Studies & Degrees in Philology, Languages, Literature

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Accent Reduction & Pronounciation African Languages American English American Language and Literature (in Universities) Ancient Greek Applied Languages Applied Linguistics Applied Sanskrit Arabic Language and Literature (in Language Schools) Arabic Language and Literature (in Universities) Armenian Language History and Culture Asian American Studies Asian Languages Audiovisual Translation: Subtitles Aviation English British English Business English Caribbean Studies Catalan Studies Celtic Languages Chair of the three religions: Islamic, Jewish and Christian Chinese Language and Literature (in Language Schools) Chinese Language and Literature (in Universities) Classical Philology Classics Conference Interpreting Czech, Language and Literature Danish Language and Literature (in Universities) Dutch language and culture (in Universities) Dutch Language and Literature (in Language Schools) Dutch Language and Literature (in Universities) East European Studies English Academic Writing English as a Second Language English Courses English for Academic Purposes English for Aviation English for Doctors English for Executives English for Hospitality Business English for Lawyers English for Specific Purposes English for Teacher Certification English for Tourism Business English for Work Purposes English Language and Literature (in Language Schools) English Language and Literature (in Universities) English Philology English Studies English, Language and Culture English/Technical and Scientific Estonian and Finno-Ugric Linguistics Ethiopian Languages and Cultures Euskera, Lengua y Literatura Farsi Language and Literature Finnish, Language and Literature (in Universities) French Language and Literature (in Language Schools) French Language and Literature (in Universities) French Philology Galician, Language and Literature General English German Language and Literature (in Language Schools) German language and literature (in Universities) German Philology Greek & Latin Greek Language and Literature (in Universities) Hebrew Language Hindi Hispanic Linguistics Hispanic Literature and Theory of Literature Hispanic Philology Hungarian Language and Literature (in Universities) Indo-European Studies Indonesian Language and Culture Intensive English Language Program Iranian Studies Irish and Celtic Languages Irish Culture Italian Language and Literature (in Language Schools) Italian Language and Literature (in Universities) Japanese Language and Culture (in Universities) Kannada Korean Language and Culture (in Universities) Language Courses Language Courses and Cultural Immersion Programs Latin Legal-Economic Translation Letters and Sciences Literature Luso-Brazilian Language and Literature M.A. in English M.A. in Spanish Malayalam Maori Medieval Hispanic Studies Military English Modern Indian Languages and Literary Studies (in Universities) Modern Languages North African Studies North American Studies Norwegian Language and Culture (in Universities) online English courses Oriental Languages and their Literature (in Universities) Pakistan Studies Pali Persian Language and Literature (in Universities) Philippine Studies Philology and Linguistics Polish Language and Literature (in Language Schools) Portuguese Language and Literature Portuguese Philology Professional Writing Punjabi Rabbinic Literature Rhetoric Romance Language and Literature Romanian Language and Literature (in Universities) Russian Language and Literature (in Language Schools) Russian Language and Literature (in Universities) Sanskrit Sinology Slavic Studies Slavonic Studies Spanish as a Second Language Spanish Courses Spanish for specific purposes, business, tourism, health or law Spanish Language and Culture Spanish Language and Literature (in Language Schools) Spanish Language and Literature (in Universities) Spanish Studies Swahili Language Swedish Language and Culture (in Universities) Swedish Language and Literature (in Language Schools) Technical English Technical-Scientific Translation Telugu Translation and Interpretation Turkish, Language and Literature (in Universities) Urdu Vietnamese language & culture for foreigners Welsh Language/Studies Writing

Study Accent Reduction & Pronounciation

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CanadaGuatemalaMexicoSpainThe United KingdomThe United States

Have you seen the American TV series “House M.D”? If you happen to be a fan, you’ll notice this different sound of Dr. Robert Chase. Easily, you’ll be able to tell, “This guy is not a native American speaker.” True enough, the guy is Australian. Have you heard how Penelope Cruz and Antonio Banderas pronounce their lines in movies and interviews?

Even without the knowledge of these celebrities’ heritage, one can spot, from the way they speak, that they have Hispanic tongue. Our native language creates this certain stereotype of accentuating part of a work or a sentence and pronouncing it. This is the so-called accent and pronunciation, respectively; and this stereotype makes speaking ‘foreign’ languages distinguishable as we happen to accentuate and pronounce the words and sentences differently from native speakers.

Accent and pronunciation are innate in our tongues from the time we learn to speak a word. Our brain stores information about how we hear the words as they are pronounced by people around us; thus, building distinct sound that is peculiar to specific group – e.g., British, American, Indian, Australian, Spanish, etc. Thus, in an international gathering, you may find different people speaking the same words in different accents and pronunciations.

Is having different accent and pronunciation bad? Well, generally, as long as people listening to you can understand what you are saying, and as long as you can successfully convey what you intend to say, accent and pronunciation should not really be a major concern. However, this becomes a big deal for some people who are “required” to sound like native speaker of a language foreign to him. For example, international actors and actresses should be able to portray any role that is assigned to them. One of the British actresses that can be commended for her brilliant tongue in speaking American English is Kate Winslet. No one can tell she’s a native British with the way she speaks in her American roles. Her language skill to speak native American English made her a very effective actress in a breadth of roles. What about Dr. Gregory House (Hugh Laurie) himself? He is a British actor with native American tongue; and this made him all the more effective in portraying his role as one of the best diagnosticians in the US. Another example would be the call center agents from Asian countries (particularly Philippines and India) to whom American, British, Australian, and other foreign companies outsource their customer support service to. Agents from these Asian countries are expected to have the native tongue of the country whose people they serve. Why? Because in communicating, listening is one thing, speaking is another. To be able to attend to customer’s need, an agent must first clearly understand the concern and respond in a manner that the customer will understand. This makes an effective customer service representative, and this will not be possible without learning the proper accent and pronunciation of the required language. Top executives of companies, broadcasters, and other celebrities or public figures are also expected to speak the international language, American English, in correct accent and pronunciation. This is so since corporate gatherings and public events are usually communicated using American English. More importantly, the skill to correctly pronounce and accentuate words in foreign language, as if it’s your native language, adds confidence to a person.

People who are good at identifying the native language of a speaker is said to “have quite an ear.” Those who are good at speaking a foreign language in native manner is said to “have quite a tongue.” Luckily, being able to speak a language in a native manner is more of a skill than a talent. We were all born without knowing how to speak a single word. We learn words (and their accent and pronunciation) as we get exposed to them. This makes it possible to also learn foreign language the right way. There are courses that are offered to teach students how to correctly pronounce and accentuate words. Students are those who are either required to learn how to properly speak a foreign language or those who are just interested for personal growth.

Language is one of the major catalysts of belongingness. It’s not odd to feel out of line when people around you start to speak language you don’t understand. Learning the language is the first step, speaking it correctly is in another higher level.

Study African Languages

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AustriaIndiaNetherlandsNigeriaThe United States

Of all the seven continents, Africa is by far the most linguistically diverse, particularly the large region south of the Sahara desert. In this region, the cradle of the human species, some of the oldest and most interesting world languages can be found, including Swahili, Wolof, and !Kung-Ekoka, one of the many African “click languages.” Studying these languages, their history, and their relationships with one another has the potential to yield significant insights into the nature and evolution of human language. In addition, it can help forge links with local people throughout Africa, especially rural populations in places where European languages such as English and French are not widely understood.
Personal Qualities
  • A strong grasp of your native language and ability to understand grammar patterns
  • Patience and diligence – willingness to spend time memorizing vocabulary
  • Friendly demeanor and respect for others
  • Desire to travel, especially in under-developed countries

Study Options
Most African Languages majors are offered by linguistics departments, rather than language or area-studies departments. What this means is that the subject matter and required courses are likely to be more theoretical in nature than many other foreign-language majors. For example, someone majoring in Spanish would spend a significant proportion of their time learning about the culture of Spain and the Latin American countries, whereas someone who majors in African languages will be more focused on the structure of the languages themselves. If you are interested in learning African languages for their own sake or in order to develop a stronger understanding of language in general, then African languages is a good choice of major. If, however, your interest in studying African languages stems from a desire to learn about African history, politics, culture, or current events, then African Studies might be a better major.
That said, African Languages is often an ideal choice for a minor or a secondary major. Students of African Studies or African history may want to consider taking on an intensive course of study in African languages as well, since this will not only deepen their understanding of the region, but also help them in their job search. Of course, many people who study and work in Africa do not learn indigenous African languages, but rather focus on the European languages that are spoken in many African countries. These include French (North and West Africa), English (Southern Africa), and Portuguese (Angola, Mozambique, and coastal West Africa).
Career Options
Because this field is considered a sub-discipline of applied linguistics, African Languages majors typically go on to seek careers as academic linguists. This requires many years of study, usually leading up to a PhD. For those who opt for a double-major or a major/minor combination, however, the job possibilities are much more open. International development is a popular option, as there are numerous NGOs working in Africa who are in dire need of language experts. A combined knowledge of current issues and the ability to speak several African dialects enables graduates to work in extremely remote areas where others cannot go due to the language barrier.

Study American English

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AustriaIndiaSpainThe United KingdomThe United StatesTrinidad and Tobago

Study American Language and Literature (in Universities)

Choose where you would like to study American Language and Literature (in Universities):

CanadaChinaCosta RicaGermanyIndiaSpainThe United KingdomThe United StatesTrinidad and Tobago

Humankind has produced pieces of its creativity in the form of literature. The study of literature highlights the fact that we can actually exercise our skills of interpreting and critical thinking. Alongside with this fact, this branch of study, specially American Language and Literature, will give us access to the History which shapes our world, and particularly the country that has been considered the world power in the past decades, the United States of America.

In American Language and Literature, students are exposed to international and skilled instructors who have extensive knowledge in American literary history, English language, literary genres, and American literary heritages that include remarkable playwrights such as Willian Dunlap, Washington Irvin and Arthur Miller among others. Teachers will also thoroughly discuss American renowned writers so that their students get a more profound understanding of the works from F. Scott Fitzgerald, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Herman Merville, and Henry David Thoreau among others. The study of American Language and Literature extends to the study of American literature, American fiction, American writers, and American literature women authors.

A program in American Language and Literature mainly aims at the following academic objectives:

1. Introducing the students to the history of literature in English, including training in literary criticism and interpretation.

2. Developping the students' research skills, critical thinking and interpretative skills,  which will be beneficial to every student in acquiring jobs abroad in a wide range of fields. It will also be helpful for those who want to pursue post-graduate programs in American Language and Literature.

3. Reinforcing the students' abilities in interpreting written communication, in creating analytical and argumentative lines of reasoning, and in expressing themselves in a multifaceted and polished English prose.

American Language and Literature main areas of study may include the following majors, depending on the university you are attending:

1. Language and Culture

2. Literature, Literary Criticism, and Literary History

3. Applied, Research Writing, and Professional Writing

These three major areas of study are indicative of the program’s interdisciplinarity, that aims to educate individuals in advancing their knowledge and skills in a creative and flexible manner. Such skills, when honed well, will be true assets that will help the students in their future endeavours as professionals owning a certificate and diploma in American Language and Literature.

American Language and Literature is not just dedicated to the American culture and the works of American writers. The program also emphasizes the study of comparative world literatures. Non-canonical literature will also become a part of the course so to speak. Graduates of Bachelors of Arts in American Language and Literature can pursue careers related to Literature, Professional Communication, Education, Media and Communication Studies, and Cultural Studies.

Job positions for American Language and Literature (in Universities):

English and American Literature Trainer

If you are competent and fluent in speaking American English you have an edge over the rest of those who can’t. Being and English and American Literature Trainer means that you are equipped with an invaluable kind of English education that includes knowledge in American culture and literature. You, as an English and American Literature Trainer, should be educated in various disciplines that deal with linguistics, second language teaching, research techniques, rhetoric and composition, and other fields of teaching and learning strategies.

To gain a greater advantage over other English-proficient speakers who aspire to land an English trainer position, it is also a must that you have knowledge in American literature since this is a guarantee of a high standard qualification.

There are various fields in the industry such as the industry of telecommunications, marketing and advertising, education, and publishing that seek for outstanding professionals who have impressive credentials in using the English language, teaching the English language, and providing trainings using the English language.

The industry of call centers in many countries outside the United States is undergoing an intense growth. Thus, the demand for English and American literature trainer is no longer confine in the academe but in the corporate world as well.

Nowadays, the widespread search of companies hunting for English Trainers has extended to non-native speakers of the English language. As long as a an aspirant possesses the qualifications of a very good and effective trainer, equipped with exceptional work experiences and English proficiency background, he or she has the best shot in acquiring a position related to English teaching or other English-related positions.

An English and American Literature Trainer should have certifications granted by recognized teaching institutions namely TEFL and TESOL, too, since a firm grasp of the English language will not suffice most of the time. As for the core values that an English Trainer should learn to live, such include: continuous learning process, excellence in providing services to students and other clients, corporate social awareness and responsibility, and complete understanding of identity in an American literature sense.

As a trainer of American English and American literature, you are expected to master the art of providing classroom learning experiences since you are tasked to conduct trainings, seminars, teaching presentations, and other instructional events with a common objective: impart the American English language, along with its literature the most effective means. With this note, it should be emphasized that you should have verifiable experiences in teaching ESL and relevant background in second-language acquisition since most of the participants involve in learning American language and literature are non-native speakers.

More so, as an English and American Literature trainer, you should be able to develop your students’ English fluency with American accent. This would be possible if you are going to immerse your students with diverse English materials and resources deemed to be effective in giving effective learning procedures.

Finally, your functions and responsibilities as a trainer will be adequate if you will provide your students and every participant of your training with a comprehensive knowledge of American literature and culture that pertains to literary works produced within the area of the United States.

American Language and Literature Specialist

Your knowledge in American Language and Literature becomes indispensable to companies seeking professionals who have an in-depth understanding of culturally produced texts, not to mention the fluency and proficiency you acquire in using the English language. Your familiarity and knowledge in both literary and linguistic perspectives and theories can not be matched easily with other English programs.

The study of the English language and the study of American literature in particular will bring you more opportunities in dealing with English practices in the society. Your expertise and knowledge of nature and functions of the English language under the domains of literature and society will equip you in taking opportunities applicable to classroom works. Your capabilities to analyze both spoken and written forms of the English language, related to real world experiences will be helpful in pursuing careers that require interviewing English speaking people, collecting of linguistic data, and walking through the lives of local writers of the past and the present.

The career path set by American Language and Literature Specialist is as diverse as the sea because relevant and exciting opportunities await you. This is because companies, schools, universities, and government agencies and departments are very much willing to hire professionals who have a clear grasp of American language and understanding of American literature not to mention professionals who are critically-inclined in evaluating socially constructed texts.

The industry looking for American Language and Literature Specialist is very competitive as it values professionals who are equipped to engage in media, advertising, public relations, marketing, and telecommunications among others. Your education and secure grounding of the English language and literature, powered with skills relevant in gathering, interpreting, and presenting of information are another credentials you possess that will be considered relevant to careers that deal with archiving, museum and library works, publishing, civil service to name a few.

Your duties and functions as American Language and Literature Specialist involve imparting your knowledge in particular areas of study namely American Literature, Critical theories and literary criticisms, Film Studies, Linguistics, and the complexities of the English language. More so, as a Specialist you are responsible in training students polish their communication skills in English, to strengthen their abilities in analyzing all forms of literary expression decisively, developing the holistic understanding of literatures in English and in instructing them to become future scholars who will further do advanced researches in English studies.

As American Language and Literature Specialist, you are expected to become immersed in wide range of readings and language arts written in English. You should be able to relate and link American literature topics, varieties of the English language, various genres of English literary texts, and American authors dominant in specific American period such as the Civil War Era, Reconstruction and Industrialization, World War I, Depression Era, World War II, Civil Rights Movement, and America’s role as the world superpower.

Finally, you must be knowledgeable in discussing the pertinent works of remarkable American writers such Edgar Allan Poe, Allen Ginsberg, Langston Hughes, Tennessee Williams, Mark Twain, and many more.

Study Ancient Greek

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GermanyIndiaThe United KingdomThe United States

Study Applied Languages

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AustriaEthiopiaIndiaIrelandMaltaMexicoPortugalRussiaSouth AfricaSpainThe United KingdomThe United States

Are you interested in learning new languages and the various ways those languages can be applied?  Do you plan to enter a career in which your knowledge of languages may benefit you in our increasingly global economy?  If so, you may want to consider earning an undergraduate degree in Applied Languages.  To help you better understand what will be expected of you as a participant in this program, below we have compiled a brief synopsis of the Bachelor of Arts degree in Applied Languages, including a course overview and a sample of some of the classes that are typically required for this program, in addition to the general education requirements of your college or university.
Bachelor of Arts Degree in Applied Languages:  Course Overview
The Bachelor of Arts degree in Applied Languages is an undergraduate program spanning three to five years depending on the student and the institution he or she attends.  It is designed for students who wish to study the various applications of languages and how they can be used effectively in a multicultural environment.  Students study, at minimum, two languages, and can choose from French, Italian, Spanish, German, Mandarin or English as a Foreign Language.  They must begin the program with at least an A2 level ranking in one of the languages they plan to study, but may begin the second language from scratch.
The B.A. program in Applied Languages places a strong emphasis on the vocational element, allowing students to explore how their language skills can benefit them in the workplace.  Students interested in International Business, for example, can take business-related courses, while future educators can concentrate their efforts on teaching English as a Foreign Language.  Through coursework and translation exercises students will gain practical experience in applying their new-found language skills—experience that will later prove beneficial to them as they transition into a professional atmosphere.  The program culminates with a dissertation in which students will be asked to complete a practical project; a project that may involve anything from translating a document to subtitling a foreign film.
Bachelor of Arts Degree in Applied Languages:  Coursework
While earning their Bachelor of Arts Degree in Applied Languages students will study compulsory language units from at least two languages throughout the degree program.  In addition they must take a series of foundation courses in linguistics, learning how language functions in contemporary society.  In year two of the program students will continue the study of linguistics, but will also delve into studies of communications, with courses in subjects such as career development, research management and teaching English as a Foreign Language.
The exact course titles in the B.A. program in Applied Languages may vary slightly from one institution to the next, but they may include:  Language for Professional Communication; Discourse Analysis; Forensic Linguistics; Managing Languages across Cultures;  Experiential Learning; Translation Theory and Practice; ELT and Technology; Communication-Theories and Systems; Creative Activities in the Language-Learning Classroom; and Language Interpretation.
While most institutions require the completion of a practical capstone project towards the conclusion of the program, some allow students the option of taking a comprehension examination in lieu of this requirement.

Study Applied Linguistics

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AustraliaAustriaChinaEcuadorFinlandHungaryIndiaIrelandMexicoSpainThe United KingdomThe United States

Have you always dreamed of a career in which you could use your linguistic skills to help others learn a new language and/or further the goals of a business, institution or organization?  If so, the Bachelor of Arts degree in Applied Linguistics may be the ideal academic program in which to gain your qualifications.  The Bachelor of Arts degree in Applied Linguistics is a program designed to prepare students for a variety of careers in the fields of linguistics and language learning, and because of its emerging popularity, the program is now being offered by colleges and universities throughout the country.  Below we have provided some essential information regarding the Applied Linguistics degree, including the program’s focus, coursework, eligibility requirements and the various career opportunities available for successful graduates.
The Focus, Coursework and Eligibility Requirements of the Applied Linguistics Degree Program
As a student pursuing a Bachelor of Arts degree in Applied Linguistics you’ll receive knowledge and training that will prepare you to address a variety of linguistics issues, including the best manner in which to teach and learn a new language; the social factors and issues that may affect and influence new language learners; and the technology and other tools that can contribute to effective language instruction and learning.  Expected outcomes for those who complete the B.A. degree program in Applied Linguistics include the ability to:
  •  Analyze academic theories and the various purposes of linguistic study and research 
  •  Assess how language is learned 
  •  Evaluate the usefulness of technology in teaching and learning new languages
  •  Recount the history and evolution of a variety of languages and language groups 
  •  Apply linguistic concepts and theories such as phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics
  •  Interpret the public policy issues and sociological aspects of applied linguistics 
  •  Formulate a culminating research project demonstrating the use of advanced research skills in a chosen area of linguistics, and create a workable plan with regard to future academic advancement and career options.
The coursework for the Bachelor of Arts degree program in Applied Linguistics is designed to meet and exceed the above-mentioned student outcomes, and while the exact course titles in the program may vary, some of the classes may include:
  • Introduction to Linguistics
  • Languages and Technology
  • Second Language Acquisition
  • Survey of Communicative Disorders
  • Sounds of Language
  • Structures of Language
  • Meaning in Language
  • Intermediate Composition
  • Evolution of the English Language (for English-based Applied Linguistics programs)
  • Language and Society
  • Computational Linguistics
  • Methods, Materials, and Technology for Learning a Second Language
  • Language Development Disorders
  • Applied Linguistics Capstone Research Project
All students with a high school diploma or its equivalent are eligible to apply for admission into the Bachelor of Arts degree program in Applied Linguistics.  Candidates with a strong command of and background in language and language learning are encouraged to apply, as are those with at least intermediate-level knowledge of the various technology systems (hardware and software) that will be used over the course of the program.
Applied Linguistics:  Career Opportunities
Students who have completed the Bachelor Degree program in Applied Linguistics may be recruited to work in a number of different industries, with roles that may include:
  • Teaching English or other languages to non-native speakers
  • Speech therapy and correction
  • Audiology
  • Translati on and interpretation services
  • Marketing and advertising
  • Journalism
  • And more…
Due to mounting immigration and an economic climate that is becoming more global with each passing year, graduates with a degree in Applied Linguistics are in very high demand throughout the country, especially in those areas where linguistic minorities account for a large percentage of the population.

Study Applied Sanskrit

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IndiaThe United States

Are you a student of Hinduism or other Asian religions and interested in becoming more familiar with the language used primarily in the Hindu liturgy and religious texts?  If so, you may want to consider pursuing a Master of Arts degree in Applied Sanskrit.  The Master of Arts degree in Applied Sanskrit is a course of study designed to provide students with a thorough and in depth education, not only in the Sanskrit language, but also in the various applications in which an intimate knowledge of Sanskrit is essential.  To give you a better idea with regard to what you can expect while participating in this program, below we will describe the M.A. degree in Applied Sanskrit in a bit more detail, including the eligibility requirements and duration of the program, the course description and some of the employment prospects for qualified graduates.
Applied Sanskrit:  Program Duration and Eligibility Requirements
The Master of Arts degree program in Applied Sanskrit is typically a two-year, full-time course of study.  The program is available at several of India’s most prestigious universities, as well as at a select number of universities in countries throughout the eastern and western world.
Students who wish to pursue a Master of Arts degree in Applied Sanskrit must possess, at minimum, a Bachelor of Arts degree in the Sanskrit language.  In addition to this, most universities will also require students to undergo a personal interview with the faculty before securing admission into the program.
Master of Arts Degree in Applied Sanskrit:  Course Description
Students pursuing the Master of Arts degree in Applied Sanskrit receive an advanced education in both the Sanskrit language and its applications.  Sanskrit is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism.  It is also a literary and scholarly language in Jainism and Buddhism, one of the twenty-two scheduled languages of India and the official language of the state of Ultarakhat.
Some of the courses and topics students are likely to encounter while earning their M.A. in Applied Sanskrit include:
  • Advanced principles of the Sanskrit language
  • Selected texts from the Sanskrit epic
  • Classical Sanskrit court literature
  • Sanskrit texts of the Hindu faith and liturgy
  • Buddhist Sanskrit texts
  • Directed readings in Sanskrit
  • Introduction to Prakrit
  • Directed readings in Prakrit
  • And many more…
Employment Prospects and Scope of the Master of Arts Degree in Applied Sanskrit
Generally speaking, the Master of Arts degree in Applied Sanskrit is a very specialized field of study, one in which most students study purely out of love for the subject area.  However, by earning this degree, students will become eligible to work in a variety of fields, particularly in the education sector as teachers and professors of Sanskrit and Hindu Studies, and as educational researchers.  In addition, there are many Hindu religious institutions, both in India and in other countries around the globe, where a Sanskrit degree may qualify graduates to compete for employment positions.

Study Arabic Language and Literature (in Language Schools)

Choose where you would like to study Arabic Language and Literature (in Language Schools):

AustriaEgyptIndiaThe United States

Study Arabic Language and Literature (in Universities)

Choose where you would like to study Arabic Language and Literature (in Universities):

AlgeriaBangladeshBelgiumChadEgyptFranceIndiaIranIraqLebanonQatarSpainThe United KingdomThe United StatesUnited Arab EmiratesYemen

The Arabian Peninsula is not only rich in oil and fuel deposits but likewise in language and literature. Study of this back to back linguistic gem is inimical to understanding Arabian culture alongside Islam. Considering the vast Middle East territories plus other Islamic countries, learning more of this language is a major advantage. This holds true should you happen to encounter any of these Arabic-speaking countries or native speakers which is highly probable due to globalization. In particular, there are 26 countries declaring Arabic as their official language with over 280 million speakers making it the third most spoken language of the World.

