Studies & Degrees in Public Administration and Services




Choose the degree program you would like to study:

Bank Security Civil Defense and Emergency Civil Society Constitution and Legal Order Customs Defence and Strategic Studies Development of Local Power and Decentralization Development Studies Diplomatic Studies Graphology and Questioned Document Examination Housing and Community Development Human Rights Institutional Relations International Cooperation International Development Studies International Diplomacy International Politics International Terrorism Justice Studies Labour Protection Local Government Administration Local Strategic Development Peace and Conflict Studies Peace and Justice Studies Protocol Public Accountant Public Administration/Management Public Affairs Public and Child Dental Health Public Governance Public Health Public Notary Public Policy Public Safety Social Administration Social and Economic Development Studies Social Justice Social Policy Social Welfare Sustainable Development Tax Territory Organization Treasury Public Funds Urban Studies and Planning War Studies

Study Bank Security

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IndiaSpainThe United States

Study Civil Defense and Emergency

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IndiaSpainThe United States

Study Civil Society

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IndiaThe United States

Study Constitution and Legal Order

Choose where you would like to study Constitution and Legal Order:

AustriaIndiaThe United States

A popular definition of Constitution says it is “a set of fundamental principles and established precedents according to which a state or an organization is governed.” The dictionary says it is “the basic principles and laws of a nation, state or social group that determine the powers and duties of the government and guarantee certain rights to the people in it.” A written constitution refers to “the principles written down into a single set of legal documents.” A legal order on the other hand, is an official document which is created in compliance with the requirements of law. It takes the form of a court or judicial order, like a temporary restraining order (TRO), a traffic regulation order, or any order emanating from or issued by a duly authorized official.

As a set of fundamental principles and laws, the Constitution usually consists of a preamble or introductory statement, and a number of Articles or Sections defining the nation’s national territory, Bill of Rights, Citizenship, Suffrage, the three branches of government, Local Government, Accountability of Public Officers, National Economy and Patrimony, Social Justice and Human Rights, and General and Transitory Provisions.

The Constitution and legal orders can be a subject of study in many legal studies programs in many educational or quasi-educational institutions. The National Center for Constitutional Studies in Washington DC teaches the U.S. Constitution in the tradition of the American Founding Fathers through the curriculums used in many schools. Among the study areas about the Constitution include the Making of America, Catechism on the U.S. Constitution, American Government and the U.S. Constitution, Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution, and a 2-hour film about the Founding Fathers of the U.S. Constitution. The Allan P. Kirby, Jr. Center for Constitutional Studies and Citizenship of the Hillsdale College in Michigan also teaches the Constitution, the principles that give it meaning, and the debate that appeared to have brought it to life. These teachings take place usually in the form of sponsored programs and lectures for students, public servants, policy-makers and scholars and even ordinary citizens. The National Constitution Center in Philadelphia, which is the only American museum devoted to the U.S. Constitution, offers exhibits and resources for students and non-students who are interested to learn more about the government. The exhibits include a full text of the Constitution as well as the perspectives on it. It also conducts workshops and discussions to give students, teachers and other participant the chance to increase their understanding of constitutional issues affecting day-to-day events.

A legal studies undergraduate program at the University of Wisconsin under the College of Letters and Sciences aims to provide its students with a liberal education in many traditional disciplines that focus on the theory and operation of law and many of the country’s legal institutions. The program consists of five themes, including the legal order and the processes involved in it. The other themes are Legal Institutions, Law and Social Forces, Law and Culture, and Law and Theory, each of which is associated with a group of courses that have bearing on law and legal matters.

Study Customs

Choose where you would like to study Customs:

AzerbaijanIndiaRussiaSpainThe United States

Pursuing a career in customs means monitoring the flow of people and products in and out of your country of origin. Any individual can pursue a course of study in customs through online courses, college courses, college programs, or through a government-funded training program. Qualifications for working in customs vary according to country and government regulations, and employees will typically wok hand-in-hand with border patrols and law enforcement. Customs workers are often required to register and license with their national government in order to work.
 
Careers in customs include customs officers, brokers, specialists and agents. Brokers and specialists monitor the flow of imports and exports from their country, or research trade impact and trends. They can either work independently, with a company or with the governmental branch associated with customs. Officers and agents typically work with border patrols, law enforcement or government agencies but are also employed by international companies. They regulate the flow of people in and out of the country while enforcing customs laws.
 
Skills, Qualifications, and Prerequisites for Studies in Customs
 
Most countries will require any future customs worker to be a citizen of that country and possess some form of identification. Other qualifications depend on the type of job you pursue in customs.
  • An officer or agent will likely undergo a background check before entering a specialized, government-funded training program. It is also preferred that candidates for these jobs possess previous federal service or a four-year college degree.
  • A customs broker or specialist is different. This type of work will sometimes require the individual to not be a government employee. Most countries allow any individual to apply for a customs brokers license regardless of their level of experience. However, since customs work often goes hand-in-hand with transportation, law and international studies, a background or degree in these related fields is a plus. A customs specialist, such as an agriculture specialist, will usually need a four-year degree or higher in their specific field.
Much of customs work will require finding and citing specific regulations or legal codes, so the most successful employee will have the ability to research quickly and effectively. Customs workers are also preferred to be ethical and responsible in accordance with their employer’s policies and procedures. Officers and agents will need to maintain decisive, respectful attitudes along with leadership and communication skills.
 
Skills and Qualifications Acquired from Studies in Customs
A course of study as a customs broker will prepare you to understand and regulate various international customs procedures and technical aspects, including:
  • Import and export procedures, including documentation, declarations, accounting and the release of goods.
  • Tariffs
  • Trade logistics
  • Domestic and international permits, regulations and laws
  • Types of transport and their regulations
  • Clearance and quarantine procedures
  • Classifications of products and commodities
  • Border clearance
  • Technology and computer literacy
A customs officer or agent will acquire this knowledge along with law enforcement techniques and security policies. Universities and colleges will often award certifications to graduating students valid in individual work and customs companies, though not necessarily useful for government jobs. Individuals may also be required to pass certain government exams, such as the Custom Brokers License Examination in the United States.

Study Defence and Strategic Studies

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AustraliaIndiaNew ZealandSpainThe United KingdomThe United States

Those who celebrate victory are bloodthirsty but the bloodthirsty must never have their way with the world.

- Sun Tzu

Now, the keyword there is must, which means that someone has to make an effort to stop them -whoever they are. The September 11 attack on the twin towers literally brought good business to private and government security agencies alike. Profit generation even got better after former U.S. president George Bush signed the Patriot Act which basically removes almost all restrictions to law enforcement methods that are considered to be unethical or illegal. Such as indefinite detention to suspected individuals, warrant-less searches and of course the regulation of transactions regarding individuals and firms that would definitely help the U.S. in protecting itself against terrorism. To put it quite it simply, business is looking good. Naturally, most governments are commonly short handed when it comes to such actions. This is why on most occasions they seek the help of private contractors to help them out with specific cases. A person with a background on Defense and Strategic Studies would definitely be wanted for such endeavors. Since the study mostly involves intelligence analysis, arms control policies, missile proliferation development etc. and anything at all that has to do with national security and defense policies that would definitely help the overall national security of a certain country.

