, movie houses, fire department, etc.); proper drainage system; and availability of companies to work for? All these are factors being considered in Urban Architecture and Design. Along with all these factors, it is as important to consider the budget in building a city. It is never simple; neither is it easy. Urban Architecture and Design is typically an output of years of planning by group of experts in the field. Efficiency of design can actually dictate the economic progress of the place.

Urban Architecture and Design is basically the molding of a place into an urban community. This is one degree program offered in some major universities. Typically, this degree program considers and tackles the following aspects: (1) designing and developing a place into cities, (2) environmental planning; and (3) housing, community, and economic development. Students are taught of macro and micro planning methodologies. Macro planning acumen is vital as a successful urban architecture and design considers the long-term effect and sustainability of the plan once executed. Can you imagine how cumbersome it is to correct an erroneously-designed road? The output of this planning and architectural activity will be used by people in the community and by tourists who will come to visit the place for a reason or so. Tourists’ and investors’ overall impression of a place has a lot to do with how it is designed. No wonder government offices devote great deal of money and time planning a community that could open a door for greater economy, and for more comfortable, secured, and convenient living for its citizens.

The unrelenting thrust towards urbanization in many developing countries during the last decades has dramatically increased the demand for skilled individuals specializing in Urban Architecture & Design. Because of this, more and more schools now offer courses on architecture with the urban setting in mind. Contemporary architecture has evolved somehow due to urbanization and the skyrocketing prices of prime real estate in many countries and emerging economies. Modern-day architects are not only faced with the challenges of designing visually appealing structures but should likewise be functional, space-efficient, cost-efficient, and resistant to rage of nature (i.e., typhoon, earthquake, hurricane, etc.). Today, urban architecture and design is perfectly exemplified in world famous buildings, such as The Petronas Twin Towers in Malaysia (considered to be the tallest twin towers in the world); the Taipei 101 in Taiwan (standing at 1,671 ft., presently the highest building on earth); but soon to be overtaken in height by the Burj Dubai that would stand at 2,684 ft upon its completion by the end of 2009.

Whenever you hear people pouring praises on how wonderful and efficient a city is, would it not feel so good knowing you have been a part of how it was done? This is how the planner and architect of greatly-designed cities and urban communities feel. Big deal, isn’t it?

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