Arabic language belongs to Afro-Asiatic language family under Semitic group. No wonder, it originated somewhere close to modern Syria before it became prominent in Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, and the Arabian Cape. Aside from the proximity, commerce and trade are believed to have paved the way for its popularity. Although it is strongly tied up with Islamic culture, it has been existent even before the rise of the Muslim religion. As a matter of fact, it has been spoken by ancient Arabians way back in the 4th century. It has been three centuries thereafter when Islamic doctrines were introduced utilizing the language.

In the same way, Arabic literature is equally interesting. Budding in the 6th century, its printed form was only realized after a century upon the introduction of Qur’an in Arabic. Consequently, it flourished along with the religion specifically in the Islamic Golden Age which further brought about its mileage reaching foreign lands as well as foreign tongues. There were but pre-Islamic masterpieces of oral literature such as the “Mu’allaqat” or the set of seven lengthy Arabic poems and the “Mufaddaliyat” or the ancient Arabic poem anthology which were subsequently put into writing later on.

Arabic language and Literature programs are offered in over 1,000 colleges and universities worldwide. These include Georgetown University, University of Utah, and Washington University. Moreover, this subject of study is accessible for Bachelor’s, Master’s, and Doctoral degrees. In general, core subjects are oriented towards linguistic and cultural facets of the Arab World. Not only that for it also focuses on the extensive language variety of the Arabic tongue such as Modern Standard Arabic (latest Arabic popular in multimedia), Classical Arabic (ancient Arabic incorporated on Qur’an), and Colloquial Arabic (Arabic lingua franca varying from one region to another). Other competencies are grounded on expertise regarding Arabic history, politics, and society.

There are extensive career opportunities for Arabic language and literature specialists. Teaching is the most apparent profession that extends from elementary, high school, college, and postgraduate levels. Another attractive privilege is the pool of marketing posts courtesy of multinational companies dealing with Arab clients. In the same way, financial placements are available for Arabic specialists with the Middle East being home to top business tycoons. Travel and Hospitality industry likewise opened its door to Arabic speakers who can accommodate Arab people considering the growing trend of Arabic tourists. Arabic interpreters are undoubtedly in demand in social, political, and trade negotiations. Other related jobs include researchers, publishers, translators, etc.

Study Armenian Language History and Culture

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IndiaThe United States

Study Asian American Studies

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IndiaMexicoSpainThe United States

Study Asian Languages

Choose where you would like to study Asian Languages:

AustriaCanadaDenmarkIndiaThailandThe United States

As the political and economic balance in the world is said to be shifting towards Asia, or more specifically towards Asia’s first world countries, studies in Asian Languages receive more attention and focus from both Asian and Western students willing to get a solid basis of disciplinary studies and education related to the Asian world.

The study of Asian Languages offers instruction in the principal languages and cultures of East, Southeast, Central, and South Asia. Asian Languages are taught through linguistic, textual and literary approaches. Studying a language implies studying the countries where it is spoken. Besides linguistics, the student of Asian languages will also be introduced to Asian art history, Asian classics, comparative literature, Asian economics, political science, and religious studies. This broad knowledge will enable them to acquire an in-depth Asian consciousness and rigorous thought on historical and contemporary events related to Asian Languages. Students will also gain proficiency in reading, writing, and speaking Asian languages, in order to develop into competent communicators with a profound understanding of Asian countries, Asian societies, and Asian cultures.

Asian Languages are featured in various majors and non-majors alike. While some programs provide an overview of Asian languages, most of them specialize in one specific area: there are for instance Bachelor of Arts degrees in East-Asia languages, in South-Asia languages, or in South-East Asia languages. Other programs focus on one language only, such as Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Hindi or Sanskrit, among others. Asian Language studies also offer research programs aimed at future teachers in the field of Asian humanities.

Asian Language studies form an extensive area of education that is part of a much broader area of studies: Asian cultures. This is why most universities that provide education in Asian Languages also offer scholarship programs to foreign students and send their own students to foreign universities. It is only through immersion that students of Asian languages will acquire a real understanding of the culture(s) they are majoring in, and gain speech fluency in the Asian language(s) they are studying.

Job positions for Asian Languages:

Chinese Interpreter

Though many Chinese who are managers and government officials speak English, their communication skills still require more polishing and assistance from the native speakers themselves or qualified Chinese Interpreters. Therefore, in formal meetings, business transactions, negotiations, and other special gatherings hold in China, Chinese interpreters are still employed to perform communication and interpretation services and meet their purpose afterwards.

The demand for Chinese Interpreters is high because they perform key roles in achieving successful communication in various communication exchanges. Imagine a gathering wherein you don’t understand a word a Chinese government official is saying; he will not simply get misunderstood but his message will totally lost on his audience. This is also the reason why the roles of a Chinese Interpreter shouldn’t be underestimated at all.

Chinese Interpreters are indispensable not just in business transactions but in any other occasion that requires exchange of ideas, opinions, and communication spoken between the Chinese language and another foreign language. In China, more than one Chinese Interpreter is needed in assisting their clients in many discussions and discourses.

On the part of Chinese Interpreters, the role and duties are tiring especially if the discussion takes place longer or if the communication requires profound explanation. Without proper methods of interpreting, the exchange of ideas cause lost meaning or misinterpretation. Nuances may be interpreted differently. To avoid such terrible things from happening, it is necessary to hire two or more Chinese Interpreters at the same time.

The involvement of Chinese Interpreters in meetings and discussions are great and essential. Thus, before such events make sure that you have provided your Chinese Interpreter with comprehensive orientation so that everything that has been set will be attained.

As a Chinese Interpreter, it is vital that jargons and other terminologies are known by the interpreter. In most cases of formal meetings and discussions, simultaneous interpreting is needed. This form of interpretation is done during large seminars and conferences. Therefore, as a Chinese Interpreter, it is expected that you have undergone professional training and as much as possible you should possess fluent bilingual Chinese and English communication skills.

Events such as presentations and speeches also require the services from a Chinese Interpreter. The need to get everything well-interpreted relies on the interpretation skills and proficiencies of the Interpreter since good performance with this kind of job means well done exchange of ideas and expressions. This objective is relevant in gaining an overall understanding of what is being discussed.

The Chinese language is identified as particularly tricky language compared to other world languages. Large number of Chinese words if interpreted the wrong way will result in mistakes and as expected plenty opportunities for confusion.

Moreover, Chinese Interpreters are expected to be aware of Chinese language’s jokes and witticisms. The translation and interpretation of Chinese jokes and witticisms should be well-communicated to every interlocutor involved in the discussion or discourse so that understanding without offending the other party will take place.

Everything that has been said pertains to the main idea that the role of Chinese Interpreters in formal meetings and discourse are highly regarded.

Chinese Language and Cultural Specialist

Chinese Language and Cultural Specialist must have certifications and diploma in pedagogy, linguistics, second language acquisitions, and other related fields. A Specialist should be equipped with instructional methods in the principal languages of China which also include understanding Chinese literatures.

As specialists, they are expected to have expertise in the regional culture and are fluent in using the Chinese language and if possible other Chinese dialects deemed relevant in providing university-level experience of teaching Chinese. Chinese Language and Cultural Specialist employs communicative, proficiency-based learning method, and has native or almost fluent communication skills in using both Chinese and English languages.

China is striving as a world power with its rapid growth and influence in world’s economy, social, cultural transformation, and politics. Learning the Chinese language and its culture, along with its roles and responsibilities in other Asian countries and the world, is the principal instructional duty that a Chinese Language and Cultural Specialist is required to do. More so, the function of the Chinese Specialist extends to the cultures of China using linguistic, literary, and textual analyses.

Chinese Language and Cultural Specialist’s qualifications, which are identified as invaluable when it comes to instruction and training of students, include knowledge and proficiency in topics such as identity representations of contemporary China, popular religion in China, calligraphy translations, and other courses in Chinese language and culture.

The tasks and duties of Chinese Language and Cultural Specialist seem to be synonymous with the qualifications of Chinese Teachers. Chinese teachers are getting high demands across the globe specifically in intermediate schools in the United States. High quality Chinese language instruction in elementary and students with high-advanced level skills in Chinese language and culture are the target participants and students for most schools demanding Chinese Language and Cultural Specialists.

The essential functions and responsibilities of Chinese Teacher and Chinese Cultural Specialist include the following:

1. Qualified to provide effective and appropriate differentiated language instruction for learners who belong in other cultures.

2. Able to provide high standard language instruction that incorporates culturally-accurate learning experience.

3. Competent in developing thematic language curriculum for the entire Chinese learning and teaching program.

4. Proficient in integrating teaching and learning strategies that support developing Chinese literacy for diverse students.

5. Value the interaction needed in promoting Chinese language and encourage all students to produce output as part of learning.

6. Adept in supporting achievement and bilingualism within an enriched educational model that is very much linked to Chinese teaching strategies and learning experiences.

7. Language and Cultural Specialist should possess the skills in dealing and interacting with the families of the students. This function is highly relevant since it promotes family involvement as it supports student learning process, too.

More functions and duties are at stake in a kind of job related to Chinese language instruction from schools and companies from across the world, with more emphasis on Asian countries. Language and cultural studies made possible by professionals with Chinese language and culture teaching certifications and diploma are indispensable when it comes to understanding China’s role in global activities and events particularly in the education sector.

Study Audiovisual Translation: Subtitles

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Audiovisual translation has evolved along with the advancement of multimedia technologies. As a matter of fact, digitalization revolutionized audiovisual translation processes, hence the current developments. For instance, the introduction of DVD paved the way for storage of massive data, such as subtitling of up to 32 different languages. The Digital Video Broadcasting also further introduced the possibility of live subtitling. It is no wonder that the 1993 Inaugural Speech of former US President Bill Clinton was simultaneously subtitled. In the same way, the Queen’s Speech upon the death of Princess Diana in Britain provided for live intralingual subtitling.

Audiovisual Translation is described as a branch of translation studies that involve translation of verbal texts into another language or culture. More often than not, these verbal sources are expressed in various multimodal and multimedial forms, thereby conversion efforts may demand changes in format, content, or both. Such translation may also vary according to the communication channel utilized, such as audio-only, visual-only, or audio and visual integration. Furthermore, audiovisual translation may either be intralingual or interlingual. The former implies that the source and target languages are the same while the latter necessitates translation of original language into foreign languages.

Subtitling, a significant facet of audiovisual translation, is the process of making captions out of dialogues in films and television shows. These textual descriptions commonly appear at the bottom portion of the screen. In particular, subtitles are utilized both for interlingual and intralingual ends. Interlingual subtitling is usually employed in movies and television programs while intralingual subtitling may be useful as hearing impairment aid as well as operatic and theatrical guide. The term "closed subtitling" refers specifically to captioning intended for the deaf and hearing impaired. Also, live subtitling made its own trend backed up by Communication Access Real Time Translation Stenography and speech recognition systems.

Given the growing interest in audiovisual translation, the academe provided for relevant academic curricula both in graduate and undergraduate schools. Bachelor’s degree programs consist of Audiovisual Translation, International Communication and Translation, and Audiovisual Translation and Interpretation. Postgraduate studies are also accessible such as Master of Arts in Audiovisual Translation, Master in European Audiovisual Translation, and Doctor of Philosophy in Subtitling. These academic programs are available in colleges and universities such as Star Education Consultants (Ukraine), University of Redmond (United States), and University of Surrey (United Kingdom).

Employment privileges await audiovisual translation subtitling specialists. The vast audiovisual industry along with the booming translation service sector comprise an attractive career niche to interlingual and intralingual translation experts. Some translation service providers are Translation-In Professional Translation Agency, Linguistic Systems, Inc., and Outsourcing Translation Group. Moreover, there are non-governmental organizations providing support to professionals such as the European Association for Studies in Screen Translation. National governments through their many different agencies can also secure job opportunities to eligible text translators. Educational institutions may also offer teaching posts to degree holders who can share their knowledge and skills.

Study Aviation English

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Flags and flares used to be the prime communication medium on aviation back in the onset of 20th century. These were utilized along with signal techniques to convey messages across due to the unavailability of radio on flights. As a matter of fact, the aircrafts employed in World War I were not able to make use of radio communications while airborne, attributed to the inconvenience of the weighty components, not to mention being susceptible to interference from opposing force. Innovations thereafter paved the way for voice communication via radio transmission technology. Consequently, it has revolutionized aviation communication that encompasses Aviation English Studies.

Aviation employs its own language distinct to its pool of practitioners. Air traffic controllers and pilots speak a common tongue consisting of technical jargons utilized in the industry. The differentiation is imperative to avoid any sort of confusion along the process of deciphering the conveyed information. More often than not, conversation particulars include identification of aircrafts name, location, and prospect action. In some cases, radio alphabets may come in handy instead of word utterances for brief and concise statements. Nonetheless, English is the official language used in worldwide aviation to provide standardization of instructions. Getting the message across sharp and clear is made possible by a two-way radio set on a specific frequency.

Aviation English happens to be a remarkable facet of aviation communication. Since March 5, 2008, flight crew members and air traffic controllers are required to be competent in English language. Basically, the International Civil Aviation Organization developed the ICAO rating scale that provides assessment of six English language competencies, namely pronunciation, vocabulary, fluency, comprehension, interactions, and grammatical and sentence structure. Ratings may vary according to the levels of competency, such as pre-elementary (level 1), elementary (level 2), pre-operational (level 3), operational (level 4), extended (level 5), and expert (level 6). In particular, level 4 ICAO universal rating on Plain English Proficiency and English medium phraseology is mandatory to professional pilots as well as air traffic controllers. An above level 4 rating even merits an endorsement for flight and air traffic control licensing.

Given the relevance of Aviation English in air navigation, the academe provided for academic courses. Pertinent courses are accessible both in graduate and undergraduate schools for overall competency levels. More often than not, specialization may be given in short course programs such as Aviation English Certification in Bloomsbury International. Aviation English Programs are likewise accessible in Aviation English Training Centres in the likes of Jeppesen, Flighspeak, and Aviation Linguatec. Also, these courses are tendered in colleges and universities such as Bournemouth Business School International, CLSI Canada, and University of Redmond.

Career opportunities await Aviation English competent pilots and air traffic controllers. The expanding aviation industry comprises an attractive career niche such as the various airline companies. Premier corporate entities based in the United States include Delta Airlines, United Airlines, and Southwest Airlines. In the same way, airports maintained worldwide can provide job posts such as Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, Beijing Capital International Airport, and London Heathrow Airport. National governments may also hire proficient English language airline professionals for public aviation practice. Academic institutions can provide teaching profession to eligible experts, too.

Study British English

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Study Business English

Choose where you would like to study Business English:

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Professionals are not simply self-made: they are trained, taught, and educated. With this being said, schools, universities, and learning centres are needed to create professionals who will become proficient in particular field of study, say for instance Business English.

The course and program called Business English is highly essential to people in various business industries. To communicate in English well and to express oneself using the English language is fundamental if you are engaged in a particular business or if you are connected in the corporate world that mainly uses English as the primary medium.

In the industry, marketing of a specific product or service is done using the English language. Products are introduced and launched to the public using English advertisements and advertisers talk about a specific product in English. It is not surprising that, most of the communication processes and promotional activities that take place are done in English—and entrepreneurs, marketers, and other professionals connected in various businesses know about this well-recognized fact.

Business English programs and courses are widespread. The need to improve and maintain quality standards across the business industry is synonymous to the need to take Business English courses and programs. The bottom line will not simply about creating professionals but to provide professionals the support, training, learning, and experiences they need in order to further their career as entrepreneurs, managers, advertisers, teachers, and professionals.

Business English is also about development of language skills that would be necessary in executing realistic communicative activities. Such realistic communicative activities would be appropriate and helpful to every Business English student because the course will serve as an immersion program for them to discuss different business topics like marketing strategies and an in-depth understanding and knowledge of entrepreneurship.

Most universities and schools include in their curriculum a broader scope of Business English studies. Topics and theories on economic concepts and vocabularies, including global economy, tourism, hospitality, information technology, and film and television are discussed which make Business English a holistic body of knowledge.

Business English course also deals with interesting and relevant topics namely international trade, investing, stock and bond markets, and import and export among others. Program policies, business cultures, business etiquettes, communication strategies, writing reports and pertinent documents, business-related issues, delivery of speeches and presentations and enhancement grammar skills subjects are outlined in a specific Business English course that will meet the growing needs of every Business English student.

The power of speaking and communicating in English is often highlighted in Business English programs because business transactions are mainly executed through English oral communication. As a Business English student, you are expected to not just express yourself well in English but to be able to reap results and eventually gain profit out of it or as you employ English.

Finally, Business English also contend with Legal English which pertains to the legal language, business international law, law enforcement terms in English, and other practical language skills needed in introducing and understanding key business concepts and subject matters essential in the modern business world.

Job positions for Business English:

ESL Teacher

There are a plethora of job opportunities waiting for ESL Teachers. However, highly-qualified ESL Teachers are what companies, schools, universities, government agencies, and learning centres are looking for. Companies, universities, and employers make sure that they have set the right standards that will serve as requirements in hiring ESL Teachers. But still, the demand for ESL Teachers is high and applicants are willing to meet such requirements.

What do ESL Teachers do and teach? Basically, ESL Teachers teach English to students who speak other languages as their first language or native tongue. As ESL Teachers, they help ESL students to speak, read, listen, and write in English.

To become more effective ESL Teachers, it is essential that ESL Teachers use real-life situations that will advance their students’ learning process. However, if an ESL Teacher is dealing with an advanced ESL student, he or she is expected to concentrate on writing and conversational skills more or work on academic and job-related communication skills that the student may need in building a future career.

What career awaits ESL Teachers? To reiterate what has been mentioned, there are a lot of teaching positions available for people who have a degree related in English studies and teaching. However, most ESL Teachers are hired to work for either English-speaking nation or Non-English speaking nation that puts English a top priority when it comes to communicating. ESL Teachers are also employed to help immigrants or to teach English to interested students located in foreign countries.

The good thing about eventually becoming an ESL Teacher is you can still apply for a position even if you don’t have official training at all. However, you have to compensate your qualifications by obtaining certificates and a diploma in Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL). As a piece of advice, if you will choose to take TEFL courses or programs, it is essential that you acquire the diploma in a credible school. In fact, you can enrol yourself in one of the student teaching opportunity programs or in any ESL classes prior to your formal teaching job.

ESL Teachers are needed in these times because they are the ones who can help people achieve the mastery of English needed in obtaining higher set of goals which include career growth and better job position in their chosen industry. If you do your job as an ESL Teacher and succeed in imparting the knowledge and skills that your students need to acquire excellent English instruction, your career will quickly turn into a high-paying position.

As an ESL Teacher or Instructor you have to become familiar with various classroom settings which pertain to college setting, high school setting, tutoring setting, and even training setting. This way, you can easily teach your students the entire English program in store for them.

The program that you will be dealing with may include discussion of topics which are about educational methodologies, English grammar, linguistic standards, and English literature among others. Finally, as an ESL Teacher you can consider other teaching positions like Primary School ESL Teacher, Adult ESL Teacher, ESL Private Tutor, English Trainer, and the likes as a starting point of your career.

Business English Teacher

The growing demand for Business English teachers is anticipated as more companies, learning centres, universities, and agencies seek for highly-proficient professionals. The perfect qualifications for Business English teachers are set and they include the following:

  • A degree in related studies such as Business Studies, Economics, Accountancy, and Business Education among others

  • Credentials and certificates on English teaching qualification examinations

  • Masters with a specialization in Business English, Business English teaching, testing and course designing, etc.

  • A degree that is related to the company where you will teach like science degree, engineering degree, foreign language degree, and other related fields

  • Certificate of trainings, workshops, conferences, and seminars that are relevant in teaching Business English

  • Work experiences related in teaching top level managers, intensive and extensive English courses, designing and writing English teaching materials, teaching experiences in mixed levels and mixed nationalities, etc.

  • Business experience is also relevant but not required when you are applying for a Business English teaching position

  • Work experiences such as writing, proofreading, and editing of business documents can serve as pertinent qualifications

  • Knowledge in relevant technology, emailing, presentation-making, video conferencing, and others are useful credentials as well.

As a Business English Teacher, whether you are non-native or native speaker, you are expected to have a general English background. More so, English Language Teaching (ELT) certifications would mean a lot from the people of the business world and so, aspirants of a Business English position should not simply have knowledge and practical skills of Business English but effective teaching skills as well.

During the teaching process, Business English Teachers are needed to develop students who will have a clear-cut understanding of the basic and key concepts in using the English language and in doing business at the same time. As a Business English Teacher, you need to become familiar with the methodologies that are considered to be the most effective executions in a business environment.

The curriculum that Business English Teachers need to teach includes the following topics:

  • Methodologies and approaches for learning Business English studies

  • The terms, languages, concepts of the business industry

  • The differentiation of teaching General English from Business English

  • The development and usage of specific and suitable teaching materials

  • The core communication skills which are used during meetings, negotiations, telephoning, presentations, and more

  • The writing techniques in the business environment for documentation, writing reports, memos, and analysis

  • The business ethics needed by professionals who work in a business environment

  • Proper attitude toward working with other students

Apart from the mention qualifications of a Business English Teacher and topics included in the curriculum for Business English courses, Business English Teachers need to possess good qualities that are oftentimes overlooked. To become an effective Business English Teacher you have to be patient, comfortable to be with, critical, good-tempered, fair-minded, assertive, reliable, and good decision maker.

Thus, a Business English Teacher who has a full grasp of what he or she is expected to be and is able to teach with the right attitude and qualities, then, that Business English Teacher will produce highly-taught Business English students and professionals.

Study Caribbean Studies

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Study Catalan Studies

Choose where you would like to study Catalan Studies:

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Catalonia is an interesting region in Spain. This community emerged in the 12th century when Catalunya (Spanish derivative) was coined in reference to the Spanish March counties. For a long time, it has been used to describe the “Land of Castles”, which happens to be the Spanish Empire. Now, it is confined to a region that consists of four provinces: Girona, Lleida, Tarragona, and its capital Barcelona. These provinces also correspond to the old Catalan counties. The regional scope covers over 32,000 sq km land area, holding 16% of the national populace. In effect, it ranked 6th among other regions in terms of territorial range. Consequently, this local niche happens to be the subject matter of Catalan Studies.

Although Spain has been known as the land of conquerors, Catalonia also fell into the hands of invaders for centuries.  As a matter of fact, it was first colonized by the Greeks in the Second Punic War (218-202 B.C). Upon the defeat of the Carthaginian armies, it was relinquished in favour of the Roman Empire along with nearby counties. Some other colonial rulers came thereafter in the likes of Visigoth, Moorish al-Andalus, and Franks. In the 13th century, freedom was declared by virtue of the Treaty of Corbeil. Later on, it became a member of the Aragon Kingdom that merged with the Castilian Kingdom to form the great Spanish Empire. Since then, it has paid tribute to the kingdom by way of sustainable economic growth in the region.

Catalan Studies comprise another branch of area of studies that encompass interrelated disciplines such as Humanities and Social Sciences. Academic research though is focused on various societal aspects pertaining to Catalonia. In turn, it may delve into its culture made known by the art of making human Castells (Castles) that depicts the great Castilian Kingdom. In the same way, it may deal with political and economic issues that gravely affect the region. Furthermore, the study includes many other domains like arts, history, geography, language, law, literature, sociology, etc. The study may also include diaspora and migration trends of ethnic groups found in the area.

The academe offers an array of degree courses in Catalan Studies both in undergraduate and graduate schools. In some Spanish universities, this field of study forms part of various curricula in business, law, and sociology. There are also bachelor’s programs relating to Catalan studies such as language, literature, culture, and the like. There are also postgraduate programs in form of master’s and doctoral degrees in Catalan Studies specializing in literature and culture, teaching for linguistic inclusion, and related Hispanic studies. Short courses may be accessible by means of certification as well as associate degree programs.

There is an array of career options for graduates of Catalan Studies. Research centres comprise an ideal employment niche to degree holders. In fact, colleges and universities all over the globe maintain their own research hubs manned by expert professionals. For instance, the University of London is home to the Centre for Catalan Studies. These academic entities are likely to provide teaching posts to eligible practitioners. State agencies dealing with Catalan people may hire language and culture specialists for correspondence. Private companies planning to settle in the region may employ corporate advisors on local business culture.