A job in public service with this course under one’s belt commonly lands a desk job. The work is basically composed of defense program analysis (neighborhood watch scheme developments, report hotline generation etc.) But if you’re in it for the action, we severely recommend in having a military background beforehand. Thankfully most national military academies offer this particular study as a degree. Since not only will you get the degree, you would also receive basic and advanced military training. With this under your belt the private sector would be more than glad to welcome you with numerous opportunities. The common job for this course while working under the private sector would be as a security consultant. Where you may choose to stay at home or sign up with off shore outfits. Working at home may be considered as monotonous but also lucrative. It usually involves formulating new strategic security measures for private clients or developing new insights and analyzing existing security strategies.

Working abroad is also a possibility although most firms usually use a more hands on approach. Specifically because most firms work on conflict prone continents such as the Middle East whose oil refineries are always in need of guarding. Also there are companies who deal in manufacturing and transporting weapons to various clients all over the world which requires people who are knowledgeable about arms embargo laws for certain national borders.

Some outfits also hire strategic analysts for training their field personnel and on most occasions employ them to scout out certain fields and situations regarding the security of a particular venture.

To sum it all up there is a high demand for people with such knowledge especially now with the ongoing escalation of combat in the Gaza strip between Israel and Palestine. Plus North Korea stepping up with its missiles and boldly breaking the South’s naval borders, business is definitely looking good. But again, also according to Sun Tzu; only those who know the evils of war would know how to profit from it.

Study Development of Local Power and Decentralization

Choose where you would like to study Development of Local Power and Decentralization:

GuatemalaIndiaSpainThe United States

Almost all nations of the world base its power from the central government where everything emanates and radiates to every corner of its occupying territory. The idea of decentralization has been dismissed and resisted by civil servants and political lead on lest they be losing the clout of benefits from the control gained with great enormity. Although bars of challenges were thrust into place, decentralization was gaining enough strength particularly in some developing countries much less in monarchial, authoritarian systems of governments, and in some political order with democratic advocacies.

Results gained from experiences of countries that turn away from centralization toward decentralization have gainful outcomes despite some omissions and shortcomings. These may be due to overexploitation. Resulting solutions to the undue malfunctions is to make decentralization altogether assayed, observed, and assessed.

Development of local power and decentralization is one particular disciplinary course taken by students in public administration and services course. With studies, the learner of development of local power and decentralization gain the degree Master of Public Administration (MPA) and some studies in public affairs, public policy and political science. The student can pursue the doctoral degree Doctor of Public Administration or the Ph. D. in Public Administration.

Under the course of study in public administration, the student comprehends that public officials in the decentralized sector dispense the decision-making management proximate and convenient to the people. The diffusion of governance such as essential services and areas of economics and engineering should be dispensed with faithfully and with dispatch. The student learns in school theories and principles of public administration, employing the political, economic, and psychological system of strategic planning, managing the finances and economics, sociology, and ethics and morality. One special endowment a student in development of local power and decentralization is the natural pining to serve the people. To be of great service to the public, the official should ideally be a graduate of masters degree; either a Master of Local Government Administration, or a Masters in Public Administration and Policy, or a Bachelor of Science in Public Administration, or a doctorate degree holder in public administration.

The graduate should have taken course subject such as Political Science, and Economics, with basic subjects: Natural Sciences, Humanities, Social Science, Foreign Languages, and Health and Sports Science. He should have passed the programs in Public Administration, Local Government Management, Studies in Physical Culture, and other subjects.

The student have many schools where to take up the course: There are the schools in the United Kingdom – University of Oxford, Imperial College of London, and the University of Cambridge; in Japan is the University of Tokyo; in China, the University of Hong Kong; in Canada, the University of British Columbia. He can opt to study in the Australian National University, or some of the universities in the United States, for example, Harvard University, Yale University, Columbia University, and many more that were listed in the top 20 best universities and colleges in the world.

The graduate can choose the career close to his heart, such as a position in public service, policy analyst, program director, program management director, budget consultant, and information analyst. He is highly qualified to be an occupational safety coordinator, human resources manager, grant writer, and many more in his field.

Study Development Studies

Choose where you would like to study Development Studies:

ArgentinaAustraliaCanadaDenmarkEcuadorFinlandHondurasIndiaNepalNetherlandsSouth AfricaSouth KoreaSpainSwedenThe United KingdomThe United StatesZimbabwe

Development studies are a branch of social sciences, concerned with the issues of developing countries. It is a multidisciplinary degree, which is relatively young in nature, focusing on the issues of poverty and the social and economic development within countries, therefore often extending to regions outside of the developing world.

This type of course would be suitable for people who are involved with development in one way or another, or for people working for/in developing countries. Development Studies is usually taken as a complementary degree by those working in governments, large corporations, agriculture, aid agencies, regional planning, etc. Their aim is to enhance their awareness on issues like area studies, demography, human security, women’s studies, migration studies, public health, and therefore greatly raise employability perspectives.

Personal Qualities

Personal qualities involved are creativity, analytical thinking, open-mindedness, empathy, and excellent communication skills.

Study Options

Most commonly, Development Studies is offered as a specialized Master’s degree, and less often as an undergraduate degree. The popularity of this subject has been growing since the 1990s, while it has been most widely taught in developing countries, or in countries with a colonial history, such as the UK, where the subject actually originated from.

Career options

Students with a degree in Development Studies are most likely to choose careers in international organizations, such as the United Nations, the World Bank, research centers, private development consultancy firms, or non-government organizations. Overall, the degree does open a greater variety of opportunities in both the government and the private sector, as well as in aid-related positions.

Study Diplomatic Studies

Choose where you would like to study Diplomatic Studies:

AustraliaAustriaEcuadorGermanyHungaryIndiaKenyaLebanonLithuaniaMoroccoNicaraguaSouth KoreaSpainThe United KingdomThe United StatesUzbekistan

Diplomatic Studies develops students’ knowledge in conceptual understanding of the practices, theories, procedures of contemporary diplomacy and international politics. At the end of the course, students of Diplomatic Studies are expected to have acquired their skills and abilities to work efficiently within the diplomatic community.

To provide students with accurate information and solid foundation, Diplomatic Studies presents a rich and legitimate tradition of how diplomacy is governed and how it has evolved. The practices and procedures employed in diplomacy and international politics continue to change and as a result world politics keep on reshaping and revolutionizing. At this point, students are told to carefully examine the practices of diplomats including the contexts within which they function.

The course in Diplomatic Studies will equip students with necessary skills, specific knowledge, language proficiency, and other flexible skills that will prepare them in undergoing diplomacy training and other related fields of study. During the course, students are provided with skills relevant to helping them succeed in a career in diplomacy.

As for the curriculum per se, Diplomatic Studies deals with different modes of diplomacy (e.g. summitry, resident ambassador) along with its functions like negotiation, information gathering, international relations, and their roles in issues that concern peace-making, war, economic, trade, and culture. The curriculum also presents advanced grounding in the legal foundations, theories and practices of diplomacy. Eventually, Diplomatic Studies students will acquire an indispensable and solid diplomatic background and foundation. This will result in a much higher career orientation and expertise since the course will provide students with a useful connection between the world of the academe and the practicalities of policy-making.

The teaching strategy and Diplomatic Studies program are juxtaposed since academic discipline and professional training are needed. Professors that provide Diplomatic Studies are immersed to international and regional organizations of diplomacy and they have active participation in international conferences, special affairs, field trips, and other related events. As for the teaching strategy, the learning process should be student-centred rather than teacher-centred. This way, students will be encouraged to contribute in the learning process like giving presentations, attending seminars, and keeping track of diplomacy accounts related to what they have been taught.