Study Celtic Languages

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The Celts are a diverse group of tribal societies in the Iron Age and in Europe during the Roman era, and those who spoke their languages. The term Celtic was first used in 1707 to describe the language group of the Celts. The earliest Celtic language was known as the Tartesian language with a written script used in inscriptions largely based on Phoenician script which was then in use at about 800 BC. In 400 AD, the Celtic languages, which form a branch of the larger Indo-European family of languages, broke up into several language groups, spreading to the western continental Europe, Ireland, Britain and the Iberian peninsula. In the 6th century, the Continental Celtic languages ceased to be used before they were limited to the areas on the western border of Europe such as Scotland, Wales, the Brittany peninsula in France, Cornwall at the tip of the south western peninsula of Great Britain, and the Isle of Man, a British dependency in the Irish Sea.

At least six Celtic languages appear to have retained a big number of native speakers. They are the Welsh and Breton languages which came from the British language during the Roman era; the Irish and Scottish Gaelic languages from the Gaelic language then known as the Classical Gaelic; and the Cornish and Manx languages which were regarded as near-extinct in the 20th century but recently considered as “living” on the basis of language revival efforts. As of 2000, the total number of native speakers of Celtic languages was placed at one million, with the Welsh, Breton and Irish having the most numbers. These languages are now part of the study programs in numerous institutions in many parts of the world.

The Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts in the United States operates a Celtic Department for the study of Celtic languages and literature, offering Master of Arts courses that qualify students to pursue a Doctor of Philosophy study program. To complete the program, students are required to hurdle a 2-hour oral examination, undertake a dissertation, and successfully defend the dissertation before a panel of university officials and professors. The Celtic Studies undergraduate program of the University of Wisconsin-Madison is also an interdisciplinary field of study that includes the history and culture of the people living in the northwestern perimeter of Europe such as Ireland, Wales, Scotland, Brittany and the Isle of Man, and the Celtic languages Irish, Scottish, Welsh and Gaelic that are spoken up to the modern times. The other universities in the U.S. that offer Celtic Studies and language programs include the University of California Berkeley, the Catholic University of America, and the University of Notre Dame in Indiana, which has a graduate and undergraduate program in Irish Studies that singles out one of the Celtic languages. In the University of Sydney, Australia, its Faculty of Arts and Sciences offers a program for the study of past and present Celtic languages, including the history and culture of the Celts, to enable students who are interested in several aspects of Celtic Studies to pursue other programs with a wide range of topics.

Study Chair of the three religions: Islamic, Jewish and Christian

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Study Chinese Language and Literature (in Language Schools)

Choose where you would like to study Chinese Language and Literature (in Language Schools):

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Study Chinese Language and Literature (in Universities)

Choose where you would like to study Chinese Language and Literature (in Universities):

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Since the opening of China’s door to other countries, its influence to the outside world is flourishing rapidly. It is becoming the fastest and biggest investment economy in the near future. Because of China’s strong economic growth, the study of its language and literature is being offered in many schools to address the high demand of jobs related to its study.

China has two major languages, the Mandarin and Cantonese. From these two, emerged many dialects. A majority of people in mainland China speaks the Mandarin while Hong Kong and Macau speak Cantonese. Their language is interesting because if you listen to them speaking, they refer to the same thing in different languages or dialects but their writing unifies the differences in their language. For instance, the number “3” varies in Cantonese and Mandarin but when they write it, it is the same. Their writing system is expressed by Chinese symbols which are referred to as characters. These are written and read from top to bottom and from right to left.

About billions of people around the world speak Chinese making it the most spoken language. Standard mandarin is the official language of The Republic of China, Taiwan, and one of the official languages of Singapore. Learning spoken Mandarin is sometimes difficult because pronunciations of Chinese words and letters are so closed that sometimes a little twists of the tongue can confuse a native speaker. This is the reason why some enthusiast learners take time to be taught to speak the language correctly. One good effect of this is that Chinese learners of other languages are perfectionists because to them if they do not say the words accurately, they would be misinterpreted.

In regards to the study of Chinese Literature, the coverage varies from school to school. However, in most cases it includes the tracing and development of poetry and its criticisms, its historical context, the pressure exerted by the government and religion. Also the songs, narratives and other forms of literature will be studied in different dynasties from Song to Qing and the present Dynasty.

China’s acceptance of other culture’s influence has opened many opportunities in Chinese Language and Literature graduates. One field where a graduate can venture is to be an interpreter. Its demand is high because they perform crucial roles in attaining successful communication in important communication dealings. In dialogues, discussions and gatherings where Chinese officials deliver their speeches need the help of an interpreter for their message to be conveyed fully well to their audience. Truly the same good chance is to become a translator. Its demand is also booming as there are more and more business transactions being conducted within and outside China. Many foreign companies are now investing in this country because of its robust economy. Of course everybody wants a share of the pie. You can also be a language consultant for Chinese book publications and for incoming students of the same course.

The course will not only let you learn Chinese language and literature but equally important is your understanding in the diverse Chinese culture in depth.

Understanding the literary tradition, background and language of the Chinese people is a way to preserve classic knowledge and work more effectively with Chinese-speaking partners. A course in Chinese language and literature will provide fluency in Chinese, knowledge of important Chinese literary works, and an understanding of Chinese culture. There are several Chinese dialects spoken in the modern world, such as Mandarin, Wu and Hunanese. However, the most widely used form of Chinese is Mandarin, and nearly all universities will offer a course in this dialect.
Universities will typically offer a combined course of Chinese language and literature, though the Chinese language can also be studied separately. Sometimes this course will be located under a wider branch of study, such as East Asian Language and Literary Studies. An associate, bachelor and master’s degree are all available in this course of study, with a bachelor’s degree being the most highly preferred.
The best places to study Chinese language and literature are in native Chinese-speaking countries, where a student will have constant exposure to the language both during study and elsewhere. Universities in Beijing, Nanjing, Shanghai and Chengdu are known for having world-class programs in this field of study.
If the student does not attend a school in a Chinese-speaking country, then they will most likely attend a study-abroad program that spends several months to a year in China. Some of the most popular Chinese cities for study abroad programs include Beijing, Shanghai and Kunming.
Skills, Qualifications, and Prerequisites for Studies in Chinese Language and Literature
Students studying Chinese language and literature in universities need to possess any prerequisites required for admission to their school of choice. This typically means earning a secondary school completion certificate, or passing standardized aptitude tests and entry exams.
Otherwise, students should have an open mind and invested interest in new cultures. Attention to detail is essential, as well as penmanship, pronunciation capabilities and communication skills. If possible, students should have a significant aptitude for languages or current fluency in a second language.
Skills and Qualifications Acquired from Studies in Chinese Language and Literature
Students who pursue a degree in Chinese language and literature will achieve the following skills:
  • Fluency in oral and written Mandarin Chinese.
  • Differences between standard and classical Chinese.
  • Fluency in Chinese literary styles, characteristics, terms and concepts.
  • Mastery of Chinese literary tradition.
  • Mastery of cannon and notable works of Chinese literature.
  • Understanding of Chinese cultural practices.
  • Understanding of relations between Chinese culture and language.
  • Advanced Chinese history, religion and regional studies.
Some students in this field will choose to dual major in another area of study, such as history, film or archeology, in which case additional courses and skills will be required.
Careers for Studies in Chinese Language and Literature
       &nbs p;    Accomplished students in this field are capable of working across the globe in dozens of countries for various corporate, government, education, travel and public service projects. High percentages become professors and teachers, both overseas and in native countries, while others pursue non-profit work in relief organizations such as the Peace Corps.
       &nbs p;     Many graduates become consultants, translators, interpreters, proofreads, writers or editors for educational institutions, government programs, global corporations, news and advertising agencies, airlines, travel companies, publishing companies and even banking systems. Depending on other areas of study, they may become computer programmers, government agents or even research assistants in a variety of fields.

Study Classical Philology

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Classical philology is an excellent choice for those with a high interest in language, especially regarding Greek or Latin. Unlike philology, classical philology studies the linguistic aspects of Greek or Latin, and observes how these languages have survived and attempts to understand the historical and cultural aspects of the Greek and Roman worlds – mainly through literature. It is possible to take classical philology courses in other languages (such as Chinese) but the most commonly pursued course is in Greek and Latin. 
College and universities provide the most well developed classical philology programs, at an associate, bachelor, master or doctorate degree level. Study abroad programs are also available through higher education institutions, and typically last several months – while few independent study abroad programs provide courses in classical philology.
It is extremely unlikely to find a competent course of study in classical philology anywhere aside from higher educational institutions. Workshops are rare, and only available through specific organizations and facilities.
If a student wishes to study classical philology and has the option to study at universities in Europe, then these locations are highly recommended. European universities may have closer access to original Latin or Greek texts, and provide the added benefit of often running programs in a Latin-based romance language.
Skills, Qualifications, and Prerequisites for Studies in Classical Philology
Colleges and universities will require any individual seeking to study classical philology to meet admission requirements to the institution. This usually includes earning a secondary school completion certificate or a passing score on an aptitude test or entrance exam. There are few other study options for classical philology – even workshops may be exclusive to graduates or employees.
It is preferred, though not necessary, that applying students speak a second language or multiple languages. It is often required, in the course of classical philology study, to take certain language requirements regardless. Students should also be able to work in a variety of environments, whether individually or on a team, and pay close attention to linguistic detail. A high ability to understand, interpret, and analyze information gleaned from language is essential.
Skills and Qualifications Acquired from Studies in Classical Philology
Many students pursuing classical philology studies will also take courses in second language, literature, communication or other linguistics studies. A course based solely in classical philology, however, will offer expertise in these basic areas:
  • Greek and Roman history.
  • Greek and Roman art and culture.
  • Greek and Roman mythology, religion and philosophy.
  • Greek and Latin literature.
  • Latin language (from beginner to advanced).
  • Greek Language (from beginner to advanced).
  • Second language requirement (such as Spanish, Catalan, etc.).
  • Linguistics (mainly in Greek and Latin).
  • Language and research technology.
  • Data interpretation, analysis and synthesis.
It is important to note that a basic study in classical philology does not typically include studies in archaeology.
Careers for Studies in Classical Philology
A vast majority of graduates in classical philology will pursue careers as educators or professors. They may also find employment in museums, research facilities or educational programs. Depending on their accompanying studies, classical philology students can become archaeologists, historians, translators, journalists, consultants, librarians or even (with enough study) leading experts in classical language fields.

Study Classics

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BelgiumCanadaDenmarkEcuadorEgyptFinlandFranceGermanyGhanaGreeceIcelandIndiaIrelandItalyJapanMaltaNetherlandsNew ZealandNicaraguaPolandSpainSwitzerlandThe United KingdomThe United StatesTurkey

Have you ever spent time wondering about ancient cultures such as the Greeks and Romans? Do you read books on their mythology, their history, or their philosophy? If so, you are well on your way to becoming a classics major. Classics, one of the most popular disciplines within the humanities, is the study of ancient texts written by Greek and Roman writers – including philosophers, poets, playwrights, politicians, and historians. These texts are known for their depth, their complexity, and their almost overwhelming beauty, and for hundreds of years there have been people who dedicated their lives to understanding such texts and the people who created them. Students in classics departments, read, analyze, and debate a wide variety of ancient writings and learn about the context within which they were made.
Personal Qualities
  • Passion for reading, especially mythology, philosophy, history, and great literature
  • Knowledge of grammar and linguistic skills
  • Genuine fascination with ancient cultures, especially those of Greece and Rome
Study Options
In recent years, classics departments in Europe and the United States have expanded their  Focus to include ancient texts from other parts of the world such as China, India, and the Middle East. Multicultural classics departments, which examine ancient societies from all over the world, are becoming increasingly common, but the typical classics major still concentrates on the Greeks and/or Romans.
Many classics majors, especially at top universities, learn both Ancient Greek and Latin so that they can read ancient texts in the original language. However, some students in this area specialize and focus on one or the other of these languages. In addition, different classics departments focus on different aspects of classical literature: some may emphasize philosophy, while others emphasize ancient poetry or political history. Depending on your specific interests, different departments may be a better or worse fit for you, so it’s worth doing some research ahead of time.
Career Options
Classics has a reputation for being a “useless” major, since it does not lead directly to any specific job. However, those who dismiss classics as useless do not understand the field. Although it is true that the most valuable advantages of majoring in classics are personal growth and spiritual insight, classics majors also learn many skills that are immediately applicable to a wide range of jobs. Like all humanities majors, they get extensive practice in analytic writing, and learn how to write persuasive, informative, and colorful prose. In almost any white-collar job, these skills will be critical for success. The ability to understand and analyze complex theoretical structures also has numerous career applications.
Most people who major in classics do so out of passion and curiosity rather than in pursuit of a specific career goal. After graduation, however, they find themselves working in a wide variety of fields. Many go on to law school, where their knowledge of history, analytical skills, ability to reason and persuasively, and background in Latin are all extremely useful. Classics majors often work as teachers as well, particularly teachers of literature and history.

Study Conference Interpreting

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A conference interpreter works at international seminars and conferences to enable and help participants to freely communicate with each other by almost eliminating the language barrier. Conference interpretation is broadly of two types.
  • Consecutive interpretation- Here, the interpreter sits with the delegates, listens to them while they are making their speech, and takes down necessary notes. After the delegate has completed the speech, the interpreter repeats the speech or its major points in first person terms in the target language. The increasing numbers of multi-lingual meets and conferences have reduced the usage of consecutive interpretation to a large extent.
  • Simultaneous interpretation- Here, the interpreters sits in a sound proof booth, listens to the speech or comments from the meet through headsets. While listening to the comments and speeches, the interpreters interpret them in the target language at the same time. They speak into microphones and their words are transmitted through headsets to the delegates.
The advantage of simultaneous interpretation is that a single speech can be translated into many languages at the same time. Simultaneous interpreters often need to work as teams.

Course on Conference Interpretation

A person willing to pursue a career in conference interpretation needs of have a post graduate degree in the same for developing professional skills. He/she needs to have excellent command over his/her mother tongue, and superb communication skills. One must possess the ability to express oneself clearly and comprehensively. Being bilingual is not mandatory but basic understanding of the foreign languages they wish to interpret is necessary for obvious reasons.
Most of the courses on conference interpretation are of post graduate level. The essential qualification therefore is a Bachelors degree. However, the graduation degree does not necessarily have to be in any language. Both full time and part time courses are available and the modules include a range of language combinations. Course works are extensive and include regular practice sessions. Students may be required to interpret at dummy booths or sit in meetings and practice interpreting them. Along with practice sessions in curriculums, one has to work hard outside it as well in order to gain expertise. Running mock simulations, recording them and requesting assistance from instructors and coaches will help.
Apart from regular degree courses, there are also integration programs aimed at training interpreters for certain languages in which there is a shortage of professional interpreters. Because of the huge demand for interpreters these days, various public and private grants, fellowships and scholarships are offered to universities and institutes.

Career Prospect

Conference interpretation basically has two markets. These are the private and the institutional markets. The private market is generally local in nature involving bi-lingual meets and conferences. Here interpreters may need to work on their mother tongue as well as some other language simultaneously. Institutional market on the other hand is the one that involves activities of international organizations. Here the interpreter might need to interpret several languages into his/her mother tongue. The International Association of Conference Interpreters, founded in 1953, is the only association of conference interpreters.

Study Czech, Language and Literature

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Study Danish Language and Literature (in Universities)

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There are numerous languages all over the world. Even when sorted and grouped, those under the European category are still in fact a lot to encompass in one sweeping. Hence, there are courses offered like the Danish Language and Literature program that focuses only on language and literature from a certain setting at a time – in this case, those relating to Denmark.

Danish language is actually classified as an Indo-European language (family of languages which includes most of those in Europe and some parts of Asia about India) and is further categorized as one of the (East Scandinavian) Germanic languages.

Danish is founded from a Scandinavian language, from which Swedish, Norwegian, and others have also been derived. This language actually dates back from 3rd century AD, where the oldest of related inscriptions were found. But after the Viking Age, certain changes led to the evolution and separation of the Scandinavian languages. This brought about the East Scandinavian tongues, which include Swedish and Danish, and the West Scandinavian languages under which Norwegian and Icelandic belong.

The Danish language has three main periods of development. Old Danish is practically the period where the first traces of the language were found in runes and various other locations. Middle Danish has quite a mixture of several dialects that include those of the provinces like Zealand and Jutland, among others. Moreover, numerous changes in the language occurred in Middle Danish. During this time, the language acquired a lot of loan words, specifically from German. Modern Danish, on the other hand, was the time when Danish started to be used as Denmark’s national language.

Danish Literature is rather a broad collection, specifically in terms of language. A lot of works included in this group are written not only in Danish, but also in Latin and in German. But roughly, this body of literature includes those produced throughout Denmark.

The earliest written accounts of both Denmark’s language and literature are found only in bits and remnants, dated as far back as AD 800. During the middle Ages, however, writing themes have shifted to religious and medical literature. Sometime around the 13th century, written works deal with such content like biographies of saints, medical textbooks, and priestly studies. During the Reformation, religious writing was only further pursued. To illustrate, in 1550, the first Danish Bible was made available in print. Spiritual hymns and poetry were also popular during this period. By the 17th century, the influence of the Renaissance is largely apparent in Danish literature. Classical and humanistic themes were widespread in hymns, plays, poetry, and ballads.

All the abovementioned, are integrated and discussed extensively during the course of the Danish Language and Literature program. Intensive training on analytical skills, writing, communication, documentation, and various others, are given to students taking this program. This is why a lot of doors are open for graduates of this course with respect to career opportunities.

Most graduates of the Danish Language and Literature Program go into the teaching profession. Some progress to post-graduate studies and afterward, teach in universities. Still others have gone on to establish careers in journalism, publishing books and other literary works, commerce, and others more.

Study Dutch language and culture (in Universities)

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Foreign languages are now becoming vital as life and career of people are becoming global. People these days go out of their own countries to emerge themselves with other culture either for work or pleasure. Learning Dutch is exciting as it opens up career opportunities for professionals like nurses, teachers, engineers and almost any profession across Europe and other countries.

Dutch language is spoken by over 20 million people in Britain, Netherlands and a part of Belgium. It is also the official language of Suriname in South Africa. Not only it dominated these countries but its popularity is extended to the Caribbean and a portion of Indonesia. Likely the language of the Africans in Namibia is close to Dutch. It is indeed a popular language like English.

Graduates of Dutch language enable them to become fluent and inter culturally competent speaker of it. Dutch fluency coupled with English may help one to find job easily across Europe. Indeed, nurses from other countries who had learned the Dutch language are easily chosen against others who are not familiar with the language. It is believed, it would be a problem in the work place if a foreign professional does not know how to speak Dutch where it is widely spoken. Thus, it is highly recommended to become fluent before one has to join the pool of professionals in countries speaking the language.

Studying Dutch has no prerequisite so anybody who is interested can actually enroll to any universities or colleges across the globe. There are many places to choose from. It can be in the United Kingdom, Spain, and countries outside Europe like United States and other places too. Schools have their own way of approaching the program. Some offer support system with their Dutch library. Others offer DVD to support the actual classroom instruction. Still others conduct it online with actual trainings after learning the basics. It all depends on your preference. What is good in studying Dutch language is that, it can be combined with other programs of your choice so you are shooting 2 birds in one bullet.

Employability in this field is deemed to include a wide range of line of work. One can become an interpreter of the language. Netherlands not to mention other countries speaking the language is a worldwide tourist destination because of its natural landscape and unique culture so interpreters and tourist guides are a good choice of applying the language. Another option for graduates is to become a lecturer or trainer of the language. With the popularity of countries speaking Dutch as working and pleasure destination, many crave to learn the language to be “in” with the country. Other options include being researcher, journalist, script writer, and literary reviewer.

Income and salaries all depend on how you use the language. Business people who want to put up a Dutch language school earn more than those simply doing the interpretation and acting as guides. Nevertheless, no matter what you choose to employ Dutch language, compensation is good.

Study Dutch Language and Literature (in Language Schools)

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Study Dutch Language and Literature (in Universities)

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Are you a graduate student, perhaps with a degree in world languages or literature, and looking for a unique program in which to complete your graduate-level studies?  Have you considered pursuing a Master of Arts degree in Dutch Language and Literature?  The Master of Arts degree in Dutch Language and Literature is a program that focuses on the Dutch language and related dialects used in the Netherlands, Flemish-speaking Belgium, the Netherlands Antilles and Suriname.  It includes instruction not only in the Dutch language itself, but in Dutch/Flemish philology, Dutch Creoles, the rich Dutch literary tradition and the applications of the Dutch language in business, science and technology and other sectors.  To give you a better idea about what this degree entails, below we have provided a brief synopsis of the Master of Arts Degree in Dutch Language and Literature, including a course description, the topics covered through the core and elective coursework and the eligibility requirements for admission into the program.
Master of Arts Degree in Dutch Language and Literature:  Course Description
The Master of Arts Degree in Dutch Language and Literature is a graduate-level course of study offered at thousands of colleges and universities around the world.  The program, which typically spans two years in duration for full-time students, offers students a thorough education in Netherland studies, an academic discipline that focuses on three general areas:  Dutch as a system of language, Dutch as a system of communication and Dutch as a literary system.  Borrowing from a number of different disciplines, the comprehensive nature of the Master of Arts Degree in Dutch Language and Literature is quite unique, allowing students to create a program that matches their personal interests.
Master of Arts Degree in Dutch Language and Literature:  Coursework and Eligibility Requirements
The coursework for the Master of Arts Degree program in Dutch Language and Literature includes both core and elective classes, through which students have the option of combining literary, linguistic and communication perspectives at an advanced academic level.  In the first year of the program the emphasis is usually placed on studies in the Dutch language, with topics that may include:
·      &a mp;n bsp;  Classification of the Dutch Language.  Dutch belongs to its own West Germanic sub-group, West Low Franconian, paired with its sister language Limburgian, or East Low Franconian, both of which stand out by mixing characteristics of Low German and German.

·      &a mp;n bsp;  Prevalence of the Dutch Language.  Dutch is the native language for most people living in the Netherlands, and about sixty percent of the populations of Belgium and Suriname.  The language is most prevalent in Europe, where it is a first language for about 23 million people and a second language for another 5 million.  It also holds official status in the Caribbean island nations of Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten.
The second half of the program features courses that deal with a wide array of topics, including Dutch Linguistics, Medieval Dutch literature, Early Modern Dutch Literature, Modern Dutch Literature, Applications of the Dutch Language, and Dutch Language Use and Discourse Studies.
To qualify for admission into the M.A. degree program in Dutch Language and Literature students must possess, at minimum, a bachelor degree, preferably in a language or literature field, and have a 2.8 grade point average or better in all core and elective coursework.  Letters of recommendation may also be required by certain colleges and universities, as will a passing score on an entrance examination prior to admission.

Study East European Studies

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Study English Academic Writing

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The main challenge to a student of English Academic Writing is to eventually acquire a considerable amount of readership. However, the primary objective of the English Academic Writing course is to introduce the student to different writing techniques and practices. The course also aims to develop students as a writer within the English speaking community of both the academe and the community where the student belongs.

The study of the conventions of the written texts is one subject matter being delved under the course. Issues regarding academic writing are being addressed. Apart from that, the curriculum of English Academic Writing also concentrates on the other language skills needed by the students to complete their degree. To provide you with what subject matters are in store for you as you take up the English Academic Writing course/program check out the following topics. The course presents you with topics such as:

  • The acquisition of awareness and enhancement of your ability to effectively utilize the discourse patterns of academic English writing

  • The improvements of your critical reading skills that will help you think critically and eventually write with direction and purpose and to write clearly and perceptively

  • The familiarization of writing practices, the genres of argumentative narratives and essays, the critiquing of other research papers, and more

  • The opportunity to develop your skills in writing process that include generation of ideas, peer evaluation, drafting, individual writing consultations, gathering of data and topics to write on

  • The learning of which kind of readership to focus on so you can concentrate on their expectations and their academic backgrounds, English discourses, and more

  • The reflection of your chosen writing approach with special consideration to meeting the needs of graduation requirements

  • The incorporation of other people’s work into your own writing as found in the scope of the English Academic Writing program you are in

  • The expansion and improvement of your capability to work on your own as you learn to explore new methodologies and techniques in learning and writing

  • The development of your proofreading skills, together with your editing skills so that you will become capable of polishing, editing, and refining, either your work or the works of other writers

  • The acquisition of confidence especially in expressing yourself through your writings. This also includes the enhancement and development of your speaking skills in English.

As a student of English Academic Writing you are immersed to the nature of research writing as well since academic scope is more of conducting researches that will be presented, reviewed, and approved in the academe. Therefore, you have to know ways on how you can make contributions through writing academic and research papers and articles that will acquire a relevant number degree of readership and an output that will provide new information.

English Academic Writing course will eventually require you to write your own research paper since this will serve as your final and graduating requirement. This is essential since after your graduation, and as you pursue your career as either a professional writer or researcher, you will always go back to the foundation of English Academic Writing which is writing materials that will greatly attract readership.

Job positions for English Academic Writing:


At some point, a writer writes and at the same time edits—this is what a writer is supposed to be. On the other hand, an editor edits and at the same time writes to better express an idea that the writer wants to convey. So, writers can pass as editors, and editors can pass as writers, too. However, to streamline the works and responsibilities of an editor and a writer, both should compromise. So, if you choose to become an editor is it better but if you choose to become an exclusive writer, much better.

But still as a Writer, you still have to choose your specialization or the nature of your writing career. You can become an Academic Writer, a Creative Writer, a Medical Writer, and a particular sort of writer—it depends on your field of preference and expertise. However, to draw the line clearer, writers and authors can be categorized into three categories as well and to be able to determine which category suits you best, you can evaluate the categorization. There are writers who produce content for print and online media. There are writers who are also editors and their job is to evaluate and select content that will be needed for publication. The last category is the technical writers who specialize in producing materials, materials that will serve as instruction manuals and documentation resources.

To further develop and advance your career as a Writer you have to acquire your college diploma to get hired by top employers. Liberal Arts courses, Communication courses, Journalism courses and English courses are the key courses that employers look for. And if you are aiming for a Technical Writer position it is best that you choose your specialization early on and have a degree on that particular field of study say for instance science.

There are other requirements which you can present in landing a writing position. Though such may serve as supplementary requirements they can still make a huge difference in your application. As a Writer, you have to have the capability to express your ideas clearly through writing. You need to have a better judgement as well. Your capabilities should also include creativity, curiosity, self-motivation, and a great interest in constantly improving yourself as a Writer.

Your unpaid writing services also help in marketing yourself to the employers. Such writings are invaluable and will not simply add to your experience but will make you a reliable and effective Writer. To further advance your career as a Writer, you can also engage in other professions which are directly connected to your career as a Writer like doing research, editing, proofreading, copy editing, and more.

The job opportunities for Writers are infinite. The Writers are considered to be the most flexible professionals that company would hire immediately because they are equipped with skills, experiences, ideas, and talents that would greatly contribute to the company they are serving with which may include employment for newspapers, book publishers, non-profit organizations, and other private and government agencies.

When it comes to compensation, Writers can be well-salaried. With such talents (as mentioned above), they can even dictate their earnings but with consideration as well as to what they can offer as Writers to their readers.

Academic Researcher

You become a Researcher or Academic Researcher because of your invaluable education and experience in research-based academic writing. Your awareness about the features of the genre called research-based writing gives you a notable skill in the varying areas of organization of academic papers. Your experience and exposure to the works of many other authors in English academic discourse will help you gain a greater influence as you development your own voice—both as a researcher and as a writer, too.

For the record, a research paper is considered to be the core genre of academic writing. And so, as a Researcher you have to acquire the skills and proficiency that you will need in researching your own thesis paper as a student; and articles, papers, and dissertations as a professional researcher.

As a Researcher, you are expected to have a full grasp of the many research techniques and methodologies that will help you in exploring new ideas to research on, in supporting and criticizing the works of other researchers and writers belonging in your chosen discipline.

Being a Researcher, you are compelled to make decisions about which style you are going to employ. And so, in making decisions about your own style or adopted style of researching you have to have a considerable amount of researching on various languages and disciplines. You have to discover and study the stylistic choices you are exposed with. This is in special consideration of your particular preference in researching.

To develop a strong sense in your style of writing as a researcher you have to gain recognition of when to speak with authority, when to invoke your assertions, and right familiarization of the valued academic and formal conventions of writing and researching. Finally, in choosing your own style, you have to also consider your preferred genre and preferred readership or audience.

However, when it comes to the nature of research writing, you as a Researcher should have the skill to address, to critique, and to evaluate the works of other researchers and writers and come up with an argument or claim of your own. As a Researcher, you should always aim high which means you have to practice researching and writing with the aim of getting your materials, articles or your research paper published. This is extremely important and you should always make this objective as your driving force as you live the life of a Researcher.

You have to always execute as well the elements of researching. As a Researcher, you know that researching involves different stages which are considered to be repetitive as well. Such stages of research writing are: to carry out initial research procedures, to develop a research question, to read more, to do note-taking, to identify the structure of your future research paper, to write your first draft, to gather comments, and eventually draw your conclusions.

Though the entire process sounds too simple, the process itself is very daunting. Therefore, as a trained Researcher, you have to perform each stage professionally and appropriately so that you can come up with a research paper that is worth reading and worth publishing.

Study English as a Second Language

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English as a Second Language refers to the learning of the English language by people whose native language is different from English. Gaining knowledge of any language involves the understanding of vocabulary, application of grammatical rules, modal verbs, tenses, pronunciation, etc.

Today English is considered to be the global business language, which means that when doing business internationally, English is the communication method applied. English is also perceived second to Mandarin by number of people in the world who speak it, but it is very hard to estimate how many people exactly study and speak English.

Personal Qualities

To study English as a second language you mainly need the will to learn the peculiarities of a foreign language, accepting and adopting the way it sounds as well as the way sentences are built. Further qualities are:

  • Good memory
  • Ability to listen and re-create sounds (every language has a specific musicality to it)
  • Discipline and perseverance
  • Patience to learn and apply grammatical rules
  • Curiosity and willingness to read books, magazines, and different media in the English language

Study Options

English as a second language can be learned in a great variety of settings. It is offered at high schools, universities, community colleges, on online courses, and you can even find some free opportunities. Often, if you choose to study in an English speaking country, the institution you are attending is likely to provide you with some support in the form of ESL courses in order for you to be able to keep up with the curriculum.

When choosing a course to study English as a second language, you should try to find one that offers a good balance between grammar, reading, writing and listening. Often grammatical concepts are hard to apply if not enough practice is provided to students, so the course you choose should offer the opportunity to read and discuss articles, books, etc. You can also greatly enhance your learning experience by seeking ways to communicate with other native English speakers, taking a trip to an English speaking country, or watching movies in English.

Finally, if you need to take a TOEFL, IELTS, or SAT exam with the aim of applying to university, you should look for courses that specifically prepare you for these exams and are certified to do that. The same applies if you are looking to study Business English.

Career Options

Learning English greatly enhances your career opportunities. Today, most employers require mastery of the language by default, so if you know one or more other languages in addition to English, you would have a great advantage over other applicants. English can be applied and used in all kinds of professions, not only in the business world, but also in science and research.

Not to forget that knowing the language would equip you with the skills to read, explore, and utilize a much wider variety of literature – be it financial, scientific, or poetic.

Study English Courses

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AustraliaCanadaIndiaIrelandMaltaPolandSpainThe United KingdomThe United StatesTrinidad and Tobago

Study English for Academic Purposes

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AustraliaDenmarkIndiaIrelandMaltaSpainThe United KingdomThe United States

Study English for Aviation

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IndiaSpainThe United KingdomThe United States

Study English for Doctors

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Study English for Executives

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Study English for Hospitality Business

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Study English for Lawyers

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Study English for Specific Purposes

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Study English for Teacher Certification

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IndiaSpainThe United KingdomThe United States

We all know that English is the most commonly applied language for international communication – be it for business, travel, or learning. When learning English with the purpose of teaching the language to others, though, there are specific requirements that need to be met. First of all, you need to consider whether you wish to teach English to native speakers or to non-native students. In both cases some sort of certification is required for you to be able to teach. The requirements for becoming a certified teacher vary from country to country, but in most cases you would need to have completed a bachelor’s degree in English Language and Literature (or similar) and then undergo an accredited teacher certification program. In certain cases (for ESL teaching) you might not need to have a bachelor’s degree, but rather the certification itself would suffice. Gaining a teacher certification would usually involve a combination of coursework, student teaching and various tests and exams.

ESL teachers instruct students for whom English is a second language and usually they need to undergo similar training as other classroom teachers. Still, these teachers need to take extra college courses, specifically designed for teaching English to non-native speakers. They also have to get practical experience in a classroom of ESL students.

Personal Qualities

Learning English for teacher certification means that you are planning to become a teacher. This requires a patient nature and great communication skills. Other qualities are:

  • Excellent interpersonal skills
  • Great organizational qualities
  • Tolerant and understanding to others
  • Awareness of cultural differences
  • Creativity and enthusiasm
  • Willingness to work long hours

Study Options

Students may need to take anywhere from 50 to 150 class hours to earn an ESL certification. Certification is offered by training organizations such as Teaching of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL), Teaching of English as an Acquired or Additional Language (TEAL), International Accreditation of TESOL Qualifying Organisations (IATQuO), and Teaching of English as a Foreign Language (TEFL). Each group has unique standards and training requirements. Courses for certification include linguistic fundamentals, teaching methods and materials, cross-cultural communication, and second-language acquisition. Coursework is in teaching pronunciation, grammar fundamentals, as well as some practical experience that requires the teaching candidate to go into the field to practice the ESL teaching principles. You should make sure your certification course would be approved by the institution where you would like to practice afterwards – different regions and states have varying requirements.

Career Options

By gaining a teacher certification in English you would be able to practice in state schools, in independent and private institutions, as well as specialized language centers.  You would also be able to specialize in areas like elementary education or special needs teaching if you wish to do so. You would also be able to open your own language center or give private lessons to selected students.

Study English for Tourism Business

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AustraliaIndiaIrelandSpainThe United KingdomThe United States

The tourism business involves vehicles, accommodation opportunities, resorts, and other entertainment facilities that cater for tourists. In the tourism business are involved people from different levels – including waiters, receptionists, travel agents, and other managing and supporting staff that need to communicate and care for tourists. Because of the international nature of the tourism business, it has become absolutely crucial to master the English language – this is the language that has proved to be the universal means of communication between different countries and cultures.

English for tourism business would be applied by both employees and managers to communicate with guests, or to negotiate terms with them. Topics that individuals will need to cover on such occasions are the types of accommodation the guest prefers, the dining options, cultural trip destinations, complaints resolution, as well as catering for the needs of the business traveler.

Personal Qualities

In order to study English for the tourism business, qualities that will help are commitment to your career in the tourism business and an eagerness to communicate with English speakers. Further qualities are:

  • Excellent memory
  • Very good communication skills
  • Aptitude for studying languages
  • Excellent interpersonal skills

Study Options

English for the Tourism Industry is normally offered as a short course, and can be taken at certain schools that offer English language courses. It is crucial that you research the components of the course very well in order to check whether it matches your current and future career expectations. For example, if you are currently working as a waiter, you would be aiming to learn how to explain the nature of the different dishes to customers as well as the ingredients that each dish contains. On the other hand, if your goal is to become a restaurant manager after a certain period of time, you would have to learn a slightly higher level of English. It is very likely that the English for tourism course covers a wide range of areas within the business, but you need to make sure that it includes the one that is most important to you, and that you can gain a deeper understanding of this specific area.

Career Options

Studying English for the tourism business will greatly enhance your employability in the sector, while also equipping you with some transferable skills. Although the area is a specific one, you will still gain a better understanding of the English language, which is valued in all professions. Whether you are a travel agent, who needs to negotiate terms with hotels and with customers, a restaurant manager, who needs to import an ingredient from an English speaking country, or a receptionist who has to welcome guests – a fluency in the language will always be highly appreciated and will most surely result in enhanced income and career opportunities.

Study English for Work Purposes

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IndiaMaltaSpainThe United KingdomThe United States

Study English Language and Literature (in Language Schools)

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ArgentinaAustraliaBelgiumBulgariaCanadaChileFranceGermanyIndiaIraqIrelandMaltaMexicoPeruPortugalSouth AfricaSpainThe United KingdomThe United StatesTrinidad and Tobago

Study English Language and Literature (in Universities)

Choose where you would like to study English Language and Literature (in Universities):

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The study of English Language and Literature crosses boundaries. Though it may sound too cliché, English Language and Literature studies give students the great opportunity to master the fundamental, interrelated key skills like writing, thinking, and reading, and the chance to get immersed in theories and applications under language and literature studies.

English helps people breathe, not just literally but figuratively. In this case, English Language and Literature students get to study courses in linguistics, composition, and courses in literature that will equip them to absorb the different bodies of knowledge, from literary arts, literary thoughts, to the mainstream literary and textual research, film and drama, broadcast media, and American studies among others.

Schools and universities would present their students with curriculum to choose from which would be either American English Language and Literature or British English Language and Literature. However, the pursuit of study doesn’t end right after choosing their specialization, since further specializations can still be acquired. More so, before or after taking specialization under the program of English Language and Literature, long list of possible careers awaits the graduates and this includes becoming a writer, an editor, a professor, a trainer, a linguist, and more.

English Language and Literature and its curriculum take the students to higher level of education which is composed of studying writing in English from its origins (e.g. Anglo-Saxon origin) to the modern literature, from the 20th century to the 21st century. However, the course also offers the students a much wider scope of study since by taking English Language and Literature they gain knowledge in various literary works from many other parts of the world. With this kind of immersion, the student acquires a reasonable amount of exposure to his or her chosen degree of specialization, the periods and topics that you would like to focus on.

A full historical sweep of the English language will be dealt with. This will let the student gain an in-depth and sophisticated means of studying literature, from developing their reading skills to advancing their abilities to place certain literary texts (in an intensive intellectual and historical contexts).

English Language and Literature also develops the critical process abilities of students in making judgement and analysis. At the end of the degree, you as a student should learn various literary forms and techniques in studying and developing the English language and its literature. The curriculum will also introduce to you the conceptual and technical tools needed in studying English literature with special consideration of a wider range of diverse critical assumptions and approaches.

Yes, English Language and Literature has successfully established hardcore courses and you as a student will later on understand and extend the scope of your learning process as you will also study English literary history, Middle English, Romantic age, Shakespeare, the history and development of English language, the Victorian literature, and the Modern and Post-Modern literature.

Finally, English Language and Literature is not your ordinary course program. This course presents you with outstanding learning experiences that you will eventually apply as you pursuit your future choice of career.

Job positions for English Language and Literature (in Universities):

English Teacher

As an English Trainer you are responsible in many learning developments such as English vocabulary training, English conversation training, English proficiency training, and other trainings that require the mastery of the English language and greater aptitude of English communication skills.

The most widespread job opportunity for an English Trainer is to work in the corporate world or to become a Corporate English Trainer. However, since you are going to deal with top executives you are expected to have relevant and years of experience as an English trainer, trainings with business executives, a degree in English studies and related courses, and certificates from attended trainings. This applies whether you are a native or non-native speaker of the English language.

Your indispensable kind of education and experience in using the English language is a knowledge that will sweep off other applicants vying for the same position you are applying for. As an English Trainer you have to have impeccable knowledge of linguistics, teaching English as a second language, rhetoric or persuasive communication skills, effective teaching methodologies, and great interests in imparting what you know to your students.

English Trainer as a profession is a career that requires constant learning, whether you are doing it for a fulltime or part-time basis, you have to constantly develop yourself to make yourself marketable in this growing industry that relentlessly looks for English Trainers. With this being said, you just expanded your scope since you can apply in telecommunication businesses, marketing and advertising companies, and educational institutions if you want to pursue a career in the academe.

To make yourself more marketable and to acquire a greater advantage, it is fitting that you obtain certifications from international organizations providing English teaching certifications like TESOL, TEFL, and International Diploma in Language Teaching Management or IDLTM among others.

English Trainers are also considered to be cross-cultural language trainers since their education and experience with the English language cross language barriers, diverse sectors, and wider industries as well. In fact, English Trainers are needed by other professionals who are lawyers, brokers, bankers, diplomats, and underwriters among others. The mentioned professionals act as the students since they want to get educated in using the English language, too.

English language trainers have the greatest job in the world since they get to deal with different kinds of people and make them as their students. However, their responsibilities are tough enough to make them the most needed professional nowadays, in this world where English is the present lingua franca.

The international business experience of an English Trainer is a pertinent work experience that will be beneficial in acquiring an English teaching position since most English Trainers are hired by multi-national companies which extremely require excellent performance and the highest quality of training there is. And if you are the kind of English trainer who possesses such qualities you are highly needed. Therefore, as an English Trainer you have to live with what you are worth so that you can continuously do your job seamlessly and you can provide your students the learning experience they deserve. Remember, your students will be the reflection of what kind of English trainer you are.

English Teacher

The widespread use of the English language and its reputation as the current lingua franca of the international business, technology, aviation, science, and other fields of study have made the language an indispensable part of learning and in acquiring a degree. If you are a student or have a degree in English Language and Literature you can expand your focus or your career path since you are provided with a number of concentrations like:

  • Creative Writing

  • American Literature

  • British Literature

  • Children’s Literature

  • Education/ Pedagogy in English

  • Rhetoric

  • Composition

  • Linguistics and Language studies

However, pursuing the path of an English Teacher is an excellent choice since English Teachers get high demands, high pay abroad, and high level of experience and expertise. English Teachers who are also recognized as Language Arts Teachers has one main duty to fulfil: to instruct every student they have in class the English language and literature.

English Teachers get employed by schools, universities, learning centres, and government or private agencies. However, most of the time English teachers are employed for a teaching position in grade level, middle school level, or high school level. This is the reason why English teachers are expected to have acquired a certain degree of specialization or concentration in handling different levels of students.

Reading comprehension, speaking, listening, and writing skills are skills honed by English teachers. And to make sure that the learning process of the students has continuity, English teachers should prepare lessons prior the classes, instruct the students the way they should get instructed, and then later on evaluate the students about their skills when it comes to learning the English language. Though this may sound trivial, English Teachers are expected to discipline students as well.

To be able to pursue the career of an English Teacher, you have to acquire a degree and a license to teach English first. English concentration programs and degrees, training programs, and English education are the fundamental requirements when applying for a teaching position. If you have completed programs which are heavily focused on linguistics and comparative literature, you also gain an edge over other applicants applying for a same position. It would also be helpful if you get your certification in Teaching English as a Foreign Language first if you are planning to teach English in foreign countries.

Knowledge and expertise in numerous English teaching methodologies will also launch your career path into a new height. However, if you want to teach English in higher education, a Masters degree is required and this same goes true in community colleges.

Pre-service is another relevant credential that you can present in applying for an English teaching position. This is to measure your capabilities and whether you have a strong emphasis on teaching practices that a particular school employs. And finally, it would be best if you have internationally-granted certifications like International Diploma in Language Teaching Management which will prepare you in teaching English language to professionals and students of management principles and practices.

Study English Philology

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Study English Studies

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Study English, Language and Culture

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AustraliaColombiaDenmarkFranceIndiaIraqIrelandMaltaPolandSpainThe United KingdomThe United States

Study English/Technical and Scientific

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AustraliaIndiaIrelandSpainThe United KingdomThe United States

Study Estonian and Finno-Ugric Linguistics

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IndiaThe United States

Study Ethiopian Languages and Cultures

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EthiopiaIndiaThe United States

Study Euskera, Lengua y Literatura

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IndiaSpainThe United States

Study Farsi Language and Literature

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IndiaIranThe United States

Are you a post-graduate student with a deep interest in Iran, the language spoken by its people, Farsi, and the ancient and contemporary literature penned by some of the country’s most respected authors and poets?  Have you considered earning a doctorate-level (PhD) degree in Farsi Language and Literature—a program now offered by a select number of universities around the globe?  If so, the following information should prove quite useful.  Here we will briefly discuss the PhD program in Farsi Language and Literature, providing you with a brief course description and outline, as well as the eligibility requirements for admission into the program.
Farsi Language and Literature:  About the Program
The PhD degree program in Farsi Language and Literature is an in depth and very advanced course of study open to students who have earned a Master’s degree in the subject and completed the Master’s thesis as required by the university.  The program typically spans five to seven years in duration, although the exact timeframe for earning the degree depends largely on the student and the institution.  During the course of the program, students will complete a total of 27 courses, which typically equates to three full years of study.  They must also complete a minimum of 5 units in a teaching role at the university, serving as a language assistant, course assistant, and/or lecturer—duties which usually takes place between year three to five.
Following the successful completion of all coursework and participating as a graduate assistant, all students must take and pass a series of comprehensive examinations by the end of the fourth year.  If these examinations are passed, a dissertation proposal must be proffered to the faculty by the end of year five, and the successful defense of that dissertation must occur within two years of approval.
Like with all Islamic and Middle Eastern fields, PhD candidates for the Farsi Language and Literature program must achieve competence in at least two Near Eastern languages.  Naturally, one of these languages must be Farsi (also called Persian), and depending on the student’s research focus, the other could be Turkish, Arabic, Aramaic, Hebrew, Armenian, Kazakh, Old Persian or Uzbek.  Before taking the comprehensive examinations students must demonstrate advanced competency and proficiency in Farsi and at least intermediate competency in the secondary Near Eastern language.
Coursework and Examinations for the PhD in Farsi Language and Literature
The coursework for the PhD program in Farsi Language and Literature will address a myriad of topics, including, but not limited to:
  • Pre-modern Farsi Literature
  • Modern Farsi Literature
  • Philology
  • Farsi Linguistics
  • Islamic Thought and Literature
  • Islamic History and Society
  • Islamic Philosophy and Political Thought
  • Islamic Theology or Sufism
  • And more…
The four comprehensive examinations for the Farsi Language and Literature degree will include a major exam on modern or pre-modern Farsi Language and Literature; a methodology examination to measure students’ ability to work with primary materials in Farsi and their secondary Near Eastern language; an examination on Islamic History and Society; and one minor examination.  Topics for the minor examination are based on each student’s primary research area.  These topics can include Islamic Art, Islamic Archaeology, Pre-modern or modern Arabic literature, pre-modern or modern Turkish literature, Early Islamic History, and Turkish, Persian, Arabic or Hebrew Philology and Linguistics, among many others.

Study Finnish, Language and Literature (in Universities)

Choose where you would like to study Finnish, Language and Literature (in Universities):

FinlandIndiaThe United States

One of the most under-rated economies in Europe is the country called Finland. What most people around the world first think of when it comes to major economies are France, Germany, and the UK but in reality Finland’s GDP is more or less on the same levels with Europe’s big boys. So if somebody wants to get into the lucrative job market in Europe, one good way to get a head start is by learning the Finnish language by, of course, taking up a course in Finnish Language and Literature. Knowing how to speak Finnish along with English is just too much of a credential leading multi-national Finnish companies not to notice because there aren’t too many people that possess this qualification.

The first step, of course, is to enroll in any reputable school that offers a Finnish Language and Literature course. Mostly, schools in Europe with close cooperation with Finland would offer this but the good thing is that most foreign language departments would have lots of applicants for Spanish, French, English and German languages, and so applicants for a spot on the Finnish Language department wouldn’t have too much to contend with once they decide to learn how to speak the Finnish language.

Enrollees of the course would learn the basics of the language during the first year. Basic would mean introduction to the language which would deal mainly with grammar, syntax, the Finnish alphabet, phonetics and vocabulary. Once the students learned what needs to be learned and cement the necessary foundation, and then they would proceed to intermediate classes in the second year and succeeding years. Intermediate would no doubt mean more advanced lessons where students can write essays and should be able to converse with any Finn more or less even though not in a fluent manner yet. Of course, as with any language, grasp of the language would only be successful if one really try to broaden their vocabulary. Broadening the vocabulary is the hard part but it should really be easy if they immerse themselves to the lessons and also do something extra like going to Helsinki and blending in with the crowd. Once you find your way there without speaking in another language, then that means you are getting comfortable with the language.

The other aspect of the course is the literature part. This part, of course, is not to make lives of those new to the Finnish language miserable but rather to bolster the appreciation for the language. Most probably, students will be analyzing the Kalevala, Finland’s national epic and the Kanteletar, Finland’s famous book of lyric poems. Of course, it would be not a complete literature course if they will not dissect the words of Timo K. Mukka, Edith Sodergran and Eino Leino among other notable Finnish literary stalwarts.

Opportunities for people who can speak Finnish along with another widely spoken language like English, French or German is actually very promising as there are many multinational companies of Finnish ownership who will need spokespersons and translators for their offshore operations. Then, of course, graduates of this course could always turn to teaching should they want to follow the academia path.