Research skills are also honed in Diplomatic Studies since this will enable students to pursue higher and advanced form of learning. In fact, the students can further their study to Master’s degree and PhD level.

In terms of career paths, graduates of Diplomatic Studies are getting more demands than ever. Professionals with a degree in Diplomatic Studies have significant knowledge and useful skills in the various areas of diplomacy. Pertinent knowledge of the media and the international security is extremely necessary and this is exactly the qualities that government agencies, international organizations, multinational corporations, foreign affairs departments, non-governmental organizations, and diplomatic corps are looking for.

There is an immense expectation from Diplomatic Studies students. Their future responsibilities and duties are not just embraced with their knowledge of international law nor political science and international relations, but with the appropriate execution of the art of negotiation grounded with the state the students will sooner or later serve.

Job positions for Diplomatic Studies:

Foreign Service Specialist

Foreign Service Specialists perform specialized functions that are needed in meeting the responsibilities and duties of Foreign Service across the globe. The roles carried out by Foreign Service Specialist are crucial since they involve providing relevant technical support and administrative services not just in the country but overseas.

When it comes to monetary benefits, Foreign Service Specialists are truly blessed. In fact, they receive excellent paid housing allowance, medical and health benefits, retirement benefits, and generous payment for leave. They also get to enjoy travelling experiences and the learning they get in getting immerse with different cultures around the world. In simple words, the opportunities that await Foreign Service Specialists are diverse including the opportunities they get from the country they serve.

Foreign Service Specialists are designated in different groups. Every group deals with the following categories: Administration, Office Management, Security, Information Technology, International Information, Foreign Language Program, and Medical and Health.

Such diversified categories advocated by Foreign Service Specialists are intended to protect and manage the interests of the citizens and the country they are serving. Such also aims to promote diplomatic missions supported by the Foreign Service Department of the state. This way national security and protection will be maintained as Foreign Service Specialists get devoted in strengthening the peace, prosperity, and stability of their nation.

Foreign Service Specialists are also involved in the description, analysis, and explanation of foreign policies and international politics. You have to master the organizational make-up and the functions of every part of the organization of international governmental organizations. You have to be adept in understanding the contemporary issues and the behaviour of the people found in your post.

Also known as emissaries, Foreign Service Specialists are proficient professionals who represent their government abroad. Hence, it is expected that Foreign Service Specialists have strong communications skills and resilient grasp of administrative skills. If you are seriously considering the career of a Foreign Service Specialist you have to remember that reading is extremely fundamental. Your writing skill should also be exemplary. Most of the time, you have to handle reports and doing such task requires assembling of facts, proofreading, writing, and reading. If you fail to do the tasks outstandingly, you will be taken away from your position. Therefore, it is a must that you develop your full potential continuously.

Foreign Service Specialists are also responsible in handling negotiation problems not just with the local government but with governments abroad. To be more specific, Foreign Service Specialists need to deal with companies that want to invest, manufacture, produce or do business in the country. Also, they should provide pertinent information about the host country during international events. To replace a lost passport is another duty that Foreign Service Specialists do if they get posted in consular offices, abroad or locally.

The duties and responsibilities of a Foreign Service Specialist are all-embracing. However, their role in decision making when it comes to international relations are highly sensitive matters which will eventually be reflective of what foreign relations a country has established so far.

Diplomat

To begin with, a Diplomat performs a multitude of duties not just within the state but across the globe. Diplomats are also known as generalists and their tasks and duties include issuing of visas, protecting the state’s citizens and their interests, going along with foreign officials, conducting press conferences intended for ambassadors, researching and reporting on diplomatic issues and more. As Diplomats, they are expected to be knowledgeable and have expertise on various areas of diplomacy namely political, economic, administration, consular, and public diplomacy.

If you are a graduate of Diplomatic Studies you have an edge in acquiring the position of a Diplomat. However, most Diplomats consider their career as either their second or third career since the average starting age of a Diplomat is about 30 years old.

Diplomats are considered to be highly-skilled professionals because they have passed tremendous examinations provided by the Foreign Service Department of a certain country to test and gauge their skills and behaviour. Communication, leadership, proper judgement, flexibility, ability to work with other people, objectivity, and level of confidence are all measured. Apart from such test of credentials, a candidate for a Diplomat position also undergoes security and background check.

The service rendered by a Diplomat is truly enticing to many since the lure of learning and getting immersed with new cultures and challenges are at stake. Travelling is a great perk and a bonus that you can’t simply ignore since you get to interact with people overseas. As a Diplomat you get the opportunity to experience a specific culture in the eyes of the natives. But, the bottom line of everything is that: you get to serve your country more in abroad.

Your post as a Diplomat requires you to become a strong Diplomat. This means you have to be prepared for the undertakings linked to bureaucracy. You have to acquire knowledge in history, political systems, cultures, world geography, international affairs, governments, political issues concerning your state and the world. Your educational background in accounting, statistics, interpersonal communication, management, and economic principles including the newest trends are essential. Your exposure to current events is another important qualification you need to acquire as a Diplomat.

The requirement in becoming a Diplomat is high since such position is not for everybody—it is only for the chosen ones, or the ones who were born to become Diplomats. Dreaming on a career of a Diplomat is not enough; you have to start living a lifestyle that is yielding and flexible. More so, such career doesn’t simply pay well, it is way too fulfilling.

As you practice diplomacy, you have to learn how to judiciously separate your personal opinions and beliefs from your professional thoughts grounded in the foreign policies that your country executes.

The job of a Diplomat is a tough one but it is also fascinating area to work in since you are dealing with building strong relationships with other countries, taking care of sensitive issues that will protect your country’s interests, negotiating with foreign ministers and seeking their advice, learning different languages, and finally representing your country the way it should be signified abroad.

Study Graphology and Questioned Document Examination

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IndiaSpainThe United States

Study Housing and Community Development

Choose where you would like to study Housing and Community Development:

BelarusIndiaSpainThe United States

Those behind the current development in magnificent buildings these days are the Housing and Community developers. It is through their knowledge and skills that brought changes in the surroundings as far as housing and community development is concern. For the previous years, houses and other forms of buildings are seen as monotonous because they almost have the same patterns yet the surrounding is not palatable for the eyes. Rarely could you see a community architecturally built as it is not given much attention for it to be improved. But now, almost communities worldwide are being improved making it a better place to live in giving credit to the developers.

Housing and Community Development as a course is not specific to its title. However, one can become Housing and Community developer after finishing a Bachelor’s Degree in Engineering course, Architectural Designing and other Bachelor’s degree relating to improving housing and the community. Usually, they are in collaboration with carpenters and laborers who execute the plans which is only supervised by them. Apart from these people, they are also in communication with financiers who support the project financially.

To become a successful developer, one should be abreast with the latest trends in building designs and landscaping so that the result could go sync with what is in the industry. One should consider factors when planning to include affordability, durability, and safety of both the building and its environment to bring prosperity to the community. Price is one that customers consider. It should be regulated not to be too high and not to low too for balance. Development of houses and the environment is not considered as good if the changes are prone to accidents. Well planned community attracts business of any form making it a center of commerce or an attraction for local and international tourists. This can bring in money for the community in the form of tax and other fees. It can also attract work from nearby places.

Employability in this profession can be a full time or part time. One can work in a company as an Engineer who estimates the housing materials or as an architect to draft how the house looks like.