Study French Language and Literature (in Language Schools)

Choose where you would like to study French Language and Literature (in Language Schools):

ColombiaFranceGermanyIndiaMexicoSpainThe United KingdomThe United States

Studying French language and literature is a superb way to learn about the French people and their culture. Whether it's the philosophically complex novels of Camus, the romantic poetry of Victor Hugo, or the revolutionary political writings of Frantz Fanon, some of the world's best literature and philosophy has been written in French. Those who know and love these works know that they can only truly be understood by someone who speaks the language in which they were originally written.
It is also worth remembering that there are numerous places in the world outside of France where French is spoken. Someone with expertise in the French language can find work anywhere in the Francophone world, from Dakar on Africa's west coast to the sunny French-speaking islands of the Mediterranean.
Personal Qualities
  • Passion for France or other French-speaking regions
  • Strong knowledge of grammar in English or another language
  • Desire for foreign travel
  • Curiosity and respect towards different cultures
  • Love of reading
Study Options
French language courses are usually available from the high school level up to the graduate school level. In college, most programs require a full 4 years of French language instruction, so if you think you'll want to major in French language and literature, it is advisable to start early. If possible, it's even better to start in high school.
While programs leading to a degree in French language and literature may seem the same from the outside, they often differ quite widely in terms of their focus and philosophy. Some concentrate on applied language skills, and are designed for those who hope to work in industries such as international business and finance. Others may spend more time thinking and talking about the culture of French-speaking countries, and less on memorizing vocabulary. Depending on your specific goals and needs, some programs will be more helpful than others, so be sure to do your research ahead of time.
Career Options
A wide variety of careers are available for graduates from French language and literature programs. One of the most common is to work as a translator or interpreter, bridging the language gap between English-speaking individuals and institutions and those in the French-speaking world. This can be extremely enjoyable work for those with a love of language, and can provide opportunities for exciting foreign travel. Of course, a variety of jobs in the business, finance, and retail sectors can be found in French-speaking countries, and careers of this nature typically require several years of instruction in French.
Another option is to work in the nonprofit sector in one of the world's many underdeveloped French-speaking nations. Many of the world's poorest countries, including Haiti, Rwanda, and the Democratic Republic of Congo, all have French as an official language. Students with a passion for service and travel will find these careers particularly exciting and rewarding.

Study French Language and Literature (in Universities)

Choose where you would like to study French Language and Literature (in Universities):

AlbaniaAlgeriaArgentinaArmeniaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBelgiumBrazilCambodiaCanadaChinaColombiaCubaCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkEcuadorEgyptEstoniaEthiopiaFijiFinlandFranceGermanyGhanaGreeceHong KongHungaryIndiaIndonesiaIraqIrelandItalyJamaicaJapanJordanKenyaLaoLebanonLesothoMacedoniaMadagascarMaltaMexicoMoroccoNetherlandsNew ZealandPalestinePolandPortugalSenegalSouth KoreaSpainSudanSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandThe United KingdomThe United StatesTrinidad and TobagoUkraineVietnamYemenZimbabwe

Study French Philology

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IndiaSpainThe United States

Study Galician, Language and Literature

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IndiaSpainThe United KingdomThe United States

Study General English

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AustraliaDenmarkIndiaIraqIrelandMaltaSpainThe United KingdomThe United States

Study German Language and Literature (in Language Schools)

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AustriaFranceGermanyIndiaSpainThe United KingdomThe United States

From the philosophical theories of Immanuel Kant and Sigmund Freud to the groundbreaking theological work of Martin Luther, some of the world’s most important works have been written in German. It is also the language of Goethe and numerous other great literary figures. In addition to all this, Germany is one of the great financial and industrial centers of the 21st century, so a wide variety of high-paying jobs are available for those well-versed in its language.
Of course, German is not only the language of Germany, but also numerous other central European countries. Switzerland and Austria are also German-speaking, and other related languages (such as Dutch, Danish, Swedish, and Norwegian) can be more easily learned once you have a basic grasp of German.
Personal Qualities
  • Strong desire to travel in foreign countries, especially in Europe
  • Knowledge of grammar or vocabulary in your mother language
  • Passion for Germanic culture
  • Love of reading
  • Curiosity about other cultures and respect for their ways
Study Options
Most colleges and a number of high schools offer German classes, and the study of German literature can be taken all the way to the graduate level. Most German majors, however, can find work with only a bachelor’s degree, so there’s no need to go on to graduate school unless your dream is to teach German or become a researcher on German history and literature. Most programs leading to a Bachelor’s degree in German will require a full four years of language instruction, and getting a head start in high school might be a good idea as well.
German is often taken as a double major or as part of a major/minor combination, which enables students to draw upon a combined knowledge of the language and some other area. Depending on your specific interests, the second major could be anything from engineering and business to history and philosophy. Due to the uniquely rich culture and intellectual traditions of German-speaking countries, any of these majors can lead to exciting work after graduation.
Career Options
One obvious career choice for German majors is to become a translator. Books of all kinds are written in German each year, and need to be translated into English and other global languages. If you enjoy reading, writing, and thinking about the nuances of language, then this can be a particularly enjoyable line of work. Alternatively, many German majors work as interpreters in business or diplomatic settings, helping leaders from around the world understand each other. Of course, working in a German-speaking country such as Germany, Austria, or Switzerland, will require several years of study in the German language.
Those who have a passion for teaching may also decide to go into language education. This requires a few extra years of schooling (sometimes only 1, depending on the certification requirements in your state or country), but leads to an exciting job as a German instructor. These hardworking individuals work in schools and language immersion programs around the world, introducing students to the beautiful German language and its literary works.

Study German language and literature (in Universities)

Choose where you would like to study German language and literature (in Universities):

AlbaniaAlgeriaArgentinaArmeniaAustriaAzerbaijanBelgiumBosnia and HerzegovinaCanadaChinaColombiaCubaCzech RepublicDenmarkEcuadorEstoniaFinlandFranceGermanyGreeceHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIrelandJapanJordanLaoLithuaniaMacedoniaMadagascarMaltaNamibiaNetherlandsNew ZealandPolandSloveniaSouth KoreaSpainSudanSwedenSwitzerlandThe United KingdomThe United StatesUkraineVietnam

Study German Philology

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GermanyIndiaSpainThe United States

Study Greek & Latin

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IndiaJapanThe United KingdomThe United States

Study Greek Language and Literature (in Universities)

Choose where you would like to study Greek Language and Literature (in Universities):

CanadaDenmarkGermanyGreeceIndiaSwedenSwitzerlandThe United KingdomThe United States

The study of Greek Language and Literature is one of the classical studies in humanities that prepare students to acquire an in-depth understanding of Greek philosophy, language, and literature. The program is outlined and established to let students take courses that delve into the early and influential Greek philosophers namely Plato, Aristotle, Homer, and Herodotus. Literature, a vital aspect facet of the course, will make students comprehend how plays written by Aeschylus, Sophocles, and other known ancient writers helped shape modern Greece and the world today.

Students who acquire Greek Language and Literature degree are provided with many opportunities. They may teach classics, conduct research in mythology and archeology, explore Greek knowledge and theories for further research and applications, and write publishable materials that highlight the different facets of the program. Though the program is one of the rarest academic programs for graduate and undergraduates, it aims to attract more students and immerse them with textual studies which they can employ in doing useful research and developing learning materials and resources for academic purposes.

Being one of the major classical studies, the program also tackles related areas that will give students immeasurable insights on modern literature, including theater studies. The structured curriculum of Greek Language and Literature is designed to further evaluate and understand deeper knowledge found in Greek original and ancient texts like the Bible. It will serve as a principal key in studying Greek lexicon which greatly involves the study of resources from the ancient world.

There are a limited number of academic institutions offering the program across the globe and every educational institution’s goal is to provide students with a learning opportunity about topics related to the language and literature of Greece. Greek texts and Latin texts will be explored side by side to aid students in working out valuable ancient texts, translations, catalogs, philological tools, and ancient essays among others.

In terms of Greek language study, students will gain a wider view of all Greek grammatical endings, pronunciation, and vocabulary in all their original forms while reading the works of the ancient writers like epics, essays, plays, novels, and poems among others. In every subject included in the curriculum, there will be a detailed study of Greek’s texts and sounds, too. The prominence of the Greek language, which can be traced back to the ancient Greek literature, pre-classical, classical, to Hellenistic, Roman period, and the Modern Greek, is still prevalent and this is the reason why students of the program should master the language—most specifically to speak and understand modern Greek language.

As students learn the spoken and traditions of Greece, together with the current dialects and uses of the language, they will be equipped with the right education and knowledge on how to apply everything they have learned in the best of their ability. Other fields which are part of the program include Greek history, art, and anthropology.

Many huge academic institutions welcome all graduates and Greek Language and Literature degree-holder in getting teaching position. Their skills and education of the program serve as a strong qualification in teaching the program.

Study Hebrew Language

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IndiaIsraelNetherlandsSpainThe United KingdomThe United States

Study Hindi

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IndiaThe United States

Are you interested in a course of study that will help you better understand, speak or even master the Hindi language—the principal language spoken in India as well as in other parts of the world?  If so, you may want to check with your college or university’s language department regarding their course and degree offerings in Hindi language and literature. 
Although still considered a developing nation, India, the second-most populous nation in the world, has one of the fastest-growing economies.  As such, many experts believe the country will play a major role in the global economy in years to come, and those who can speak and understand the language will have a sizable advantage over those that cannot.  Earning a bachelor or master’s degree in Hindi can open a world of potential career opportunities for the right candidate, and with many colleges and universities now offering this program, including study abroad programs, it has never been easier to enroll.  Below we will discuss the Hindi degree program a bit further—what it entails, the curriculum, etc.—and outline some of the wonderful career opportunities available for qualified graduates.
Degree Programs in Hindi
Degrees in the Hindi language are offered at the undergraduate (Bachelor) graduate (Master’s) and post-graduate (PhD) levels, spanning, on average, four, two and three years respectively.  While the degree’s main focus is on the teaching of the Hindi language to both speakers and non-speakers, it also explores Hindi literature, which can be broadly divided into four categories or forms:  Bhakti (devotional); Snringar (beauty); Veer-Gatha (extolling brave warriors); and Adhunik (modern literature).  Classes are taught by native Hindi professors, who specialize in imparting valuable skills through lectures, group discussions and guided practice.  Full-immersion study abroad excursions, which can also be applied towards the Hindi degree, are often included as a component of these programs, particularly at the graduate and post-graduate levels.
Eligibility requirements for entrance into a Hind language degree program depend, of course, on the level of study.  Typically, only a high school diploma or its equivalent is required for undergraduate admittance, while at least a Bachelor degree in the subject is required for the graduate and post-graduate programs.
What Can I Do with a Degree in Hind?
The Hindi degree program is perfect for students with an interest in the Hindi language, culture, literature and customs, as well as for those who plan to conduct business in regions of the world where the language is spoken.  Hindi graduates can often find employment in both the public and private sector, working in career positions such as:
  • Freelance translators, especially between English and Hindi
  • Hindi teacher at the primary and secondary school levels
  • Hindi proofreaders and copywriters
  • Language consultants
  • Associate and full professorships at colleges and universities
  • Hindi Tutors
  • International business
  • And more…
The undergraduate Hindi degree program is the perfect first step for anyone interested in studying the literature and language of India at the Master’s or Doctorate levels, and also for those who wish to contribute to its research and development throughout the country.

Study Hispanic Linguistics

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BoliviaHondurasIndiaMexicoSpainThe United States

Aside from its rich culture, picturesque landscapes, exhilarating bullfights and a countrywide passion for Futbol, Spain has one more thing to offer - its language. Spanish is considered as one of the Romance languages and one of the most widely spoken languages in the world today. It is spoken as their mother tongue by about 300 million people and as a secondary language by another 50 million. The field dedicated to the in-depth study of the Spanish language is called Hispanic Linguistics.

Hispanic Linguistics pertains to the scientific discipline that studies the structure and meaning of the Spanish language. It is a sub-branch of social science that encompasses studies on phonology, morphology, phonetics, syntax, and semantics. Likewise, Hispanic Linguistics tackles the evolution and origin of the Spanish language. Putting it simply, it studies both written and spoken Spanish, where it came from, and where it is going.

This field is most often offered at universities as a graduate course and, therefore, requires a Bachelor or a Baccalaureate degree before anyone could enlist in the curriculum. Masters as well as Doctorate degrees are both available in many schools. Ideal candidates would be those who have undergraduate studies on communications and are particularly interested not just in the Spanish language but the culture as a whole. Fluency in Spanish is obviously a plus and would, of course, facilitate the learning, thus, it is recommended that aspiring students should at least have a working knowledge on the language on both written and spoken aspects.

Degree holders (i.e., Masters or Doctorate degree holders) in Hispanic Linguistics can choose among a variety of career options or career paths. Traditional jobs could be in teaching, editing, writing, transcribing, and translating. Graduates who opt for the traditional jobs could become lexicographers, translators, Spanish writers, Spanish editors, or Spanish language instructors in schools and universities. They could similarly become speech therapists.

For those who would choose to go for the non-traditional jobs, there are quite a number of options available. The onset of the new millennium has opened up numerous career paths for this skill. These are in fields of communications, research, and consultancy; and of late, this field of expertise is increasingly becoming more and more in demand in the Information and Technology industry. This development has made the field more promising and rewarding. Various applications, like website design and voice or language recognition software development are in need of people with expertise in the Spanish language. More so, military applications like code deciphering and breaking are now being explored.

Taking up Hispanic Linguistics can give a person far more than just the knowledge of speaking the language but its ins and outs that are proven to be of practical use in some industries these days. If you would want to expand your language portfolio, it would be a great idea to start big – go for language that is widely spoken worldwide. Being multilingual is always an advantage – with regard to social, professional, and personal being. You can never go wrong.

Study Hispanic Literature and Theory of Literature

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BrazilColombiaIndiaMexicoSpainThe United States

The study of this discipline would mainly involve the analysis of the style and content of Hispanic literature from a variety of time periods, whilst the focus would mainly be on writing. The word ‘Hispanic’ suggests that texts from authors of ‘Hispanic’ countries would mainly be explored, and these include Spain, Central and South America (except for Brazil), and some regions of Africa. The study of literature includes the study and analysis of fiction, poetry, and drama. It exposes students to a variety of standpoints, presented by a great number of authors.

The theory of literature component relates to questions like what is literature; how it is produced; how it can be understood, and what is its purpose. As can be concluded, the subject incorporates philosophical and social perspectives as well as a historical element.

Personal Qualities

For the study of literature, a creative, open-minded personality would be suitable, with an aptitude for writing and exploring various types of texts. Further qualities may include:

  • Excellent analytical skills
  • Excellent presentation and written communication skills
  • Very good at reading and remembering large amounts of information and texts
  • Good at doing research
  • Aptitude for subjects like history and philosophy

Study Options

Hispanic literature courses are available on many levels of study – ranging from an associate’s degree to a doctorate in literature. The degree you wish to pursue greatly depends on your personal future career goals and aspirations. Regardless of the institution or degree level they embark on, students studying Hispanic Literature and Theory of Literature can expect to be exposed to a wide range of research areas, periods, critical methods, and theoretical frameworks: from textual analysis and cultural studies, psychoanalytic and critical social theory, to the study of genre, gender, and sexuality. From the Spanish-Castilian Middle Ages and Early Modern Studies to contemporary prose, poetry and film in Galician or Catalan, from the Andes and the Southern Cone to Mexico and the Latino/a presence in the USA; and finally, from colonial times to recent transatlantic trends.

Often a degree in Hispanic Literature is a very good complement to a business and marketing degree, especially if you would be dealing with the Hispanic culture. The degree equips students with excellent transferrable skills, as well as cultural background that would help in any chosen profession. Consequently, opportunities for study abroad, research, and internships are a very important point to consider when choosing your school.

Career Options

Spanish is the third most spoken language in the world, so a degree in Hispanic Literature would easily apply to any profession. As with most language and literature degrees, the most popular career options are teaching, marketing, and advertising, as well as media and communications. You can easily find a job within a large corporation, targeting Hispanic customers, write for magazines, or translate novels, articles, journals, and so on. You could also become a high school teacher or a university professor, or even go into the tourism industry. Last but not least, with a certain amount of talent and imagination, you can become a writer or a poet, or work on a freelance basis.

Study Hispanic Philology

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ColombiaIndiaMexicoSpainThe United States

Hispanic philology relates to the study of language through the application of classic and historical texts. The origin of the word comes from ancient Greek, and can be translated as love of words. Therefore, the subject of Hispanic philology concentrates on the learning of the historical language and tradition of Hispanic countries. These are considered to be modern countries which can trace their history back to Spain, and include Mexico, Central America, and most of South America, where Spanish is the primary language. The only exception to these is Brazil.

Philology professional explore ancient written documents and texts, as these may include everyday writings as well as famous pieces. They largely focus on the historical development and the origins of the language, tracing the roots of a specific language (in this case Spanish), while also determining how it spread to different regions and countries, Furthermore, philologists strive to find out how language within a specific historical period relates to events taking place at that time. Finally, philologists try to analyze what kind of information the language can provide about the people who speak it.

Personal Qualities

Studying Hispanic Philology would certainly mean you are truly drawn both to the Spanish language and Hispanic history. Here are some other qualities to consider:

  • Good at learning languages
  • Excellent analytical skills
  • Very good at research
  • Excellent written and oral communication skills
  • Good at memorizing facts

Study Options

Hispanic Philology can be studied at various universities around the world at the bachelor’s, master’s, and even doctoral levels. The discipline should aim to equip students with the practical as well as theoretical knowledge in the fields of Spanish language and Hispanic literature and language history. By completing such a degree, you should be expecting to be able to comment and explain texts from a philological viewpoint, draw up literary judgments on literary texts, analyze texts by bearing in mind the interrelation of genres, identify the main descriptive aspects of the Spanish language, relate authors and movements of Hispanic literature to the European traditions, and so on.

As you can see, a degree in Hispanic Philology would require real commitment to the language and its history, for which reason you can start preparing early in high school by taking up humanities like history, literature, and languages. Furthermore, it would be a good idea for you to check what opportunities of research and field work your chosen university would provide, as this might be critical for your future career choice.

Career Options

As a Hispanic Philology graduate, you would be prepared to embark on various professions – you could decide to go into teaching, and this includes all levels of study; cultural management; language industries, including proofreading, editing, compilation of dictionaries. With relation to this, you could easily work for a publishing company, or a language center. Philology graduates are also very popular candidates for the advertising and communication media, as they are equipped both with the analytical and language skills to create texts that would appeal to a certain audience. This is especially relevant when they are this familiar with the historical and cultural background of their audience. Translating novels and other texts is another option too, and finally – going into academia and research is an opportunity you might wish to consider.

Study Hungarian Language and Literature (in Universities)

Choose where you would like to study Hungarian Language and Literature (in Universities):

HungaryIndiaSloveniaThe United States

The Hungarian language is a part of the Ugric group of languages which also includes the Khanty language and the Mansi language. This means that, in contrast to most of the other languages spoken in neighboring countries, the Hungarian language is not an Indo-European language. It does however, have some “loan” words that it has acquired over the years from different Indo-European languages.

Among all of the languages in Europe that are not of Indo-European descent, the Hungarian language is the most widely spoken. There are approximately more than 13 million people in the world who are native speakers of this language and there are still those that are not necessarily native speakers but speak and study the Hungarian language just the same. Hungarian is of course the official language of Hungary which is located in central Europe.

Hungarian Literature on the other hand has come to gain renown only in the 20th century because of the accomplished works of Hungarian literary writers such as Imre Kertész, Antal Szerb, Sándor Márai, and Magda Szabó. Before this time, Hungarian literature was virtually an unknown subject in the Anglosphere which includes the United States and the United Kingdom.

Imre Kertész is the winner of the 2002 Nobel Prize for Literature for his writing that was described as something that defends an individual and his fragile experience against a history that is both “barbaric” and “arbitrary”. Antal Szerb for his part published the authoritative book “A History of World Literature” in 1941. He also published a more localized version which was about the History of Hungarian Literature. His final work was “Oliver VII” which was published in 1942. He died in a concentration camp in 1945. Sándor Márai was hugely considered as one of the more significant representatives of Hungarian middle class literature. He authored a total of 46 books, most of which were novels. Magda Szabó is arguably the best woman novelist from Hungary although she also wrote other forms of literature such as poetry, essays, dramas, and studies. Her works and novels have been published and distributed in over 42 countries.

Hungarian can be studied from a beginner level to an advanced level usually in a 4 year course. This course usually involves options to take additional Hungarian based courses such as social sciences, history, and cinema even when the foremost subject of the course is Hungarian language and literature. After studying and completing a course on Hungarian language and literature, one can expect to have gained exceptional communication skills in the Hungarian language and a profound understanding, awareness, and familiarity with Hungarian literature. These will prove invaluable in starting any of the many careers that are available for people armed with this knowledge.

Expertise in Hungarian language and literature opens many opportunities in Europe and in countries where Hungarian is spoken. Additionally, there are a lot of universities and learning institutions that have a need for foreign language and foreign literature professionals. Translators, who are responsible not just for direct translation but also for interpretation of text and oral information, are also much sought after.

Study Indo-European Studies

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Study Indonesian Language and Culture

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Study Intensive English Language Program

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Study Iranian Studies

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Study Irish and Celtic Languages

Choose where you would like to study Irish and Celtic Languages:

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Does the idea of learning new languages appeal to you, particularly the languages of Celtic origin?  Are you interested in pursuing a career field in which your knowledge of these languages could help you qualify for and excel in a rewarding position?  If so, you may be an ideal candidate for the Master of Arts degree program in Irish and Celtic Languages.  The Irish and Celtic languages, which date back to the sixth century and continue to flourish to this day, are an exceedingly interesting field of study.  Whether you’re pursuing this degree to help advance your career prospects or merely for personal enhancement, the knowledge you’ll gain during the course of the program will be quite rewarding.  Below we have compiled some key information about the Master of Arts degree in Irish and Celtic languages, including some important details about the course, the typical admission requirements and a sample of what students will learn while pursuing this degree.
Master of Arts Degree in Irish and Celtic Languages:  Course Details and Admission Requirements
The Master of Arts Degree in Irish and Celtic Languages is a graduate-level program that is offered at many major colleges and universities throughout the world, particularly those in the United Kingdom, the region of the world in which these languages are most prevalent.  The program typically spans two to three years in duration depending on the student and the institution, and is open to all graduate students who share an interest in discovering and mastering these ancient languages. 
To qualify for admission into the Master of Arts degree program in Irish and Celtic languages students must, at minimum, possess a bachelor degree in the same or related field, with a grade point average of 2.5 or better in all core and elective coursework.  Many institutions may also require a passing score on an entrance examination prior to admission and/or a personal interview with the program faculty.
What Are the Irish and Celtic Languages?
The term Celtic can be used to describe many different aspects of the Celtic world, but it is first and foremost a linguistic category, referring to the closely related languages within the Indo-European family.  The modern Celtic languages are divided into two subgroups:
  • Goidelic Languages.  The Goidelic languages are perhaps the most studied of all the Celtic languages. They include Scottish Gaelic, Manx Gaelic and Irish, the latter being the most popular language studied by graduate students, largely because of the rich Irish literary tradition.
  • Brythonic Languages.  The Brythonic languages include Breton, Cornish and Welsh, the official language of Wales that is typically one of the main focal points of the program.
In ancient times, there were also several other Celtic languages that were widely spoken on the European mainland—Gaulish, Lepontic, Celtiberian—but none of these survived into the modern era.  As result, very few programs include these languages as part of the curriculum.
This is but a small sample of what students will learn while participating in the Master of Arts degree program in Irish and Celtic Languages.  Although the curriculum for this field of study may vary slightly from one institution to the next, at most colleges and universities the main focus of the program is on the languages with the most substantial literature: Irish, Welsh, Scottish Gaelic and, to a lesser degree, Breton.

Study Irish Culture

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IndiaThe United States

When exploring the culture of Ireland, we should look at the distinctive cultural norms of the country, its language and people. Ireland is the third biggest island on the European continent and the 20th biggest one in the world. It is separated from Great Britain by the North Channel, and one of the distinctive cultural traits of the region is farming – historical evidence proves that this activity is deeply enrooted in the Irish culture. Cattle used to represent a major source of status and income, and this has not changed a lot during the years, with modern cattle population counting up to 6.7 million.

Another interesting aspect of Irish culture is literature – the country has made a real contribution to the field of literature with various works (in English and Irish). The more significant pieces were written in English, whilst some more famous contributors to Irish literature and culture include Oscar Wilde, James Joyce, Bram Stoker, and others. Furthermore, there have been four Irish noble prize winners - Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, Yeats, and Seamus Haney. Although their works have been presented in English, the country’s oldest literature is written in Irish.

When talking about Irish culture, we should also mention their traditions. What is interesting there is that old pagan traditions are still present in today’s Irish calendar, and they are mixed with the Christian traditions introduced later. Christmas, for example, is celebrated in a way that encompasses many local customs, which do not seem to have much connection with Christianity.

As a final point, we can mention sports, which also are an integral part of Irish culture. Games like soccer, hurling, rugby are all enrooted in the Irish people’s culture, but most popular of all is Gaelic football. This type of football consists of two teams of fifteen players, and a goal can be scored by kicking or striking the ball with your hand into a goal. Similar to rugby, the ball can be carried up the field by carrying it, dropping and toe kicking, or hand passing to teammates.