Usually, being with the company is a long term job since they cater to government projects or huge projects which could go on for years. Salaries in this category vary greatly. It depends on the location, company, and experience. For business minded people, they can be independent to come up with a service firm which can cater to both small group and individual clients in a local level. However, a firm can become international once the business is established. Compensation in this type also depends on the number of clients catered to.

Schools worldwide are offering Bachelor’s courses leading to this endeavor. It is accorded through a series of lectures which includes all aspects of building structures, estimations, and other aspects of building a house and developing its surroundings. Studies catering for a higher related degree are also available.

Study Human Rights

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AustriaEthiopiaIndiaItalyMexicoNetherlandsSpainSwedenThe United KingdomThe United States

Study Institutional Relations

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IndiaSpainThe United States

Institutional relations involve the creation, development and execution of the strategies for organizational growth and expansion. It is usually the responsibility of the institutional relations division of a company, organization, or agency to establish and maintain a strong and enduring relationship with different organizations from different fields of industry and government which are relevant to the pursuit of success of their mother organization. Furthermore, it seeks to build significant partnerships with other organizations that are designed to generate and apply particular programs that are able to respond to the goals and objectives of the company.

A degree in institutional relations can be pursued in different universities and colleges. These degree programs typically teach students to become very accustomed to the intricacies of this profession, develop and build contacts, and gain practical experience that is very valuable in this field.

The introductory course in institutional relations prepares the students to become familiar with each of the basic concepts of this field and how to apply them in the most common situations that they are likely to encounter. It also teaches students about the specific role that institutional relations plays in the modern setting. Case studies and highly involved projects are used to help students analyze actual real world challenges and solutions. This also helps students acquire the skills that they need to be able to handle their future responsibilities such as: improving the image of the organization, releasing formal and official statements, and granting interviews.

Additional courses in institutional relations prepare students to become accustomed to the major components that are needed in this field. There are courses in communication, which is very important in managing the image of an institution; there are courses in ethics, which is vital in helping the students develop professionalism; and then there are courses in relations management, which help students learn how to develop relationships between institutions and how to continuously strengthen them.

Hands on courses are used in teaching the students about the tools and techniques that are employed in institutional relations. Topics in this area include emerging technologies, organizational relations, types and characteristics of media, and communication techniques. The skills and knowledge learned in these hands on courses are usually demonstrated through group projects or individual presentations.

In the advanced courses, institutional relations students are taught about planning and implementing a comprehensive campaign to be used in achieving the institutional relations objectives of a particular company or agency. The students are expected to design plans which outline ways to contact different media outlets such as newspapers and the internet and use them to foster new affiliations with target institutions.

Institutional relations professionals usually land employment in companies that need to improve their image and their network of partners. Careers in management are not uncommon. Institutional relations managers are given the responsibility to promote and facilitate the communications activities of the company, they are also charged with disseminating the recommendations and research results that are generated by the company. Institutional relations managers are also in charge of developing policies and strategies that have the objective of mobilizing financial supplies and resources for the organization.

Study International Cooperation

Choose where you would like to study International Cooperation:

AustriaFinlandIndiaItalySpainThe United States

Study International Development Studies

Choose where you would like to study International Development Studies:

AustriaCanadaDenmarkFranceIndiaNetherlandsNew ZealandSpainSwedenSwitzerlandThe United KingdomThe United States

Are you interested in pursuing a career in which your education and training will allow you to help people and communities throughout the developing world?  If so, the International Development Studies degree program, which is offered at both the undergraduate and graduate level, might be just the right program for you. International Development Studies offers students an interdisciplinary education that focuses on the critical issues, problems and achievements common to the developing regions of the world, giving students the knowledge and training to make a real difference in these areas.  To help you become more familiar with the program, below we have outlined just a few facts regarding the curriculum associated with the International Development Studies degree, along with some common topics of concern for students studying in this major.

International Development Studies:  About the Program

The curriculum to which students will be exposed while pursuing a Bachelor or Master’s of Science degree in the International Development Studies program emphasizes both global and regional scale perspectives, as well as a variety of themes for students to pursue, including those of a political, cultural, aesthetic and private sector nature.  The degree is designed for students with a strong interest in vocations and occupations in which a clear understanding of the various development experiences of the modern world is required.

The coursework (and other educational experiences) in the International Development Studies (IDS) program includes a combination of applied, field case-study learning along with theoretical and conceptual knowledge.  Both of these learning modalities, which are inseparable for these types of studies, will not only benefit students by allowing them to better grasp the curriculum, but will allow them to form a framework in which to approach problems and issues in the future, while working for government agencies, private industry and non-governmental and non-profit organizations.  Most importantly, the IDS program aims to assist students in developing strong critical thinking skills—skills that are essential for attaining knowledge regarding the complex and diverse world community.

The interdisciplinary approach in the IDS program enables students to address critical global issues from a variety of academic perspectives.  These perspectives, which may include those based on anthropology, economics, public health, women’s studies, geography, history, political science and sociology, expose students to the immediate and long-range concerns of the developing countries of Asia, Africa, Latin America, Eastern Europe and the Middle East.
Some of the most common topics of concern in the International Development Studies program include:
  • The consequences of rapid urbanization
  • Development theory and aid institutions
  • The history of international economical expansion
  • Conflict resolution
  • War and political violence
  • Population resource issues and problems
  • The transfer of resources
  • Human migration and refugee relief
  • Health and Illness issues and health services
  • Political stability and Democratization
  • Cultural identity and cultural protection
  • Gender disparities in education, health and employment
  • Survival of indigenous societies
  • And more…
Although not required, students in this major are strongly encouraged to spend at least one semester studying abroad in a developing country and pursue an internship in a local, national or international community development organization

Study International Diplomacy

Choose where you would like to study International Diplomacy:

FranceIndiaSpainThe United States

Study International Politics

Choose where you would like to study International Politics:

AustriaDenmarkIndiaRussiaSpainThe United KingdomThe United States

The study of International Politics is a very relevant field of study under Political Science. Foreign affairs departments of governments around the world are linked to professionals who have diplomas and degrees related to International Politics. International organizations, the international trade, human rights, and foreign policies are being studied by students of International Politics to get an in-depth understanding of what is in store to every graduate of the degree program.

International Politics has profound and potentially long-lasting effects to the students taking up the course as they immerse themselves and do their part in international organizations and participating in the execution of foreign policies. The study also involves future contributions of the students in responding to global issues among various states that is found within the international system.

As a student of International Politics which is mainly connected to being a student of International Relations, you are expected to have a clear-cut and unbiased point of view regarding the roles of foreign states, inter-governmental organizations or IGOS, non-governmental organizations or NGOs, and multinational corporations or MNCs around the world particularly to the state you are serving.

The degree that you will acquire as a graduate of International Politics will be all about your training in both academic and public policy field since you will be candidly involved in analyzing and formulating foreign policies of every particular state you contend with.

The study of International Politics is broad and far-reaching as it draws upon other much diverse fields namely economics, philosophy, law, history, sociology, anthropology, psychology, geography, and cultural studies. More so, the study of International Politics aims to settle and work on issues that implicate the consequences of globalization, ecological sustainability, organized crime, human security, foreign interventionism, economic development, state sovereignty, terrorism, and global finance.

The United Nations, which is the primary organization known internationally, aids to promote peace and security as it is governed by the UN Charter. The United Nations is a major part of two international principal chambers namely General Assembly and Security Council that deal with international debate and action.