Cultural Gems

Here are some of the most distinctive cultural milestones you might be curious to read about:

  • Abbey Theatre – located in Dublin, the Abbey is a special theatre founded in 1904. It was the first state-funded theatre in the English speaking world. The theatre is closely associated with the Celtic revival of writers, who were involved in its creation.
  • Islands of Ireland – not too many people know that there are many small islands, scattered around the main one, each of which is unique from the rest. Some of them are very good destinations for sport and extreme activities.
  • Mead - a fermented beverage made from honey, water and yeast. It is extremely popular in Irish culture.

These are just a few of the many other cultural traits, which you can explore by visiting and travelling around the country.

Personal Qualities and Study Options

There are no special ‘qualities’ you need to possess in order to study and get to know Irish culture. Various opportunities are open to those who are interested in the country, its people, and traditions. All you need is curiosity, an open mind, and willingness to travel and explore. You might be a student, an adult, or a professor – there are a range of options to take a summer course or embark on a program in Irish Cultural studies. Such programs are available mainly at universities and offer a structured approach to studying Irish culture.

Study Italian Language and Literature (in Language Schools)

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Study Italian Language and Literature (in Universities)

Choose where you would like to study Italian Language and Literature (in Universities):

AlbaniaArgentinaAustraliaAustriaCanadaCzech RepublicDenmarkEcuadorEstoniaFinlandFranceGermanyGreeceHungaryIndiaIrelandItalyKenyaMaltaNetherlandsNew ZealandPolandPortugalSpainSwitzerlandThe United KingdomThe United States

Many people dream of taking a vacation in Italy–wandering the hills of Tuscany, exploring Roman ruins, or drinking fine wine in a restaurant in Venice. But have you ever considered living and working there on a long-term basis? If so, majoring in Italian language and literature might be a good choice. Like any other modern-language major, this course of study will take plenty of hard work and determination, but it is possible to attain fluency in Italian within the space of 4 years. Those who have chosen this route often report that Italian is easier to learn than many other European languages.
Personal Qualities
  • General language skills – strong grasp of grammar in English is a plus
  • Desire to travel, especially in Italy
  • Curiosity about other cultures and ways of life
  • Patience and willingness to spend plenty of time memorizing vocabulary
Study Options
Italian programs are slightly less common than those in French, Spanish, or German, but they can still be found at many colleges. In most cases, 4 full years of language instruction are required for the major, so it's important to get started right away if you plan on completing a degree in Italian. in addition, the majority of college Italian programs require at least a semester of  foreign study. Fortunately, study abroad programs in Italy are extremely common, so this will be an easy requirement to fulfill – not to mention enjoyable!
Although it is possible to major in Italian by itself, it is generally a good idea to consider choosing a 2nd major or a minor in order to round out your course of study. For example, people who hope to live and work in Italy often take courses in business administration, hospitality, or ESL ("English as a Second language," a standard degree for traveling English teachers), which helps to prepare them for work in a specific kind of job once they arrive in Italy.
Career Options
As with any other major modern language, majoring in Italian will provide you with a versatile degree that can be applied to a wide range of careers. Of course, translation and interpretation stand out as obvious choices–this is an excellent way to travel around the world and apply your skills in Italian, English, and whatever other languages you may know. If you enjoy the nuances of language, and especially if you enjoy writing on a wide range of topics, a career in translation and interpretation might be worth considering.
Italy itself is one of the world's major economies, and is an important center of commerce, politics, cuisine, and tourism. In any one of these sectors, there will be numerous employers who are looking to hire English/Italian bilingual workers. Choosing a double major or major/minor combination will make you especially appealing to these employers.
Finally, don't forget that many people major in Italian purely out of passion for the language. Because Italian is such a versatile major, it's not necessary to pick a career ahead of time–in fact, it might be smart for prospective Italian majors to keep their options open throughout their early college years.

Study Japanese Language and Culture (in Universities)

Choose where you would like to study Japanese Language and Culture (in Universities):

AustraliaCanadaChinaDenmarkFijiFranceIndiaJapanNetherlandsSpainSwedenSwitzerlandThe United KingdomThe United StatesVietnam

Japanese Language and Culture Studies is perhaps one of the more sought after college or university courses worldwide. One of the reasons for this is that understanding Japanese customs and traditions can be considered a key to help in the understanding of the customs of other Asian countries. Of course, there are a lot of cultural variations in the countries of Asia that make each one unique, but these countries do share some similarities that would enable students from the Western parts of the world understand better the traditions and ways of people whose culture is very different from their own. Japan in itself has been influenced by three of the greatest civilizations in Asia: China, India and Korea. Because of this, it might be safe to say that knowing the basics of the Japanese language and culture would enable an easier understanding of Asia itself.

Those who wish to conduct business in Japan also seek to learn more about the country’s language and customs. This is not only because speaking the language would help businessmen in talking directly to the companies they want to work with but also to help them have a better grasp of the culture which is important if one wishes to do business in a place that is unfamiliar to them. Knowing the particulars of another country’s etiquette and manners would also help in avoiding any kind of faux pas that might affect the business deal.

It is also known that Japanese is the third language most spoken in the Internet. Anyone who knows the language would find it easy enough to connect with other people. This is especially helpful for people who wish to conduct their businesses online (for example, online stores) and would be able to speak to their clients directly.

Students who wish to take Japanese Language and Culture Studies would begin by studying the country’s geography, climate and history. Having a more than basic grasp of the Japanese language would be very helpful in studying the country, since doing so would help the student gain an inside view of the culture in general. This would include place names, which all mean something in the Japanese language and usually tell something about the place they signify.

Knowing the language would also be a key to the understanding of Japan’s aesthetic views and art works. To be able to appreciate the enigmatic haiku and the literature of Japan in general, one must have a very good grasp of the language, which is a work of art in itself. After all, calligraphy is one of the artistic disciplines that Japan is known for in particular. Others would include the art of flower arrangement and even preparing tea.

Japanese cuisine would be another important part of their culture too. Japanese food is really quite different from those that can be found in the west, and although there are hundreds of Japanese restaurants all over the world to share their unique food to the rest of the world, there is really more to Japanese cuisine than preparation and presentation. Taking Japanese language and culture courses in college would enable the student to learn about the traditional food that must be eaten during special occasions and would help them understand better this culture that is really quite unique from the rest of the world.

All in all, taking Japanese language and culture courses would prove to be a very interesting study whether taken for the purpose of business or pleasure.

Study Kannada

Choose where you would like to study Kannada:

IndiaThe United States

Are you a student who enjoys being exposed to new languages and literature—historical languages that date back hundreds or even thousands of years?  Have you considered pursuing a Master of Arts degree in Kannada, one of the official languages of India?  The Master of Arts program in Kannada offers students a rare chance to investigate and appreciate one of India’s oldest languages.  To give you an idea regarding what this degree entails, below we will describe the program in a bit more detail, including the course content and topics associated with the degree and the eligibility requirements for admission into the program.
Master of Arts Degree in Kannada:  Program Description and Course Content
The Master of Arts Degree in Kannada is a two-year graduate level course of study designed for students looking to acquire and/or expand their knowledge of the Kannada language, including its history and the literature from various periods in history.  The program is offered by a select number of universities worldwide, and by most major universities in India.  Although the exact structure of the degree program may vary depending on the institution, in most cases the language and its history are studied in the first year, while the literature is covered in the second year.  Below is an example of some of the course content and topics student will encounter while participating in the program:
Kannada Language and Its History
Kannada, pronounced locally as “Kanarese,” is a language spoken in India, primarily in the state of Karnataka.  Native speakers of the language are usually referred to as Kannadigas, and with roughly 70 million of these native speakers, it is one of the 40 most spoken languages in the world.  Kannada is considered one of the scheduled languages of India and is the official and administrative language of Karnataka.
When studying the history of Kannada, students will discover that it’s a southern Dravidian language and its history is conventionally divided in four periods:  Purva Halegannada, from the 5th century through the 8th century (according to ancient epigraphic records); the Halegannada or Old Kannada, from the 9th to early 14th century; the Nadugannada or Middle Kannada, from the mid 14th century through the 18th century; and the Hosagannada or Modern Kannada, from the 19th century to the present.  In each of these periods the Kannada language has been heavily influenced by Sanskrit and also to a lesser extent by the Prakit and Pali languages.
Kannada Literature
Much like the history of Kannada, the literature students will study while earning their M.A. degree is also divided into periods, in this case three, including Old Kannada literature (9th century through 14th century), Middle Kannada literature (14th century through 18th century) and Modern Kannada literature (19th century to the present).  
As they go through each period of history, students will find that the oldest existing record of Kannada writings is the Kappe Arabhatta, a form of poetry written in approximately the early 8th century.  Kavirajamarga, written by then King Nripatunga Amoghavarsha I in 850 AD, is the earliest existing literary work in Kannada. The book is a literary criticism meant to standardize various written Kannada dialects used in literature in previous centuries.  In the Middle period of Kannada, Hinduism had a great influence on the literature, which can be seen throughout the literary works created during the period, especially in those by Kumara Vyasa who is arguably the most influential writer of the Middle period.
Among the modernists, from the 19th century on, perhaps the most influential was the poet Nandalike Muddhana, whose writings are often described as the “Dawn of Modern Kannada.”  Despite this, most linguists treat the books Indira Bali or Saddharma Vijayavu, both of which were written by Gulvadi Venkata Raya, as the beginning of the modern period.  Throughout the 20th and 21st centuries, Kannada literature has been highly successful in reaching all classes of society.  In fact, eight Kannada works have received the Jnanpith Award, India’s highest literary prize, and nearly 60 books have earned the coveted Sahitya Academy award.
Master of Arts Degree in Kannada:  Admission Requirements
Students who wish to pursue a Master of Arts degree in Kannada must possess at least a Bachelor degree in a field such as World Languages, World Literature or one of the arts.  Indian students studying in their home country must also achieve a passing score on the Kannada Pandit Examination prior to admission, as well as the undergraduate exit examination of the university in which they earned their Bachelor degree.

Study Korean Language and Culture (in Universities)

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Study Language Courses

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Study Language Courses and Cultural Immersion Programs

Choose where you would like to study Language Courses and Cultural Immersion Programs:

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While typically not constituting a major or area of study in themselves, language courses and cultural immersion programs from an indispensable part of many other majors. Some fields–such as African studies, Spanish language, global business, or international relations, to name only a few–will require at least a semester of study at programs of this sort. For others, a language course or cultural immersion experience is an opportunity for personal growth and learning, despite not being a requirement for their specific major. In addition, many people find that the things they learn while abroad complement their studies in unexpected ways.
Foreign language and cultural immersion programs can be found in nearly every country on earth, from comfortable universities in Paris and Rome to rural homestays in developing countries such as Senegal or Costa Rica. They also vary in their level of academic rigor. Some are true study experiences where you will spend much of your time in universities learning from professors in the host country, while others expect that the locus of education will be in the streets or in the depths of the rainforest.
Personal Qualities
  • Open-mindedness and a respectful demeanor
  • Desire to learn about other people and their ways of life
  • Some knowledge of world history and current events, especially related to the host country
  • Independence, maturity, and emotional resiliency
Study Options
The options for foreign language study and cultural immersion are almost limitless. Whatever region, country, or area of study you are interested in, you are almost certain to find a program that suits you. Of course, the majority of cultural immersion programs are geared toward students of global or area studies–a program in Lebanon, for example, would most likely be intended for students of either Arabic or Middle East studies. There are numerous exceptions to this rule, however, especially in Western Europe and the United States. Developed countries often offer study abroad programs in topics–such as physics, philosophy, or mathematics–they do not typically require or include a study abroad component. There are also generalist programs that offer an immersion in a foreign language and culture without requiring intensive coursework in any one subject.
Career Options
Language courses in cultural immersion programs are seldom if ever oriented toward one particular career or another. Instead, they offer skills that can be useful in almost any career, including language skills, personal independence, and cultural awareness. These skills are especially valuable in today's globalized economy, which places a premium on people who can speak foreign languages and understand foreign cultures. While any person in any line of work can benefit from a language or cultural immersion program, they are an absolute necessity for people on certain career paths, such as diplomacy, international business, and translation/interpretation.

Study Latin

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CanadaDenmarkGermanyIndiaItalySpainSwedenSwitzerlandThe United KingdomThe United States

Aside from building a time machine to travel back in time particularly during the reign of the Roman Empire and witness firsthand the glorious years of ancient Rome, perhaps the next best thing would be to learn the language. Latin, that is. Building a time machine is a bit farfetched, but to learn and understand Latin is absolutely possible. In fact, there are a lot of learning institutions offering Latin courses nowadays. Imagine being able to read Vergil’s Eclogues or Cicero’s Philippics and other masterpieces in their original Latin text – wouldn’t that be something? The ideas and philosophies of these great minds have stood the test of time and have been vastly influential to our modern day thinking in areas of politics, laws and governance, medicine, and other fields -- proofs that their works deserve merit and deserve to be intricately understood. The only way to do that would be to be able to read them the way they were originally written. Additionally, modern day mottos and slogans are in Latin. Examples are: ‘simper fidelis’, or ‘esse quam videri’, of course if you know Latin, they would not sound gibberish anymore. Cool, right? Moreover, there are connoisseurs of literature who derive great pleasure in able to read the works of many Roman poets and authors in their original texts that translations can never do justice. A learned man once said that “poetry is that which is lost in translation.” How truer can that be?

Latin is considered the parent language and grassroots of the evolution of many of the most widely spoken languages around the world today, like Spanish, French, Italian, Romanian, and Portuguese. Even the English language has a large percentage on its vocabulary borrowed from Latin. To understand the etymology of these languages, learning the mother tongue from where they were derived is vital. Moreover, many of the greatest works of literature from Dante to Goethe to Shakespeare are abundant with classical allegories and allusions, which will not be well-appreciated without the familiarity with the edicts of classical writing. Understanding the past is undoubtedly fundamental to being educated and that being educated should not be centered to the technical skills alone but should also include cultural enhancement in the learning process. Studying the classical languages could provide an avenue for that.

During the eighteenth century, Latin is the language used in many academic discussions. Learning this language is therefore important to those who are in the field of History. Likewise, studying Latin is to those who are in the clergy of the Roman Catholic Church since this is the formal language of the Vatican and State papers, decrees, as well as correspondence are in Latin. Being knowledgeable in Latin is likewise useful in everyday life since this is widely used in a lot of medical and legal terms.

Furthermore, there are quite a number of career possibilities for those who have studied Latin, like writing, teaching, and translation. Moreover, expertise on the subject matter is a good starting point in pursuing further studies on the other Roman languages.

Study Legal-Economic Translation

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IndiaSpainThe United KingdomThe United States

Translation involves the act of translating written documents from one language to another. In the case of legal-economic translation, the requirement is for a precise and error-free translation of legal, financial, and executive documents. Nowadays this service is growing in popularity due to the increase of the international communications between companies. This is a highly responsible profession, because when a contract, a company presentation, a patent, or any financial document requires translation, absolute precision of the terms outlined is crucial for both sides. For this reason, translators not simply take words and turn them into another language – they need to fully understand the meaning of the original document and the culture it comes from – legal terminology can be of great complexity and shaded with a number of meanings. This is why documents have to be thoroughly read as a whole, before translating them. Translators often take notes while reviewing the document that needs translation, after which they consult specialized dictionaries and legal texts. Finally, the translator would come up with the final translation – having considered both the literal and the legal/economic meaning of the terms outlined.

Personal Qualities

A great deal of patience and attention to detail is required for this profession. You can ponder on the following other skills, too:

  • Have an aptitude for learning at least one foreign language, and enjoy doing so

  • Good memory

  • The ability to research legal and economic terminology quickly and effectively

  • Ability to work accurately and objectively

  • Good at keeping confidential information

  • Understand and be open-minded to different cultures

Study Options

There are various universities all over the world that offer both undergraduate and master’s degrees in what is called ‘specialized translation’. This means that you can specialize in legal/economic translation, and be prepared to learn two additional foreign languages in order to complete your degree. Usually, if you are planning to embark on a degree in translation, you can also explore other specialized fields like international law, computer science, history, etc.

It is crucial that the institution chosen by you offers good opportunities for internships with different organizations or translation offices, as the only way to truly learn a language is through practice. Besides, modern teaching methods including the good interaction of team work, critical thinking and well-structured translation methodology are vital for the quality of your education, too. Last but not least, you should research well what kind of certificate or diploma you will gain after completing your chosen course or degree, as this will be considered by your future employers.

Career Opportunities

As a legal/economic translator you are likely to find employment within large corporations who form contracts and lead negotiations with companies from various countries. They often have in-house specialists, who provide such services on a regular basis. You could also work for a specialized translation agency, and it would be a good idea to research which languages are on demand even before you start your education. You could also work on a freelance basis, but in any case sound experience and background in the field are of uppermost importance.

Study Letters and Sciences

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Study Literature

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AlgeriaArgentinaAustraliaAustriaBarbadosBelgiumBeninBrazilBulgariaCambodiaCanadaChileChinaColombiaCosta RicaCzech RepublicDenmarkEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEstoniaEthiopiaFinlandFranceGermanyGreeceGreenlandHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIranIsraelItalyJapanLaoMacaoMexicoMozambiqueNetherlandsNew ZealandNicaraguaNigeriaPeruPolandPortugalSouth AfricaSpainSwitzerlandThe United KingdomThe United StatesTurkeyUruguayVietnamZimbabwe

Literature, simply defined, is the study of books. Books of all kinds can be included in a literature course, but it typically refers to fiction, poetry, and creative nonfiction (i.e. journalism, memoirs, etc.). Literature students also undertake significant learning of languages, including their own. Reading and studying literature are some of the best ways of building a better vocabulary and a stronger understanding of grammar in any language, so people who want to become highly proficient speakers and writers of English often choose to be literature majors.
Personal Qualities
  • Intense love of reading, especially fiction
  • Strong writing abilities
  • Firm grasp of the English language, including grammar and vocabulary
Study Options

General studies in literature are often referred to as English majors, but there are many other options within the category of literature. One of the most popular is comparative literature, which is the study of different literary traditions from around the world. Many people also major in the literature of a specific culture, and learn a foreign language along with their studies of literature. Examples include majors in German, Russian, or Chinese literature.
Career Options

There is a common misconception that studying literature is not useful for the student’s career, since it is not designed as preparation for any specific job. But in fact nothing could be further from the truth. While it is certainly true that literature majors do not learn job skills for any specific position, they do learn a number of skills – persuasive writing, critical thinking, and language skills, to name only a few – that are useful in almost any job imaginable. Literature majors frequently go on to careers in journalism, teaching, and communications.

Study Luso-Brazilian Language and Literature

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IndiaPortugalThe United States

Study M.A. in English

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Study M.A. in Spanish

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IndiaSpainThe United States

Study Malayalam

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IndiaThe United States

Do you have an interest in the major languages and literature of Southern India?  Have you considered pursuing a Bachelor of Arts degree in Malayalam?  The Bachelor of Arts degree in Malayalam is a very unique and interesting course of study, one which will provide to students an in-depth look at the history of the language, as well as the various works of literature that have originated from the regions in which the language is most prevalent.  To help you become more familiar with this degree program, below we will provide several details regarding the B.A. degree in Malayalam, including the basic structure of the course and the eligibility requirements, along with a brief description of the type of topics students will study while pursuing this degree.
Bachelor of Arts Degree in Malayalam
The Bachelor of Arts degree in Malayalam is a three to four-year course of study.  The program is offered at universities throughout the world, but it is particularly popular at the major Indian universities and other institutions in the South Asian region.  To be eligible to participate in this program, students must possess at least a high school diploma or its equivalent, also referred to as an intermediate 10 + 2 from India’s secondary school system. 
The Bachelor of Arts Degree in Malayalam:  Course Content
The undergraduate degree in Malayalam covers a number of interesting topics.  Two of the most major areas of focus are discussed in more detail below:
  • What Is Malayalam?
  • The Development of Malayalam Literature
What Is Malayalam?

Malayalam, which belongs to the southern group of Dravidian languages, is the primary language of Kerala, a South Indian state, and also of the Lakshadweep Islands located just off the west coast of India. Speakers of this ancient language, a language which dates back to at least the 9th century, are called Malayalis.  Malayalis make up 4 percent of the Indian population, and are the principal ethnic group in the state of Kerala, accounting for 96 percent of the population in that state.  The Malayalam language ranks eighth among India’s fifteen languages, and interestingly, almost all of those that speak the language—Malayali men and women included—are literate.

Development of Malayalam Literature

The earliest written record of Malayalam is the Vazhappalli, a work that, according to its inscription, was composed in 830 AD.  From that point forward, nearly all of the early literature of Malayalam could be classified into three types of composition:
  • Classical Songs.  The classical songs composed in early Malayalam are called Pattu, songs that roughly follow the Tamil tradition.
  • Manipravalam.  Manipravalam is a type of Malayalam poetry of the Sanskrit tradition, allowing a generous interspersing of Sanskrit with Malayalam.
  • Folk Songs.  The folk songs written in early Malayalam were very rich in native elements.
The earliest known Malayalam work of extant prose is a commentary on Chanakya's Arthasastra, a work known as Bhashakautaliyam.  The piece was written in the early to mid 12th century.  In the various periods that followed, the works of both prose and poetry in the Malayalam language showed various degrees of influence from other Indian languages, including Tamil, Sanskrit, Pali and Prakrits.

Study Maori

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IndiaNew ZealandThe United States

Do you have a strong interest in studying the people, culture and languages of New Zealand, particularly those of the indigenous Polynesian group known as the Maori?  Have you considered pursuing an advanced degree in this field as a way to prepare you for a career in teaching, translation, research, media, iwi development or a position in central or local government?  If so you may be a perfect candidate for the Master of Arts degree program in Maori Studies.  To help you become a bit more familiar with this degree path, below we have compiled some of the specifics with regard to the program, including a brief course description, a sample of some of the coursework you’ll encounter and the typical eligibility requirements for admission into the program.
Master of Arts Degree in Maori Studies:  Course Description
Master of Arts Degree in Maori Studies is a graduate level program offered at hundreds of colleges and universities around the world, but particularly in the regions of New Zealand and Australia.  This course of study, which typically spans two years or less depending on the institution, is designed for students who want to increase their knowledge base with regard to the Maori people, culture and languages.  Students will gain insight into topics such as Maori and the media, Maori history, politics and the renowned performing arts form known as kapa haka. The end goal of the program is that graduates will be prepared to work in career fields that deal directly or indirectly with the Maori people, customs and traditions, especially those in the education field living in regions where advanced knowledge of Maori is essential.
Master of Arts Degree in Maori Studies:  Coursework and Eligibility Requirements
The coursework for the Master of Arts degree program in Maori studies features a combination of core courses and elective classes, the latter of which enables students to focus on certain areas that match their personal or professional interests.  Some of these courses include:
  • Coming of the Maori—a Cultural Anthropology Course of Study
  • Mana Taonga:  Tradition and Innovation in Maori Art
  • Cook Islands Maori Language I and II
  • Race, Indigeneity and the Media
  • Maori History:  Waitangi for Treaty to Tribunal
  • Maori History in the 20th Century
  • Whakatakoto Reo Tuarua: Intermediate Written Maori
  • Intermediate Spoken Maori
  • Kapa Haka 1 and 2
  • Mana Maori Motuhake / Maori Politics and Public Policy
  • And many more…
To be eligible for admission into the Master of Arts Degree program in Maori Studies, students must possess, at minimum a bachelor degree, preferably in a foreign language field or the social sciences, particularly areas such as anthropology, sociology, history or political science.  Some institutions may require students to sit for an interview with the program faculty prior to admission, and or take and pass an entrance examination that measures proficiency in reading, writing and comprehension.  Most colleges and universities will also require students to submit no less than three letters of recommendation, written by someone with personal knowledge of his or her academic ability and achievements.

Study Medieval Hispanic Studies

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Study Military English

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IndiaThe United States

Military English is a term typically used to describe a specialist English course especially designed for military personnel, government employees, or international agency staff, who are required to work in international teams using English as the common language. Nowadays, the need for efficient communication in English, particularly between members of international forces, peacekeepers, and local community leaders is constantly rising. Military English is used for everyday military and security situations; for reading notices, signs, instruction manuals; for writing clear messages, military briefs and reports, as well as other similar texts; for listening to direct orders, transmitted information, instruction, and casual conversations; for giving orders, making presentations, delivering briefings, exchanging information with others, making telephone calls, negotiation, and others. In summary, Military English is designed to ensure that assigned military and civilian personnel can carry out their tasks effectively with their international colleagues. A course would cover both military vocabulary and basic conversational and reading skills.