As a student of International Politics you are responsible in creating and establishing a good relationship with international organizations like the United Nations as it is affiliated with other large agencies and organs. To name a few such organizations include: World Health Organization, World Bank, International Court of Justice, International Labour Organization, and many more.

The knowledge and mastery of a student of International Politics when it comes to the theories surrounding the course should be seamless so that they can actively and effectively do their part in analyzing the impacts imposed by each theory under the features and scope of international relations. Some of the theories of International Politics are:

  • Epistemology theory
  • Positivist theories (e.g. realism, liberalism, idealism, liberal internationalism, neoliberalism, and regime theory)
  • Post-positivists or reflectivist theories (e.g. international society theory, social constructivism, critical theory, and Marxism)
  • Leadership theories (e.g. interest group perspective and strategic perspective)
  • Poststructuralist theories

International Politics is a great learning and training ground for students who aspire to be involved in international relations. The courses and the entire curriculum of this program will be good enough to make a mark on one’s future career.

The dictionary defines politics as an art or science concerned with guiding or influencing governmental policy, or a process by which groups of people make decisions. Political institutions say that politics, also being the conduct of public affairs for private advantage, aims to protect the rights of the people and assures that justice is dispensed for them, who must be offered the highest amount of freedom in the pursuit of their aspirations.

The word politics comes from the Greek work “polis,” which means city-state or the Latin “politicus” meaning political and French “politique.” As a science, it is now an academic discipline or curriculum which is concerned with the study of the administration of government in many institutions of learning. As a curriculum, it has expanded to include the study of politics of other states, or the interactions and relations between the peoples and nations of the world, foreign affairs and global issues among the states in an international system, and the roles played by these states, inter-government organizations, non-government organizations, and multi-national corporations. This is what they refer to as World or International Politics.

How is this relationship between and among the states of the world maintained?

Although there is an absence of a central government body for these states, this international relationship is maintained through the United Nations Organization. Founded in 1945 after World War II, the UN replaced the League of Nations to stop wars between countries. The UN is supported by 192 member-states in providing an international platform for dialogue to facilitate cooperation in the fields of international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights and ultimate achievement of peace throughout the world.

Colleges and universities help in maintaining sound relations among the states by offering programs of study on International Politics, International Relations, Political Science, or International Studies. These programs are aimed to provide students with insights into international decision-making in such organizations as the UN, European Union, National Treaty Organization (NATO), and the World Trade Organization, among others, and equip them with the knowledge necessary to address global issues, and distinguish the structure and functions of modern states. Among the areas of study under the undergraduate, Master’s and Doctoral degree programs in International Politics are International Law, International Human Rights Law, Civil Procedure, Public Policy, Political Economy, Political Theory, Political Philosophy, Political Concepts and Ideas, International Comparative Politics, Stability and Disintegration of States, Problems in International Politics, Terrorism and Insurgency, War, Peace and Terror, Security Studies, History of Political Thought, History of Foreign Affairs, European Integration and Public Policy, Legislative Studies and Practice, European Studies, Asian Studies, and many other related subject.

Graduates of International Politics are highly regarded by, or attractive to employers because of their strong academic foundation and transferable skills developed throughout the duration of their studies. Some of these employers are in national government institutions, international organizations, non-government organizations, management and marketing firms, education, commerce and industry, civil service, law, and journalism. Others who have inclinations to government administration are even qualified to run for various elective positions in their respective countries of origin.

Job positions for International Politics:

Foreign Service Officer

Your degree in International Relations or International Politics provides you with immeasurable background in diverse fields of studies namely economics, political science, anthropology, sociology, business, and history. Because of the multidisciplinary approach being taught in courses of International Politics, you become immersed with a variety of future occupations and career orientations and one of which is to pursue a career as Foreign Service Officer.

As a Foreign Service Officer you represent your country around the world. You are trained to interact with not just the local government agencies and departments but with international organizations and foreign policy makers and leaders. You are considered to be an emissary and you gain your local and foreign post in embassies and consulates abroad.

As a Foreign Service Officer, you are given the opportunity to opt for a career path that will best suit your interests, trainings, education, and talents. As what has been mentioned earlier, your duties and responsibilities as a Foreign Service Officer will be regarded as duties directly related to career tracks such as Public Diplomacy, Economics, Politics, Management, and Consular among others.

The usual business that you will be handling as a Foreign Service Officer is to work on reports and assemble your reports through writing. You are also expected to have strong communication skills as a Foreign Service Officer. Such skills are highly essential because you are entering a profession that requires you to work with diplomats and decision makers from foreign countries and from around the world.

Foreign Service Officer is a tough job that doesn’t simply require standard education but commitment and dedication as well. As you do negotiations with local governments and foreign policymakers you are expected to handle problems professionally and satisfactorily because the stakes are high. The results that will be yielded with your course of actions and decisions will be taken as international affairs that will benefit an entire country.

As a diplomat and Foreign Service Officer you are leading your country’s Foreign Service department or institution. With this kind of duties and responsibilities, you have to remember that acquiring the position of a Foreign Service Officer is a tough and extremely rigorous process of selection because it is an attractive career that receives high risks if failures happen.

The career of a Foreign Service Officer is considered to be the best-known international career that requires in-depth knowledge in international business and a prominent role in the present condition of the international relations of your country. And so, if you have taken courses that allowed you to master international expertise you can do the job of a Foreign Service Officer.

As a Foreign Service Officer you will gain international experience. Thus, it is indispensable that you develop specialized skills and backgrounds that will be relevant in undertaking foreign language experience.

So, if you are a graduate of law school, business school, political science programs, and international affairs courses you have just gained the opportunity of pursuing the career of a Foreign Service Officer. As you have seen, the duties and responsibilities of a Foreign Service Officer can be very compelling. However, the rewarding achievements and life-changing experiences you will earn are both invaluable and overpowering.

Ambassador

Pursuing the career of an Ambassador requires not just personal commitment but the willingness to contribute and participate in meetings and outreaches with foreign policymakers, thought leaders, and the state he serves.

Around the world, Ambassadors are considered to be accomplished leaders in global organizations. Their capabilities and experiences in dealing with policymakers around the world which includes the media are seamless. Ambassadors are trained to communicate with decision makers and international leaders serving foreign relation agencies and departments.

Here are some of Ambassadors’ key responsibilities and roles in their respective posts:


  • Ambassadors play as key players in determining demanding trade-offs and foreign policies. Such policies deal with executive and legislative priorities, strategic interests of a particular state, explicit human rights and concerns, and relationship between public and private diplomacy among others.

  • Ambassadors are also integrators in promoting human rights and other policies abroad. They will also have to deal with interest groups belonging to the business community, international NGOs, and local communities. As Ambassadors they will gain the power and authority in enacting foreign policies being implemented in foreign agencies, departments, and states.

  • Ambassadors represent their country and they are entrusted to operate and function in their neighbouring countries and acquire a seat in international organizations such as the United Nations and European Unions. Ambassadors’ course of actions, opinions, and point of views are critical in times of settling global issues that is why their responsibilities should be taken seriously and appropriately.

  • As a head of mission in a post, an Ambassador is designated by his country and then obtains approval of the country where he is going. Once the country of post approves his designation his appointment will be announced and published. Later on, the Ambassador receives his duties from both the host country and the country he is serving.


As the highest ranking diplomat and representative of his country, Ambassadors are highly respected individuals who are sent by their country to head mission in a foreign post. Every critical mission that requires dealings with international relations is entrusted to Ambassadors because their country believes that their training and education can be employed in advancing an advocacy that will yield to attaining positive changes for their country and the country that hosts them.

Ambassadors are equipped with diplomatic immunity in the host country which they can employ as they perform their tasks and duties in their respective territories or embassies. As they do their job in their host country, they should work and advise their government regarding the execution of policies that will result in accomplishing the mission of a specific post that the Ambassador is heading.

Apart from that, Ambassadors are also entitled to conduct and enhance the quality of Ambassadors’ materials and messages that will produce results regarding specific legislation. In this case, Ambassadors should be active in articulating and preparing questions and concerns that pertain to global issues and other issues concerning international relations.

The duties and roles of an Ambassador are far-reaching and very pertinent. Hence, it is important to note that as Ambassadors and future Ambassadors, you should be prepared to advocate strategies and international policies and settlement of international disputes that will benefit the majority, especially your country.

Study International Terrorism

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Study Justice Studies

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Are you looking for a degree program that will train and prepare you for one of the many exciting careers in the criminal justice field?  If so, the Bachelor of Science degree in Justice Studies may be the ideal program for you.  The Bachelor of Science degree program in justice studies offers you an interdisciplinary approach to studying both the theory of crime and the criminal justice system, and will give you the tools needed to land a well-paid position following graduation.  Eligible graduates can use this degree as either a springboard to an advanced law degree or pursue one of the many justice-related career positions now available throughout the world.  Below we will take a closer look at the Bachelor of Science degree in Justice Studies—eligibility requirements and coursework—and outline some of the careers and job duties open to those who have earned this degree.
 
Eligibility Requirements and Coursework for a Bachelor of Science in Justice Studies
 
Students who wish to pursue a Bachelor of Science degree in Justice Studies must have a high school diploma or its equivalent to be considered for admission.  The proper candidate should have a strong interest in the legal system and possess excellent research and writing skills.  Like with most undergraduate degree programs, the B.S. in Justice Studies will include general education coursework in addition to classes that focus on their chosen field.  Students who have earned an associate’s degree at a junior or community college can usually transfer that coursework to the college or university of their choice, and those credits will be applied towards their degree.
 
The Focus and Coursework of the Bachelor of Science in Justice Studies
 
Student who enroll in the B.S degree program in Justice Studies typically focus their education on the theory and fundamentals of law and public policy.  They will research the various causes and effects of crime in a given society and strive to discover new policies and procedures that will lead to social change and safer communities.  The development of excellent research skills is a hallmark of this program—skills that can be applied towards the administration of justice.  Once students graduate they will possess a commanding knowledge of the justice/court system and criminal law, along with the newest theories and practices in the investigation of crime and the court system.
 
A Bachelor of Science degree in Justice Studies typically spans four years in duration, with the initial two years focusing on general education subjects such as mathematics, language, history and science. In the final two years, students will focus on upper-division coursework, studying topics such as:
 
  • Research and methodology in criminal justice
  • Communities (societies) and drugs
  • Juvenile crime and delinquency
  • Criminal justice and ethics
  • Family and workplace violence
  • Serial murderers
  • And many more…
 
Bachelor of Science in Justice Studies:  Career Options
 
Following graduation, students who have earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Justice Studies have two general options:  continue their education or seek employment.  With the first option, the B.S. degree entitles students to pursue one of the many Master’s, and later Doctorate-level degree programs in the discipline—programs which focus on both the theory and application of criminal justice.  Advanced students may opt to apply for law school, where if accepted they’ll receive high-level and sophisticated instruction in the field, ultimately allowing them to practice law as an attorney.
 
Most students, however, will choose the second option:  putting their degree to work in a justice-related career field.  Many of these occupations are government positions, at the city, county, state or federal level.  Job titles for these growing careers include:
 
  • Corrections facility officer
  • Probation or parole officer
  • Court administrative worker or bailiff
  • Juvenile detention officer
  • United States Marshall
  • And many more…
 
As you can see, earning a Bachelor of Science Degree in the field of Justice Studies is the first step towards an exciting and rewarding career in the criminal justice system, affording you the opportunity to be part of the solution in the community in which you work and live.

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Study Local Government Administration

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Local governance can be considered as the grassroots of modern politics. Local Government Administration encompasses the administration of public offices in the municipalities, towns, cities, provinces, and other political units, which are governed autonomously from the national government up to a predetermined degree. Local governments are established essentially to promote the common good; and the sole purpose of the offices within it is to serve the constituency by providing peace and security, justice, infrastructure, livelihood, healthcare, and other public services. Area of governance or territories of local governments are usually identified by geographical markers and landmarks. In many societies, local government administrators or officials are selected for office either through an electoral process or by being appointed by an elected official - usually the chief executive of the local government unit. For many, having local government administration as a career is a matter of choice, while some consider it as a calling to be a public servant. Others see it as a family legacy and a birthright.

Divergence in the modern society has created complexities in the political arena, which is felt more significantly in the local government level. This is brought about by the increasing population, cross-cultural interaction, and emergence of different ideologies, beliefs, and sentiments of sub-sectors of the society. It is the job of the local government administrators to address the concerns of different sectors by providing the necessary services, enacting laws to promote the welfare of the people within its territory, and initiating reforms as needed.

Local Government Administration has turned into an academic field of study during the late 19th century as a multidisciplinary subfield of Political Science and is often a post graduate course in many colleges and universities (as such, it requires a Bachelor’s degree before being admitted into the program). Schools that have Local Government Administration in their course offerings immerse their students in public administration theories and principles, financial management, strategic planning, economics, sociology, and leadership ethics. The subjects in the curriculum are designed to ensure that the students are adept in evaluating possible courses of action, as well as making sound decisions. These also equip them with the necessary skills in strategic planning and management through the use of planning models. All in all, students are being prepared to work in different areas of government administration - this could be the legislative, the judicial, or the executive branch.

Ideally, a career in Local Government Administration is for individuals with the innate desire to serve the public. It is for individuals who possess the leadership skills and who can challenge the status quo and initiate reforms that would be beneficial to their constituents. It is for those who uphold justice and put the common good in front of their own. Moral uprightness is an equally important trait for those who would choose to be in this career. The public should be able to entrust the wealth of the community to the hands of the administrators; and these administrators should be worth trusting in steering the course of the lives of their people for the better.

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Study Peace and Conflict Studies

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Study Peace and Justice Studies

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Are you a student interested in studying and perhaps finding solutions to some of the more problematic justice and peace issues of our time?  If so, you may be the perfect candidate for the Bachelor of Science degree program in Peace and Justice Studies.  To help you become more familiar with this increasingly popular degree track, below we will provide an overview of the program, including a brief course description, and a list highlighting both the goals of the program and the expected outcomes for graduates.
 
Bachelor of Science Degree in Peace and Justice Studies:  Course Description and Goals
 
The Bachelor of Science degree in Peace and Justice Studies is an undergraduate program offered at a select number of colleges and universities throughout the world.  This course of study, which typically spans three to four year in duration depending on the institution, can best be described as an interdisciplinary program that provides students the unique opportunity to explore complex social justice and peace issues from the perspective of multiple disciplines—disciplines through which students obtain a deep sense of learning through the integration of ideas.  Throughout the program students are regularly challenged to develop new vision and leadership for bringing about positive societal change.  Through rigorous academic study students will gain critical analysis and dialogue skills as they work to find nonviolent approaches to domestic and foreign policy issues.  Emphasis in the program is placed on both local and global issues of justice and peace—issues that address that common good for the human family and the earth.
 