Personal Qualities

In order to embark on a course of Military English, you need to be interested in becoming part of a peaceful mission, be part of the army, navy, or air force of a given country. Other qualities that might help include:

  • Good memory
  • Aptitude for learning languages
  • Good at using learning materials like dictionaries, online resources, and others
  • Good IT skills

Study Options

Military English is normally offered as a specialized course by certain colleges, universities, online schools; it can also be offered by the Ministry of Defense of a given country, or by certain international organizations like NATO or the UN. It is most common that Military English is offered as an intensive course; it would also be designed so that the most urgent communication needs of military personnel are met. Major topics included usually are: the language of planning and strategy; Peacekeeping language; Debriefing scenarios; Advanced presentation skills; Diplomatic English – tone, register and levels of formality. What counts when you are choosing a course is checking the qualifications of your teachers, how customized the course is and how many students are assigned in a class.

Career Options

Although Military English is specifically targeted to military servants, diplomats, and security personnel, such a course would greatly improve your language skills and enhance your overall career prospects. English is one of the most widely used languages in the world, for which reason additional skills and vocabulary would only help you in any future career course you might wish to undertake.

Study Modern Indian Languages and Literary Studies (in Universities)

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IndiaThe United States

Are you interested in studying the social and cultural aspects of India, its languages and literature, either for the purpose of self-development or professional opportunity?  Have you considered pursuing a degree in Modern Indian Languages and Literary Studies—a degree now offered at several universities throughout the world?   The Republic of India is home to the second largest population in the world and has a vast and interesting history that dates back thousands of years.  This fact alone would be reason enough to pursue this degree, but what should also be mentioned is that India is one of the fastest growing nations on the globe from an economic standpoint, a country constantly in need of professionals in a variety of economic sectors.  With a Bachelor of Arts degree in Modern Indian Languages you can take the first step towards familiarizing yourself with the India of today, while simultaneously improving your employment prospects.  To help you get started, below we have provided some information on the B.A. program in Modern Indian Languages and Literary Studies, along with some of the career opportunities currently available for qualified graduates.

Bachelor of Arts Degree in Modern Indian Languages and Literary Studies

The Bachelor of Arts degree in Modern Indian Languages and Literary Studies explores the evolution of language and literature from the 12th century to the present.  Most of these languages fall under the category of Indo-Aryan languages (mostly Indo-Germanic); although in some regions of the country Dravidian-based languages were and continue to be spoken informally among the people. 

The literary development of India’s modern languages was gradual, occurring at different times throughout the years, beginning with the two earliest of the modern languages that emerged:  Marathi and Gujarati.  Next came the most significant modern Indian language, Hindi, the language that together with English serves as the official language of the country to this day.  It is also the most commonly spoken language of the Indian people—a language that consists of several regional dialects including Kanauji, Bundeli and Braj Bhasa.  Speakers of each of these regional languages have produced important literature over the years—literature in which students will have the opportunity to study during the course of the program.
Other languages (and their literature) covered in the four-year B.A. program in Modern Indian Languages and Literary Studies include:
  • Urdu
  • Punjabi
  • Ra jasthani
  • Sindhi
  • Bengali
  • Assamese
  • Kashmiri
  • And several more…
All students possessing a secondary school diploma or its equivalent are eligible to enroll in the Bachelor of Arts degree program in Modern Indian Languages and Literary Studies, although knowledge of at least one modern Indian language is recommended.  Some institutions may also require a passing score on an entrance examination as a prerequisite for admission.
Modern Indian Languages and Literary Studies:  Career Opportunities
A Bachelor of Arts degree in Modern Indian Languages and Literary Studies qualifies students to pursue an advanced degree in the same or a related discipline.  It can also open doors to one of many career opportunities both at home and abroad.  Graduates of this program are eligible to seek positions in Indian and transnational companies; social and economic development fields; multinational associations; public service and administration; tourism; media; and communications, among others, working as an Indian-language translator in a number of different capacities.

Study Modern Languages

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AlbaniaAlgeriaAmerican SamoaArgentinaArmeniaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBelarusBelgiumBhutanBoliviaBosnia and HerzegovinaBrazilBrunei DarussalamBulgariaCambodiaCanadaCape VerdeCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaColombiaCosta RicaCyprusEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEthiopiaFijiFranceGermanyGhanaGreeceGuamHaitiHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIranIraqIrelandItalyJapanJordanKazakhstanLatviaLebanonLithuaniaMacaoMacedoniaMadagascarMaltaMauritaniaMexicoMoroccoMozambiqueNamibiaNetherlandsNew ZealandNicaraguaNigeriaPalestinePeruPolandPortugalPuerto RicoRomaniaRussiaSaudi ArabiaSenegalSouth AfricaSouth KoreaSpainSudanSwedenSwitzerlandThe United KingdomThe United StatesTrinidad and TobagoTurkeyUgandaUkraineVietnamZimbabwe

There are more than 6000 languages spoken around the world today, ranging in scope from just a few hundred speakers to over 1 billion. In an era of global economic, political, and cultural integration, it is becoming increasingly necessary to learn about these languages, their history, and their relationships with one another. That is what students of modern languages strive to do. Although there are very few programs that offer degrees in “modern languages” as such, this field is commonly studied as a concentration within other majors. Linguistics majors frequently specialize in modern languages or in a particular group of modern languages, and of course foreign-language majors do their work in this field as well.
Personal Qualities
  • Love of languages and a desire to gain fluency in at least 1 foreign language
  • Patience and diligence – you will spend a fair amount of time memorizing vocabulary!
  • Strong knowledge of grammar in your native language
  • Curiosity about foreign cultures and respect for diversity
Study Options
Although it is extremely uncommon to major in modern languages, most colleges and universities have a department (or departments) of modern languages and linguistics. Within this department, several majors are usually available. Put simply, there are 2 options available for students who wish to study modern languages: majoring in a specific language or majoring in linguistics.
Majoring in linguistics has the advantage of enabling students to learn multiple languages and understand their inner workings. Linguistics majors often go on to become multilingual translators or linguistics researchers. The disadvantage of this path is that students typically gain less depth in any specific language, meaning the skills that they learned in college are somewhat less marketable. Majoring in a specific language, on the other hand, provides more immediate opportunities for employment and more practical skill set. It does not, however, offer quite the same breadth of knowledge that a linguistics major would have.
Career Options
The career options that are available to a modern languages major depend on which course of study he or she chooses. Students who select the linguistics route often go on to graduate school in one or more foreign languages, which is a time-consuming process but can lead to a more lucrative career. In addition, they frequently become academics, which provides them with the freedom to pursue their curiosity, but requires many years of additional schooling after college.
On the other hand, a student who chooses to study a specific language can often find employment (albeit less lucrative) immediately upon graduation. They typically work as translators, interpreters, or private tutors, and may also work in service or retail. For those who enjoy traveling and living in foreign countries, is also working abroad and appealing option. After spending several years learning the local language, these graduates can work in a variety of positions in any country where their chosen language is spoken.

Study North African Studies

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Study North American Studies

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Study Norwegian Language and Culture (in Universities)

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GermanyIndiaThe United KingdomThe United States

Norwegian Language and Culture is usually offered as a one-year intensive course, aimed at students who wish to enter a Norwegian university. No prior skills in Norwegian language are required to enter such a program. This course is typically offered with the purpose not only to equip students with good communication skills in Norwegian, but also help them adapt and adjust to Norwegian society. Subjects included in the program most often include Norwegian Language – learning grammatical concepts, writing, reading, pronunciation, and dialogue formation; and Social Studies/Culture – which teaches students about the cultural and social traits of the region, helping them adapt to the new environment. Teaching methods include lectures, group work, practice, and home assignments. Assessment is usually based on written and oral examinations.

Study online English courses

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Study Oriental Languages and their Literature (in Universities)

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EgyptIndiaThe United States

A decade ago, Asia as a region was not really considered a powerhouse region in the world of economics and political intrigue, except for Japan. However, recent developments, like China, now the center of investors’ attention, coming into the picture and other Asian economies like South Korea, Singapore, Malaysia, Taiwan and Thailand registering surprising growth spurts in their GNPs and per capita incomes have made Asia a region to be reckoned with. In light of this, the field of study Oriental Languages and Literature is becoming more popular as more non-Asians wants to understand fully the Asian culture and psyche.

Oriental Languages and Literature is a tricky field. As one already knows, Asia is the largest continent in the world and is host to hundreds of different languages, where unlike in the course, European Languages, knowing how to speak German, French and English, one can go about to any nook and cranny in Europe. However, with Asia, languages are very diverse and in China alone, two Chinese citizens may not even understand each other if one happen to speak Mandarin and the other Haklo. Because of this dilemma in the nature of Asian cultures, Oriental Languages have been broken down to different specialization and majors like Middle Eastern, South Asia, Far Eastern, and Southeast Asian languages.

If one decides to major in Middle Eastern, a student would probably learn how to speak Arabic and its variations. Of course, along with learning the language, the course will also equip students with the region’s and individual countries’ history and art influences.

If one wants to learn the Sanskrit as well as Classical Sanskrit, then they should major in South Asian languages. Other languages in the region like Tamil, Kannada and Telugu would also fall on this course major.

Far Eastern languages, is rapidly becoming a popular major as they get to study the Chinese, Japanese and Korean languages, as China, Japan and Korea are currently the economic movers of Asia. Students will have a choice of what Chinese language they want to learn as there are about 13 widely used Chinese languages with Mandarin, Cantonese and Haklo being the three most popular choices. Mandarin is, by the way, the most widely spoken language and is being pushed by the government to be the common language in China. Another commonality of these three cultures is that they all write using symbols or characters instead of letters. So, knowing how to write Japanese and then moving on to study Korean or Chinese script would not be a hard transition.

Southeast Asian languages would cover languages spoken in Malaysia, Indonesia, Burma, Cambodia, Vietnam, Singapore and The Philippines. Bahasa is the region’s widely spoken language as both Malaysia and Indonesia speaks Bahasa.

As the course is Oriental Languages and Literature, the language part may vary but the literature part would sure cover major works of influential Asian writers such as Omar Khayyam, Rabindranath Tagore, Pramoedya Ananta Toer, and among others.

Basically, Oriental Languages and Literature graduates will find plenty of opportunities as language interpreters, writers, historians, archeologists and diplomats. Now, Asia, as a region, is finally getting out of its shell, asserting itself economically and politically, the West have but no choice but to learn as much as they can about the region, languages and literary works included.

Study Pakistan Studies

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IndiaPakistanThe United States

Study Pali

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IndiaThe United States

Do you have a concurrent interest in ancient languages, history and/or Buddhism and a desire to increase your understanding of early Buddhist writings?  Have you considered pursuing an undergraduate or graduate degree in Pali, a Middle Indo-Aryan language of India?  Pali is best known as the language of the earliest extant Buddhist canon, the Pali, or Tipitaka canon, and as the language still used in the liturgy of Theravada Buddhism.  Therefore, a knowledge and comprehension of this ancient language can help students gain access to Buddhist scriptures, either for personal reasons or as part of a religious or historical degree program.  To help you become more familiar with this degree program, below we have provided a brief synopsis of Pali, its history and how it is used today, and outlined some of the eligibility requirements for admission into these programs.
About Pali
Etymology and Classification
As mentioned above, Pali is best known as the language of Theravada Buddhism.  In terms of its etymology, the word Pali itself can be literally translated to mean “line” or “(canonical) text,” which seems to signify that the written form of Pali, used primarily in Buddhist scriptures, is somewhat different than the vernacular translation of and commentary on said scriptures.  This has caused some debate between scholars, one of whom, Robert Childers, has argued that the true or geographical name of the Pali language was actually Magadhi, and that because Pali means “line, row, or series,” the early Buddhists extended the meaning of the term Pali to mean a “series” of books or canonical texts, rather than the writing therein.
From a classification standpoint, Pali is a literary language of the Prakrit language family that was first written down in the first century in what is now Sri Lanka.  It was not, however, used as the spoken language, only for writings related to Buddhism.  As a Middle Indo-Aryan language, Pali is different from Sanskrit, not only with regard to its time of origin, but also due to its dialectal base, which has different morphological and lexical features than its Sanskrit counterpart.
Why Pursue a Degree in Pali?
As you might have guessed, Pali is not widely used today, but there are a number of reasons why a degree in this language may be an appropriate course of study for certain students, especially those studying ancient languages, history or the religion of Buddhism.  Today, Pali is primarily studied as a means towards gaining access to Buddhist scriptures, and the language is still used today in chants within a ritual context.  Understanding this language, then, will help students of Buddha expand their knowledge and even participate in the rituals.  However, there are also many non-religious or secular pieces of literature that still survive from the early days of Pali, including historical chronicles, medical texts and inscriptions, all of great historical importance for students interested in the ancient southern Asian region.
Great centers in which Pali is one of the main subjects of learning still remain throughout the Theravada nations of the Southeast Asian world, including Burma, Thailand, Laos and Cambodia.  Additionally, since the 19th century, various Indian societies have revived and promoted awareness of the Pali language and its literature, the most notable of which is the Maha Bodhi Society.
Admission Requirements for Graduate Degrees in Pali
Although Pali is offered as an undergraduate program at a select few universities throughout the world, it is most commonly offered as a graduate-level program.  Therefore, most colleges and universities require students to possess an undergraduate (B.A.) degree in a related field, one offered through the departments of language, history, religious studies or other appropriate department.  A 2.75 grade point average in all undergraduate coursework is typically the admission standard required by most institutions, and strong reading, writing and research skills are definitely a plus.  Prior knowledge or academic pursuit with regards to Pali is usually not required, but students should have a basic understanding of the regions of Southeast Asia in which the language is primarily used and promoted.

Study Persian Language and Literature (in Universities)

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IndiaIranThe United KingdomThe United States

“On, sons of Greeks, set free your fatherland, your children, wives, home of your ancestors, temples of your gods! Save all or all is lost!” This is the infamous battle cry of the Greeks on the Battle of Salamis which seems to be the highlight of the Greco-Persian Wars which was initially told by the Father of History, Herodotus. In the same way, it has been the main attraction in the great battle story, The Persians.

Although the play happens to be a Greek novel, it nonetheless showcases the bravery and courage of the Persian armies in warfare. Not just that, this ancient Iranian civilization has its own compilation of equally eminent literary masterpieces inspired by its genuine language.

History best tells of the inherent greatness attributed on Persian Literature. As a matter of fact, it has been a renowned art way back in 522 BCE which revolves on the life of Darius and Xerxes being the great empire royalties. Development in ancient writings came about in the medieval period upon the introduction of the Islamic faith. No wonder, it has produced historical selections of poems, essays, novels, biographies, hagiographies, critiques, and stories. Among its pool of authors, the Sufi order was renowned globally for its poets. No wonder, it even came into the attention of the legendary William Shakespeare who referred to Persia as the “land of the Sophy”.

In the same way, Persian language is another remarkable element of the Iranian culture. This ancient tongue is even spoken in the Old Iran Period. What is even more interesting is that the language was preserved in the Middle and Modern ages hence its designation as “the only Iranian language.” Although of Persian roots, it has been widely used in Middle East and Central Asia, too. In turn, it is spoken in eleven more countries such as Bahrain, Iraq, Pakistan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Russia, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan and Iranian Diaspora. Not just that for it is likewise regarded as the official language of Afghanistan and Tajikistan apart from its home country.

There is no doubt Persian language and literature has created a significant influence in World History. No wonder, it is being offered as an undergraduate course program in the academe not to mention its graduate program counterpart. Relevant academic programs include Persian Language and Literature Studies, Persian Cultural Heritage Studies, and Iran History and Culture Studies. Consequently, it is tendered in universities worldwide such as University of Calcutta (India), University of Kashan (Iran), Leiden University (Netherlands), Washington University (United States), and Persian Language and Literature Studies (United States).

Persian language and literature specialists have extensive career opportunities. In particular, research activities can provide a green pasture for them considering the continuous inquiry on ancient Persia as one of the greatest civilizations of the world. Another attractive niche is the academe where graduates can strive for teaching pursuits on this matter including world history in general. Other employment privileges include museum administration, historical tourism coordination, Persian language translation, etc. Indeed, there are many different institutions that await experts on Persian Language and Literature.

Study Philippine Studies

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Study Philology and Linguistics

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AlbaniaAndorraArgentinaArmeniaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBangladeshBelarusBelgiumBrazilBulgariaCanadaCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaColombiaCosta RicaCzech RepublicDenmarkEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEthiopiaFinlandFranceGermanyGhanaGreeceHong KongIndiaIraqIsraelItalyJapanKazakhstanKyrgyzstanLaoLithuaniaMacedoniaMaltaMauritaniaMexicoNetherlandsNew ZealandNicaraguaNigeriaNorwayOmanPeruPolandRomaniaRussiaSouth AfricaSpainSudanSwedenSwitzerlandThe United KingdomThe United StatesTrinidad and TobagoUgandaUkraineUzbekistanVietnam

Taken together, philology and linguistics refers to the academic study of languages. In particular, it usually means taking up questions about general linguistic structures such as grammar, semantics, and syntax. The difference between philology and linguistics varies somewhat depending on what country you are in, but in the English-speaking world the term philology is seldom used anymore. It usually refers to a historic study of classical languages such as Greek and Latin, whereas linguistics refers to the application of the scientific method to the study of languages. In addition, philology office includes the study of literature and poetry written in the language in question, and linguistics usually does not. Philology was once an important field, but it has now been almost entirely taken over by linguistics.
Personal Qualities
  • A great love of foreign languages
  • Strong command of your native language, including grammar and etymology
  • Analytic thinking and familiarity with scientific method is a plus
Study Options

The field of linguistics includes numerous subfields such as psycholinguistics (the intersection of psychology and linguistics), computational linguistics (which uses computers to model linguistic structures), and comparative linguistics, as well as many others. It is also possible to specialize in a particular language family. For example, a linguist might specialize in the Romance languages and work primarily on languages such as Italian, French, and Spanish. Other linguists contrast languages from different families–they might take a comparative look at the differences between Arabic and Chinese, for example.
Career Options

Because of the high value placed on language skills in the modern job market, a degree in linguistics can lead to a number of exciting career opportunities. The most common, of course, is to become a language instructor. It is well known among people in this field that linguists, with their superior knowledge of the underlying structures of language, make better teachers than people who simply speak the language in question. Linguists typically speak multiple languages, so jobs as a translator or interpreter are also available. Finally, linguistics is also an active academic field, so if your interest in linguistics runs deep enough to get a PhD, a career in academia might be the right option for you.

Study Polish Language and Literature (in Language Schools)

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IndiaPolandSpainThe United KingdomThe United States

Study Portuguese Language and Literature

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ArgentinaBrazilFranceGermanyIndiaPortugalSpainThe United KingdomThe United StatesZimbabwe

The Portuguese language is known as the sixth language of the world. Almost 210 million people around the world speak their language. Portuguese is the official language of Portugal, Brazil, Angola, Cape Verde, Mozambique, São Tomé and Príncipe, and Guinea-Bissau. It is also spoken in Macau, East Timor, and Goa. The richness of the literature in Portuguese is astounding. Studying the Portuguese Language and Literature will open our mind with the countless possibilities that lies ahead.

Many experts agree that the Portuguese language is very easy to learn and just like the French language, this is also a romance language, very elegant with a beautiful pronunciation to boasts. The first part of the study starts with the basic Portuguese grammatical structures, development of oral fluency and listening skills as well as proper pronunciation, reading and comprehension, and writing skills. After that, an introduction to the cultural and literary topics will follow. Further development of the skills acquired is necessary to understand the vast collection of literary treasures waiting to be discovered like the work of poets and authors such as Ena De Queiros, Fernando Pessoa, Maria Isabel Barreno and many others. As the language skills improved, cultural topics with emphasis on history and geography will be discussed to understand the relationship of the events in relation to the literature written during a specific era.

Another highlight of this course is the reading and interpretation of the famous poems, essays and other literary piece written by some of the most prominent literary figures in history. From the famous The Lusiads to the modern literature like the collected notes, stories, letters, and poems by Maria Isabel Barreno, Maria Teresa Horta, and Maria Velho da Costa, the wealth of the Portuguese literature is really amazing.

Since this Portuguese Language and Literature is rarely studied, there are many career options open to those with the required expertise on this area. There are large communities of Portuguese-speaking community all over the world. The knowledge of their language is necessary in banking and trading especially with Brazil’s booming economy. Another career option after mastering this language is of course to teach it. There are many language schools that need someone who can teach this course efficiently. Portuguese literature is very famous around the world; a translator is often times needed to let others appreciate the beauty of each novel and the true meaning of each poem.

There are many personal benefit of learning the Portuguese language and the rich literature and history that they have. Since this language is being used in many countries, you can communicate effectively from people all over the world because this is a global language just like English. This skill is very useful when traveling to Portuguese-speaking country.

Aside from possible career opportunities and improving on your communication skills, learning this language can also be beneficial to truly appreciate Brazilian music, novels and discover a rich and diverse culture that is truly Portuguese. So why not grab this chance to challenge yourself to learn something new and beautiful and take up this course.

Study Portuguese Philology

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Study Professional Writing

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CanadaIndiaSpainThe United States

Study Punjabi

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IndiaThe United States

Have you recently taken an interest in the Punjab region of northwestern India and Eastern Pakistan and are now considering pursuing a degree in this field?  If so, you may want to consider enrolling in one of the many Master’s degree programs in Punjabi, a course of study now offered by a handful of universities throughout the world.  To help you become a bit more familiar with this program, below we have outlined a few of the specifics with regards to the course—its classes and content—along with some of the admission requirements for students who wish to seek the degree.
Master of Arts Degree in Punjabi
Punjabi is a language spoken by millions of people around the world, including roughly 30 million native speakers in India and nearly 80 million in Pakistan.  Beyond these two primary Punjabi-speaking regions, the language is also spoken by millions of people from places such as the United Kingdom, Canada, the Persian Gulf and even the United States, making it the 10th most widely spoken language in the world.  Students pursuing a Master’s degree in Punjabi will explore this historical language in quite some depth, including its origins and the many different dialects associated with it.  The program will additionally focus on the Punjab region, giving students an opportunity to learn about its people, culture, traditions and customs.
Course Content in the Master of Arts Degree in Punjabi
Punjabi Language
The first and primary focus of the M.A. degree program in Punjabi is the Punjabi language.
Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken mostly by the inhabitants of the Punjabi region, which, as we referred to earlier, includes northwestern India and eastern Pakistan.  Although not an official language in either of these two countries (Hindi and English are the official languages of India and Urdu and English are official in Pakistan), the language is recognized regionally in both countries.  In fact, Punjabi, which has origins dating back to the 9th century, is still the most widely spoken language in Pakistan.
The Punjabi language has a variety of regional dialects, spoken in the many sub-regions of greater Punjab.  The most popular of these, which is shared by both India and Pakistan and referred to as a “prestige dialect,” is Majhi, a textbook version of the language spoken primarily in the historical sub-region of Majha. For the Sikh people, who are prominent in India and Pakistan, the Punjabi language, and particularly the Majhi dialect, holds quite a bit of status, and is used in all of their ceremonies, both cultural and religious.
Among the many modern Indo-European languages, Punjabi is rather unique in that it is a “tonal language”, a type of language in which pitch is used as a part of speech, thus changing the meaning of a word.  An example of this from the English language is the word “present,” which can be used as either a verb or noun depending on the stress given to the first or second syllable.
Punjab Region
As mentioned above, the M.A. program in Punjabi will also focus on the Punjab region, of which the word “Punjabi” serves as its adjectival form. Punjab is a region in South Asia where five rivers flow: the Sutlej, Beas, Raavi, Chenab and Jehlum Rivers, and the word Punjabi can be used to describe anything related to this area, from the Punjabi people to Punjabi food.  Some of the courses in this portion of the degree will focus on topics such as:
  • The Punjabi people, an ethnic group hailing from and originating in the fertile region of Punjab.
  • Punjabi culture, including Punjabi customs, traditions, music and dance.
  • Punjabi cuisine
  • The main religions in the Punjab region
  • And much more…
To qualify for admission into the Master of Arts degree program in Punjabi, students must hold at least a Bachelor degree in the same or a relevant field.  Students are expected to complete the program in two years, although this time frame may vary depending on the availability of classes.  Most programs are supervised by the foreign language faculty, although in some universities the Department of Asian studies may also offer this degree.