Students who graduate with a Bachelor of Science Degree in Peace and Justice Studies will be prepared to find meaningful work in the service of the common good, bringing about social change, global interdependence and civic engagement through nonviolent action and change.  Other goals of the program include:
 
  • Provide students with contemporary skills for bringing about change, including peaceful communication, community organization, intercultural engagement and critical inquiry.
  • Arm students with a firm foundation for exploring creative paradigm change for peace building and justice.
  • Give students a multidisciplinary framework for analyzing and working toward solving complicated and complex social issues.
  • Enhance the educational experience of students by providing experiential learning opportunities that are an integral component of academic study.
 
Bachelor of Science Degree in Peace and Justice Studies:  Outcomes and Eligibility Requirements
 
The outcomes for graduates of the Bachelor of Science Degree program in Peace and Justice Studies include:
 
  • Be able to identify and communicate intelligently on intricate peace and justice issues through an eye of interdisciplinary inquiry.
  • Apply theories for social change and practice skills for the effective and efficient transformation of domestic and global justice and peace issues.
  • Become world citizens who comprehend the interdependence and the interconnectedness of the human community and planet.
 
To qualify for admission into the Bachelor of Science Degree program in Peace and Justice Studies students must have at least a high school diploma or its equivalent.  Some institutions may also require students to take an entrance examination prior to being admitted to the university, and some of the courses in the program may have one or two prerequisites which must be taken and passed before enrolling in said course.

Study Protocol

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Study Public Accountant

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Study Public Administration/Management

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Public administration is the practical study of government policies and programs, how they work and how they can be made to work better. It combines elements of budgeting, economics, policy studies, and often some related disciplines like history, political science, and ethics. It is generally considered to be more of a professional field than an academic field, so it is best suited for those who want to be actively engaged in the practice of governance, rather than those who are more interested in studying, discussing, and criticizing government.
 
Personal Qualities
 
  • Excellent communications skills, including strong command of public speaking and writing
  • People skills
  • Passion for politics, activism, or government
  • Desire to do your part in shaping the society in which you live
  • Good “money sense” or background in economics is a plus.
Study Options

As a field of professional study, public administration is not particularly firmly defined, so it’s not always easy to tell what sub-disciplines are part of public administration and which are not. There are a few core branches, however. Some, such as human resource management and organizational theory, draw on insights from managerial and business contexts to help train people who want to work in government. Others, such as policy analysis and public policy ethics, tend to focus more on the academic side of public administration. If you are looking for a job in a specific sector of government, it is sometimes possible to specialize in exactly that sector – for example, there may be degrees in healthcare administration that would be perfect for people interested in this function of government.
 
Career Options

There are essentially three options for people who have degrees in public administration: government, nonprofit sector, and academia. Your career experience will be very different depending on which of these areas you end up in, so it’s worth taking some time to think about which one is best for you ahead of time. That said, the boundaries are fairly permeable, so you shouldn’t feel as though you are stuck in one track once you pick it. Many people go from government to the nonprofit sector, for example, or from academia into government.

Study Public Affairs

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In the field of studies, public affairs is defined as the learning of problems and issues involving the reciprocal relation between the public and the government; it is the study that determines the carrying of the detailed matters that concern the governing body of the state.

In schools, public affairs relates on the concept of authority to govern, transferring of authority from central to local government, responsibility, and government’s protection to group of clients. It is the objective of the discipline to establish relationship of fairness and impartiality based in the principle of democratic quality of enhancement; administration of law or equity; adequately operative; carrying out of public services particularly in the area of nonprofits and non-taxable.

The objective of government - the specific function, the implementing measures that support the democratic systems, resources allocations, method of governing, and peoples’ concern- are matters that are expounded. The appropriate venue for the ventilation of ideas is the principle of public administration, and the school; this is where the student gives the benefit to the principle in question.

In the study, the student can choose what graduate degree he has to attain: Masters of Public Affairs, Masters of Public Administration, Masters of Public Policy, and Masters of Public Management. He can also pursue the doctorate degree in public administration and select either one of: Doctor of Public Administration or the Ph.D. in Public Administration.

If the student chooses the degree Masters of Public Administration (MPA), he opted for a public assistance career in management which offers different kinds of public assistance in every rank in government, in the private sector, in organized group of people, and in the international sphere. He follows the programs used by leaders and managers: develop the skills and methods; carry out strategic plans; plan or propose undertakings, aims measures with long term objectives. The student learns to solve budgetary problems, human resource tasks, and structural complexities.

Essential courses include decision making and problem solving; government affairs and moral law and processes for the mechanism of knowledge; human resources budgeting and financial processes; preparation of policies and programs; implementation and assessment; social division based on economic or social status; concept of organization and running of a business or system and response to situation or behavior.

Public policy programs are: political science, economics, statistics, law, international relations, international development, public finance, ethics, sociology, and public administration. Other schools have quantitative analysis, management information systems, organizational behavior, project management and operations research.

Around the world there are schools that offer the course: In Ottawa, Canada, there is the Carleton University; School of International and Public Affairs at Columbia University; London School of Economics and Political Science; the Institut d’Etudes Politiques de Paris, the Hertie School of Governance in Berlin; the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy at the National University of Singapore; the Universidad Externado de Colombia in Bogota; Renmin University in Beijing. Every country around the world has two or more universities that offers Public Affairs course. In the U.S., there is Harvard University; New York University’s Center for Global Affairs; John Hopkins University; Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Stanford University; Tufts University; University of California; University of Colorado; Yale University; Duke University; University of Chicago; University of Indiana; and many more.

Careers for Public Affairs graduate are open and wide, such as: different kinds in the area of public service, in all levels of government institutions, in nonprofit organizations, in the international sphere, and in the private sector.

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Do you strongly believe that everyone should have access to basic and emergency dental care, particularly children and those that may be unable to afford it due to poverty or disability?  Have you considered pursuing a degree in Public and Child Dental Health, a degree in which you can use your dentistry knowledge and skills to help the young and unfortunate maintain excellent oral health?  If so, the following information should be very helpful.  Below we will provide a brief synopsis outlining the typical path and eligibility requirements for a degree in Public and Child Dental Health, along with a description of some of the content students will encounter while participating in the program and the career outlook for qualified graduates.
 
Public and Child Dental Health:  Degree Path and Eligibility Requirements for Admission
 
For students considering earning a degree in Public and Child Dental Health, the first step is to enter into and complete an approved pre-dental bachelor degree program.  These programs generally span four to five years in duration and include subject matter that is essential in the dental industry.  In most of these programs the main emphasis is on the sciences, including biology, chemistry, biochemistry and health science, with an additional focus on courses in health care, medicine, mathematics and physics.  To qualify for admission into a pre-dental degree program you must possess a high school diploma or its equivalent and demonstrate a strong aptitude in math and science.  Depending on the institution (and the level of grades earned at the secondary school level), you may have to take and pass a university entrance examination prior to admission.
 
After earning your bachelor degree, you will then need to apply to an accredited dental school.  Acceptance to a school of this kind is based largely on your grade point average and test scores earned during the pre-dental program, but in addition to these transcripts you will also need to submit no less than three letters of recommendation, written by people with firsthand knowledge of your academic abilities and achievements.  Some dental schools also have an interview process prior to admission, in which you will meet with admissions personnel and program faculty to discuss, among other things, the reasons you are seeking admission into the program. 
 