Study Rabbinic Literature

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Study Rhetoric

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IndiaThe United States

Study Romance Language and Literature

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CanadaFinlandGermanyIndiaPortugalSpainThe United KingdomThe United States

A study in romance languages and literature encompasses all languages historically derived from Vulgar Latin.  These languages form a subgroup of the italic branch of the Indo-European language family and include French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and Romanian. The course educates students on the history of these languages and explores their development in relation to one another.
A typical way to study romance languages and literature is through a college or university. Often, these institutions will possess a romance language department with a corresponding interdisciplinary major. Earning a degree in one or multiple romance languages – such as Portuguese or Italian – is not the same as a romance language and literature study, since it will not examine the language’s history and relationship to other romance languages. All romance language and literature programs include a study abroad or other language experience requirement, usually in a European or Latin American country.
Universities and private companies are known to offer online programs where romance language and literature can be studied. There are also several study abroad opportunities for interested students, sometimes from private companies but often in partnership with a university or college.
Skills, Qualifications, and Prerequisites for Studies in Romance Language and Literature
Studies in romance language and literature are offered primarily at higher education institutions, and so candidates must meet their admission requirements. This usually means obtaining a secondary school completion certificate or passing a standardized aptitude test or entrance exam. To pursue a master’s or PhD, a student must first hold a bachelor’s degree.
It is particularly useful in this field if candidates already speak a second language, or have an extremely high aptitude for language learning. Students should also be respectful, appreciative and open to other cultures. Excellent communication, pronunciation, penmanship and interpersonal skills are essential. Students should be able to pay close attention to detail and analyze text on various literary levels.
Skills and Qualifications Acquired from Studies in Romance Languages and Literature

Upon completion of a romance language and literature study program, graduates will be able to:
  • Meaningfully connect certain artistic, political or religious aspects to a language.
  • Speak, write and read fluently in a romance language (French, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Romanian, Catalan, etc.).
  • Compare and contrast two or more romance languages.
  • Identify common roots and linguistic characteristics of various languages.
  • Understand the cultural aspects and customs surrounding a romance language (Italian culture, etc.).
  • Understand the historical aspects surrounding a romance language (Italian history, etc.).
  • Identify cannon and classic works of literature in a romance language.
  • Identify significant literary works from specific centuries.
  • Translate and interpret between one or more languages.
The best locations for romance language and literature study (if majoring in specific languages) are in countries where the language of choice is the everyday spoken tongue. Those pursuing French, for example, will find excellent schools in Paris, while students learning Portuguese could study in Lisbon, Portugal, or even in Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Careers for Studies in Romance Languages and Literature
A completed course in romance language and literature allows graduates to work in many countries across the globe. They may find employment in government agencies; global corporations; airlines; media industries or any other internationally recognized organization as interpreters, translators or writers. They can even work in medical fields, research facilities and universities as professors or cross-cultural communicators. Graduates can be employed anywhere from government intelligence agencies to manufacturing companies, non-profit organizations to primary schools.

Study Romanian Language and Literature (in Universities)

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Study Russian Language and Literature (in Language Schools)

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IndiaRussiaSpainThe United StatesUkraine

Study Russian Language and Literature (in Universities)

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AlgeriaArmeniaAustraliaAustriaCanadaChinaCubaCzech RepublicDenmarkFinlandFranceGermanyHungaryIndiaIndonesiaIrelandLaoLatviaNepalNetherlandsPolandPortugalRussiaSouth KoreaSpainSudanSwedenThe United KingdomThe United StatesUkraineVietnam

Russian, one of the world's most widely spoken languages, is an exciting and diverse field of study. Russia has produced some of the world's greatest literature, notably the works of Tolstoy and Dostoevsky, and has also been the source of political works of incredible historical importance. Over the centuries, Russia has undergone numerous transformations, all which are reflected in its literary traditions.
In addition, Russian is of critical strategic value on the geopolitical stage. Despite the loss of its superpower status in the early 1990s, Russia remains one of the most prominent powerbrokers in the world, and so nearly every country has a need for diplomats and policy analysts who can speak Russian. This prominence is reflected in the fact that Russian is one of only 6 official languages act United Nations.
Personal Qualities
  • Love of travel and desire to visit Russia, Eastern Europe, or Central Asia
  • Curiosity about and respect for other cultures
  • Patience and good memorizing ability
  • Knowledge of and/or interest in Russian history
  • Strong grasp of grammar in English
Study Options
Since the fall of the Soviet Union, undergraduate programs in Russian have become less and less common. Nonetheless, there remain numerous colleges and universities that offer degrees in Russian language and literature. They typically emphasize both the literary and geopolitical utility of the Russian language, although there may be some schools that emphasize one or the other.
The majority of programs leading to a degree in Russian will require at least a semester of study abroad in a country where Russian is the majority language. Russia is of course the most obvious choice, but there are numerous other countries to consider, including Kazakhstan, Belarus, and parts of Ukraine and Uzbekistan. If you do choose to study abroad in Russia, be aware that the visa process can be extremely taxing and complicated. For citizens of most countries around the world, it is necessary to plan your trip several months in advance.
Career Options
A degree in Russian offers numerous career options, most notably in the areas of international relations, foreign policy, and global business. It is also possible to find work in one of the many Russian speaking communities in Europe and Asia. If traveling and working in foreign cultures is your dream, studying Russian can be a good option. For those who complete an advanced degrees in Russian language and literature, jobs are available as a teacher or private tutor.

Study Sanskrit

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IndiaThe United KingdomThe United States

The Sanskrit language is one of the ancient languages that’s still in actively use today. The Bhagavad Gita, the Upanishads and other ancient Indian doctrines are all spoken and written in Sanskrit.

Learning the ancient language of Sanskrit would not only give one a stronger curriculum vitae and let one acquire a new language to speak and write but could also open doors in the world of metaphysics, archeology and Indian history. The contributions of the Sanskrit to the world could not be totally summed up in a few sentences but it was said the Immanuel Kant, the famous metaphysicist, was inspired a lot by the Upanishads who revolutionized modern thinking during the 19th century.

It was also said that Mahatma Gandhi took his strength from the wisdom of the Gita, the scripture for Hindu, to defy the strongest force of the planet during that time, the might British Empire, and actually triumphed.

Learning Sanskrit is actually not complicated. All one has to do is enroll in a school that offers Sanskrit as an undergraduate course.

Enrolling in an undergraduate course would be okay for beginners but some schools would require anyone enrolling to attend Sanskrit workshops first. This way, the schools would be sure that students pursuing this course have more or less some sort of expectation of what the course will be and that students could be gauged as really interested in finishing the course all the way through. To enroll in a course like Sanskrit, the only requirement one needed to have is proof of completed secondary education and to have passed the college entrance exams.

Beginners would be taught how to read and write with the use of Devanagari script. By learning how to write would mean learning the Sanskrit alphabet, the basic signs, how to write compound syllables, and as well as numbers and special characters. Pronouncing its proper sound and rhythm is also something that will be observed all throughout the course and so getting this right at the onset is most advisable.

Another basic thing a Sanskrit student should be able to learn right away is how to divide Sanskrit text which is normally in a continuous text. Lastly, students are taught basic grammar which includes identification of adjectives and nouns, the verb functions, the use of pronouns and adverbs, comprehending the structure of a basic Sanskrit sentence, as well as its syntax to the purpose of being able to form sentences and learn the etymology of Vedic knowledge.

Like most languages, students are also expected to learn the famous works of literature written in Sanskrit like the Bhagavad Gita and the Upanishads among others.

One advantage of learning Sanskrit with opposed to Latin is that the language is still in used and that villages in the Indian continent are still using it as their native tongue. If ever one needs to have maximum exposure or needs to practice, they could just go to these places and mingle with the villagers who can readily speak the language.

Study Sinology

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GermanyThe United States

Study Slavic Studies

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CanadaGermanyJapanRussiaThe United States

Study Slavonic Studies

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EstoniaSloveniaThe United KingdomThe United States

Study Spanish as a Second Language

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ArgentinaBoliviaChileCosta RicaGuatemalaSpainThe United States

Study Spanish Courses

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ArgentinaBoliviaCanadaChileCosta RicaDenmarkEcuadorGuatemalaHondurasMexicoNicaraguaPanamaPeruPortugalPuerto RicoSpainThe United KingdomThe United States

Study Spanish for specific purposes, business, tourism, health or law

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Study Spanish Language and Culture

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ArgentinaBoliviaCanadaCosta RicaDenmarkEcuadorGuatemalaHondurasJapanMexicoNetherlandsNicaraguaPanamaPeruSpainThe United States

Spanish is spoken by almost over 500 million people throughout the world, and most Spanish speaking countries are developing economies with a huge market and potential for economic growth. Given the high global demand for this language, you can study Spanish language and culture for enhancing your opportunities in the job market. A fair knowledge of the language and culture of the country would assist you in becoming used to the customs, practices and livelihood of the people in Spain.

Why Study Spanish

While Spanish is the official language in around 21 countries, it is widely spoken also in countries where it is officially not a major language. Many of the Central and South American countries such as Mexico, Argentina, Colombia, Peru and others have Spanish as their main language. The importance of these countries in the international economy is well known to all. It is widely believed that the Hispanic population today forms the largest consumer segment in Northern America. Apart from economic considerations, the Spanish language holds great importance in areas of international politics as well. Spanish is one of the official languages of the UNO and represents the voice of a large percentage of the developing world. Learning Spanish will thus open a variety of possibilities in diverse career sectors.

As an alternative to the schools and programs we have listed to learn Spanish, you can use TakeLessons to find Spanish teachers online.

Importance of Spanish

Every 1 in 10 US citizens speak Spanish. It is thus no wonder that the language is considered to be the language of the future. In a globalized world, expertise and knowledge of a foreign language holds immense importance. Latin American countries, where Spanish language is the main mode of communication, are increasingly becoming major players in the global trade, politics and societal fields. Naturally, knowledge of Spanish language and culture is being accorded more and more importance in several international sectors.

As an alternative to the schools and programs we have listed to learn Spanish, you can use to find Spanish teachers online.

Study of Spanish Culture

In the world of art and literature too, the contribution of Spanish language can hardly be overlooked. Be it modern art form or classical literature of highest standards, Spanish culture can boast of being one of the richest in the whole world. Spanish authors continue to top best seller lists over the years and ones who have had the chance of reading these literatures in the original language are indeed lucky. Spanish architectural styles too can be found in various parts of the world. Those who have visited a Spanish speaking country, agree without a doubt that its culture, music, customs, practices, and so on are pleasantly endearing and worthy of being experienced.

Career Prospects

A degree in Spanish or Hispanic studies will open up a wide variety of career choices around the world. As already mentioned, in a globalized world, knowing two or three widely spoken international languages is an added advantage in any sector. Be it the industrial sector, the service sector or academics, knowing a globalized language is of immense help. Moreover, when it comes to Spanish, the mother tongue of some 388 million citizens of the world, any doubt over its importance is unwarranted. Linguists in general enjoy excellent career prospects due to their perceived communication skills. Graduates in Spanish studies can proceed to specialize as interpreters and translators. They can also avail various Spanish teaching jobs in non-Spanish countries, or English teaching jobs in Spanish speaking countries. Jobs in travel and tourism, as well as, international business, law, journalism, development, etc are also open to those who have studied Spanish language and culture.

Study Spanish Language and Literature (in Language Schools)

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ArgentinaBelgiumBoliviaBrazilChileColombiaCosta RicaCubaDominican RepublicEcuadorEl SalvadorFranceGuatemalaHondurasMexicoNepalNicaraguaPanamaPeruPortugalSpainSwitzerlandThe United KingdomThe United StatesUruguayVenezuela

Study Spanish Language and Literature (in Universities)

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AlgeriaArgentinaAustraliaAustriaBelgiumBoliviaBrazilCanadaChileColombiaCosta RicaDenmarkEcuadorEl SalvadorFinlandFranceGermanyGreeceHungaryIrelandJamaicaLaoMaltaMexicoMoroccoNicaraguaPeruPolandSouth KoreaSpainSwedenSwitzerlandThe United KingdomThe United StatesTrinidad and TobagoUkraine

Undertaking a degree in Spanish Language and Literature means that you would explore the depths of a language that is not only spoken in a great number of countries (including Spain, Mexico, Columbia, Chile, Argentina, and many others) but that is also one of the official languages of the United Nations, the European Union, the Organization of American States, the North American Free Trade Agreement, and a couple of others. Moreover, a bachelor’s in any modern language does open limitless opportunities in the borderless world we live today.

Language graduates embark on extremely diverse jobs and occupations – from teaching, arts and public relations, to fundraising, advertising, administration and politics. Gaining a degree in Spanish Language and Literature can also be a prerequisite for further study in Law or Business, as it greatly develops valued qualities like critical thinking, for example.

To further illustrate some optional occupations of language graduates, let’s take a look at interpreters and translators – in all dealings between companies, countries, or individuals, documents, as well as oral speech and agreements, have to be translated, so that both sides can clearly understand and are enabled to deal with each other. Modern language teachers are also greatly sought after in colleges and high schools, while every international company aims to create strong advertising messages in the local language.

Personal Qualities

Studying Literature requires creativity and the ability to think critically. Qualities like curiosity, a love of reading, examining various texts, authors, and styles would also suit such a degree. Other personal traits may include:

  • Excellent communication skills – the course requires to clearly communicate ideas and concepts, employing different techniques and writing styles
  • Attention to detail
  • Good memory skills
  • Good writing skills

Study Options

If you are simply considering to learn the Spanish language at a level to be able to understand, write, and communicate fluently, there are a lot of options to take the course as part of another degree with an international perspective, like International Business, Marketing, International Law, and so on. You can also embark on an online degree, evening classes, or any other more flexible option that would suit your schedule.

If, however, you wish to gain a bachelor’s or a master’s degree in Spanish Language and Literature, you would need to research universities that offer this option. In case you have already gained a bachelor’s degree, an additional course or postgraduate study in Spanish literature would definitely enhance your employability by improving interpersonal, analytical, and other skills. To wrap it up, an American study has shown that a greater percentage of Literature than Biology students have been accepted to medical schools.

Career options

Career options are very wide.  Let’s further examine the possible career paths, some of which were mentioned earlier:

Interpretation and translation – interpreters and translators do not simply translate words from one language to another, they need to possess a mastery of both languages in order to convey ideas, concepts, moods, and so on. They may apply their skills in the business or politics world, as well as in the translation of books, marketing materials, etc.

Teaching – today, a modern language in many schools is a compulsory option, and Spanish is a very popular choice, considered the number of population on Earth communicating in this language.

Marketing, branding broadcasting – in order to create messages that fit cultural differences, international companies often place their marketing departments in the country, where they sell their products; or, employ marketing experts, who know the language at a very high level and therefore choose the right words to engage the audience.

Journalism – a degree in literature can naturally lead to a career in journalism and the many exciting perspectives that it offers.

Finally, not to forget Public Relations and Creative Writing as potential career choices.

Study Spanish Studies

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BoliviaGuatemalaSpainThe United States

Study Swahili Language

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The United States

Study Swedish Language and Culture (in Universities)

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FinlandGermanySpainSwedenThe United States

Study Swedish Language and Literature (in Language Schools)

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SpainThe United States

Study Technical English

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SpainThe United KingdomThe United States

Study Technical-Scientific Translation

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LatviaThe United States

Degree courses in Scientific and Technical Translation respond to the increasing demand for translators, who specialize in the fields of science and technology. These translators play a key role in helping people all over the world study and benefit from the latest developments in science and technology, transcending the language barrier. These courses are usually offered at post graduate level and are aimed at graduates of scientific and technical disciplines. A Masters degree in Scientific and Technical Translation helps in developing a student’s ability to translate scientific and technical texts (usually from English to other languages or vice versa)

A study in Scientific and Technical Translation aims at equipping students with the skills necessary for translation, as well as helping them to perfect their scientific and technical communication/writing. The course also develops suitable working methods and gives students the opportunity to learn about this new and rapidly growing professional sector.  

Courses for Studying Scientific and Technical Translation

Course duration and modules differ from one university to another.  Candidates need to be flexible and preferably have a cross-curricular and inter disciplinary background. This would enable them to work on a wide range of texts in future.
Scientific and Technical Translation courses usually include modules to address the following objectives:
  • The study and analysis of technical and scientific language, with a focus on terminology, writing styles and linguistic issues related to such translation
  • Resolution of general problems that arise during scientific and technical translation. Sources, application  and assessment of information resources
  • Acquiring basic scientific and technical knowledge for improved comprehension of texts
  • Consolidation of the skills required for writing specialized texts
  • Familiarization with the latest tools and technologies to help in the translation process- assisted and automatic translation, search engines and database access, terminology management software and software localization
  • Learning about the scope and career opportunities in professional translation in local as well as internationals centre
Admission Requirements for Studying Scientific and Technical Translation

Institutes offering these courses usually accept graduates from both- technical and scientific degrees, as well as, those with translation and humanities degrees. These programs are aimed at science and technology graduates, who wish to be employed in writing and translation, and translation and philology graduates, who wish to specialize in scientific and technical translation.   

Graduates, holding a bachelor’s degree or an equivalent can apply for post-graduate courses in Scientific and Technical Translation. Some institutes do accept candidates without a bachelor’s degree, based on their professional experience and professional academic achievements. Candidates should also have good language skills in the languages they wish to translate texts to and from. They might be required to submit language qualification certificates or take certain tests to demonstrate their language levels.

Career Options for Scientific and Technical Translators

A professional technical translator needs to work on a wide variety of technical material. These may include medical reports, research papers, patent and copyright documentation, reports on conferences and official proceedings, web pages and contents and even publicity texts. Hence job opportunities available to trained technical and scientific translators are plenty. Knowledge of multiple foreign languages gives an added advantage to any translator. Owing to the nature of their work, rapid scientific progress and increasing importance of knowledge sharing- the demand for technical translators is always increasing. Experienced scientific translators usually find working as a freelancer to be a lucrative option. However, the most popular employment options for technical and scientific translators are in translation agencies as interpreter, consecutive translators, proof-readers, and copywriters along with mainstream translation duties.

Study Telugu

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IndiaThe United States

Are you a graduate student interested in studying some of the ancient Indian languages and literature?  Have you considered pursuing a Master of Arts degree in Telugu?  Students pursuing a Master of Arts degree in Telugu have the unique opportunity to study one of India’s four classical languages, Telugu, which has the third-largest number of speakers in India. It is a South-Central Dravidian language spoken primarily in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India, where it is an official language.  It is also spoken in the neighboring states if Chattisgarth, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Orissa and Tamil Nadu, as well as the bordering city of Yanam in the territory of Pondicherry.   To help you become more familiar with this degree program and what it entails, below we will describe the Master of Arts degree program in Telugu in a bit more detail, including some of the courses and the topics the program will cover, as well as the eligibility requirements for admission.
Master of Arts Degree in Telugu:  Course Content and Description
The Master of Arts degree in Telugu is a two-year graduate program designed for students who wish to become more familiar with the Telugu language and literature.  While the class titles during each of these two years may vary from one institution to the next, the course content is very similar.  Some of the modules/topics students may encounter while participating in the program include:
  • Telugu Literary Appreciation and Criticism.  This module will focus on the study of the principles and theories of literary criticism as applied to Telugu Literature. Students will be initiated to the Telugu literary tradition, giving them the opportunity to read and appreciate a variety of texts, while laying emphasis on the principles of Chandassu and Alankaaraalu.
  • Telugu Prose (Non-Fiction). In this module students will study various forms of Telugu prose (non-fiction). Different genres of the Telugu literature like essays, letters, travelogues, biographies will be studied. This will enable them to know more about the authors, their lives, works and their contribution to Telugu Literature. The works of Chalam, Narla, Krishna, and Sastri will enable the students to enjoy and appreciate this non-fiction prose.
  • Ancient Telugu Poetry.  This module will acquaint students with the various forms of ancient poetry. The focus will be on some selected works of famous poets like Tikkana, Errana, Raghunatha, Bhupaludu and Shri Krishna Devarayalu. Emphasis will also be laid on the trends prevalent in Telugu poetry during the ancient period.
  • Sanskrit Influence on Telugu Literature. This module briefly introduces students to the basics of the Sanskrit Language and will enable them to assess the influence of Sanskrit on Telugu Language and literature.
  • And more…
Master of Arts Degree in Telugu:  Admission Requirements
Students who wish to pursue a Master of Arts Degree in Telugu must possess at least a Bachelor of Arts degree in an approved language and/or literature field, with a combined grade point average of 2.7 or better in all core coursework.

Study Translation and Interpretation

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AlgeriaArgentinaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBelgiumBrazilCameroonCanadaChinaCosta RicaDenmarkEcuadorEgyptEstoniaFinlandFranceGuatemalaHaitiHong KongIraqJapanKazakhstanLebanonMauritaniaMexicoMozambiqueNew ZealandSloveniaSouth KoreaSpainSwitzerlandThe United KingdomThe United StatesTurkeyUgandaUkraine

Some  people think that translation is merely a matter of knowing the languages in question–did you understand both English and Arabic, then you should be able to do English to Arabic translations perfectly, right? As it turns out, it's not so simple. Translation is a complex process that means more than simply knowing the words in one language and their equivalent in another language. Experts in many fields, especially philosophy, linguistics, and comparative literature are interested in theories about the process of translation for variety of reasons. Although it is unusual to pursue an entire degree in translation studies, this field is an integral part of several others.
Personal Qualities
  • Skill with languages
  • Strong grasp of your native language, including grammar and syntax
  • Excellent writing skills – fiction, nonfiction, or poetry
  • Love of reading
Study Options

People who study translation theory usually do so as part of a course of study in another discipline, usually either linguistics or one of the humanities (literature, philosophy, history, etc.). It is an interdisciplinary field of study that is usually seen as an area of specialization within another discipline–that is, it is more likely that someone would consider himself a philosopher specializing in translation theory, rather than a translation here is specializing in philosophy. Even those who do not take it as an area of specialization can benefit from studying translation theory. This is especially true of linguists and comparative literature students who intend to make a career out of translation and interpretation.
Career Options

Naturally, the most obvious career choice for someone interested in translation theory is to work as a translator or interpreter. In this case, it might be best to get a degree either in linguistics or in the target language, and pick up some courses in translation theory along the way. For example, an ideal course of study for someone interested in this career path might be a double major in linguistics and Spanish, followed by a Master's degree in Spanish. Although none of the degrees are specifically in translation theory, such as student would undoubtedly find courses on translation and interpretation helpful as stepping stones along the way.

Study Turkish, Language and Literature (in Universities)

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The United KingdomThe United States

Study Urdu

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Are you a student who is interested in the languages and literature of some of the larger South Asian countries, particularly Pakistan and India, and looking for a degree option that matches your interests?  Have you considered pursuing a degree in Urdu, a program that covers the Urdu language, literature and culture?  Urdu, which serves as the national language of Pakistan and one of the official languages of India, is a very fascinating course of study.  The language is one of the most widely-spoken languages of South Asia, one that has also spread to other parts of the world as well, including the United Kingdom, Canada and the United States, where it serves as the major cultural language for most of the Muslim population from Pakistan and northern India.  In its everyday spoken form, Urdu is fundamentally similar to Hindi, although it differs slightly in its script and higher vocabulary.  
Degree programs in Urdu language and literature are becoming increasing popular and widespread.  This is primarily attributed to the important role the language plays as the chief vehicle of Islam in South Asia, but Urdu also has a rich secular literature that appeals to students, a literature whose poetry is closely based on Persian models. To help you become more familiar with the various degree options in Urdu, below we have outlined some of the specifics of the program at both the undergraduate and graduate level, including some of the course content students will initially encounter as members of the program.
Degree Programs in Urdu
Urdu is spoken by nearly 70 million people around the world, and because of its increasing popularity, many colleges and universities around the world have now begun offering both undergraduate and graduate degree programs in Urdu language and literature.  The specialty is also offered as a minor program at many institutions in conjunction with other degree offerings in South Asian studies.
At the bachelor or first-cycle degree level, the Urdu language and literature program typically spans four years and is open to all students who possess a high school diploma or its equivalent.  Additionally, most institutions will also require a passing score on a basic proficiency exam as part of the admission requirements of the college or university in which the course is offered.  Master’s or second-cycle degree programs in Urdu generally span two years or four full semesters.  To be eligible for this program, students must possess, at minimum, a Bachelor of Arts degree in Urdu or a related discipline.
Course Content
While the Master’s or post-graduate degree program in Urdu is usually quite advanced and intended for those with at least some knowledge of the language, the undergraduate degree program is a basic course, offered to students who are not assumed to have any previous familiarity of the language or its script.  The course covers the fundamental principles of written and spoken Urdu, including all the major tenses and constructions of the language, enabling students to successfully acquire basic skills in reading, writing, speaking and comprehension.
The initial portion of the Urdu degree program focuses on literacy in the script, with emphasis placed on good pronunciation and on the social and linguistic conventions of everyday conversation.  The class sessions are highly interactive, and instructors encourage student participation through drilling, question-and-answer exercises and other group activities.  As with most language courses, full attendance and regular submission of coursework is essential for success.  For best results in the program, students are encouraged to match every hour of in-class time with at least an equal amount of time in private study.

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