Dental school typically spans four to five years in duration, ultimately leading to a Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS) or a Doctor of Dental Medicine (DDM) degree.  Dentists obtain a license to practice their specialty after passing the National Board Dental Examinations, which consist of both written and clinical exams.
 
Public and Child Dental Health:  Content and Career Outlook
 
Those pursuing a degree in Public and Child Dental Health will acquire information and skills that will prepare them to help protect and improve the oral health of infants, children, adolescents and special needs patients.  In conjunction with learning to treat teeth and mouth problems, students will also discover ways to educate patients and parents on the value of clean teeth and preventing tooth decay—providing guidance on a wide range of oral health issues, such as flossing, brushing and using fluoride.  Ultimately, as a pediatric and public health graduate students will be able to correct the position of out of place teeth, fix fractured teeth and fill cavities, while simultaneously helping to keep patients and their families calm, prepared and informed.
According to the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, the potential for job growth in the field of Public and Child Dental Health is very promising, expected to increase by over 16 percent over the next six years (2012 and 2018)—a growth rate higher than it is in almost all other occupations.  Pediatric and Public Health dentists are also rewarded handsomely in most cases for their unique skills and abilities, earning a median income of nearly $163,000 as of September 2012.

Study Public Governance

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Study Public Health

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Public Health professionals work to improve the quality of life of people living in an entire community. They are responsible in educating and making public understand and become aware of safety and health issues to both prevent and cure illnesses. There are many Public Health career choices and each encompasses a diverse variety of duties and responsibilities. For instance, a Public Health worker is also an epidemiologist who knows how to track down and eventually determine the causes and sources of a specific disease. In other terms, they are the future health educators who teach the public the right means to avoid getting sick. Moreover, Public Health professionals are most often revered because they create huge impact in the lives of many people. Their efforts and contributions in making the public improve the way and quality of life make them an important part of any private or public organizations.

To become a public health official, one can take a degree in Pubic Health, a multidisciplinary program that prepares students excel in their chosen areas. Finding a career in Biomedical Laboratory, Biostatistics, Epidemiology, Behavioral Sciences, Nutrition, International Health Organization, Health Education, Public Health Practice, Program Management, and Environmental will be easy as they are equipped with the right knowledge the profession requires. Also, a career in Public Health allows professionals to be included in high-earning spectrum. Though compensation may vary, they can still augment their earnings by working in a geographic area that offers higher salary. Gaining more job experience is easy enough because graduates of Public Health degree are considered to be the most sought-after professionals in many regions of the world since such students have broad-based knowledge and qualitative skills needed in solving health-related problems and in establishing strategies in health promotion.

To invest on your career and to earn higher salary, a graduate of Public Health degree can take master’s degree or doctor’s degree. Such post graduate studies will not just add to your long-list of credentials but it will widen one’s scope and knowledge as well. Even if one doesn’t have an advanced degree in Public Health, one can still land a job as public health management analyst, manager, environmental health intelligent analyst, director of programs and services, research scientist, and health communication specialist among others.

The profession in Public Health has gone a long way since the beginning of 20th century. The infant mortality declines, deadly diseases where treated if not wiped out, a number of communicable diseases have been eliminated, and the average life expectancy had improved by 30 years. There are many accounts that should be look at in terms of contributions Public Health workers have done to improve people’s lifestyle, in prolonging life, and promoting health. Such efforts continue to soar since new students take new courses and pioneer beneficial changes for global community.

Graduates of Public Health program like health services administrators can earn as much as $161,000 annually. With this kind of salary income, it is not surprising why many students choose to become public health professionals.

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Study Public Policy

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Are you considering pursuing a degree in Public Policy, also known as Public Policy and Administration?  Do you have questions regarding the curriculum for this course of study and the career prospects for qualified graduates?  If so, the following information may prove very useful.  Here we will cover some of the specifics with regard to the Bachelor of Degree program in Public Policy—what it’s about, the curriculum, etc.—and introduce you to some of the career opportunities and the employment outlook for holders of this degree.
 
The Bachelor of Arts Degree in Public Policy
 
With a Bachelor of Arts degree in Public Policy and Administration, students are prepared to make important decisions and influence policy that may directly or indirectly affect an organization, a community and/or an entire state or region.  Holders of this degree generally have a strong understanding of policy analysis—a skill that is crucial in career positions for which professionals are charged with the design, formulation and implementation of new policies for a wide array of business and industry types.
 
About the Bachelor of Arts in Public Policy
 
The degree program in Public Policy affords students a wonderful opportunity to acquire an in-depth knowledge and understanding of the processes related to policy development and implementation through direct government action as well as public and private interaction.  The program typically spans four years or eight full semesters in duration, and includes both general education courses, along with core coursework directly related to the Public Policy discipline.  While the exact titles of the core courses may vary depending on the institution, they may include classes such as:
 
  • Organizational Communication
  • Social Problems and Policy
  • Management Information Systems
  • Public Personnel Management
  • Process Improvement Methodologies
  • Public Finance
  • Grant Administration and Resource Development
  • Administrative Law
  • Policy Leadership
  • And more…
 
In each of these classes students will focus on one or more of the major elements of public policy, decision making and administration, including the structure and processes of government; the economic factors involved in public administration; the history and evolution of public policy law; the essential tools required for the implementation of policy decisions; the goals and objectives of public policy; the methodology used to evaluate policy decisions; the processes by which public policy is formulated and implemented; and the role of the public sector in the development and implementation of public policy.
 
Public Policy:  Career Opportunities
 
There are a number of potential career opportunities for those with an undergraduate or graduate degree in Public Policy.  Some of these include:
 
  • Labor arbitrator
  • Campaign manager or assistant
  • City Manager
  • Customs agent or investigator
  • Planning and research director
  • Financial analyst
  • Intelligence specialist
  • Internal auditor
  • Legislative analyst
  • Lobbyist
  • Military officer
  • Personnel and labor manager
  • Urban and regional planner
  • And hundreds more…
 
According to the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, nearly 40 percent of all Public Policy graduates will find work in governmental agencies, but there are also many employed in private businesses and industries, as well as in educational and non-profit settings.  Because of this flexibility, degree holders in public policy are constantly in high demand, with many securing position even before completing their degree.

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Study Social Administration

Choose where you would like to study Social Administration:

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The essence of social administration lies in the interaction between the changing social needs of the population living in a particular society or a part of it and how their needs are determined and achieved. The Social Administration degree provides students introduction to social policy making, in-depth understanding of the provision of welfare within the public, private, voluntary, mutual aid, and informal sectors, the development and implementation of public services, and the strengthening of service organizations.

The program will cultivate students’ skills in delivering advanced social work practices in their chosen area of concentration (e.g. community and social development). To effectively work in diverse settings, students are trained and taught to polish their skills and abilities as future social work professionals. After all, the program is about working ethically and excellently to spark and effect relevant changes first in individuals, families, groups, and then with organizations and communities.

Students establish their influence, power, and control over their functions as social beings as they pursue employment in various sectors. The duties and responsibilities given to them encompass comprehensive structures that will enable them to handle various areas of concentration namely management, community organization, policy analysis, and developments.

Their solid foundation is comprised of intensive education and trainings acquired in taking the program that offers learning opportunities in social economy, social justice issues, administration of social justice, independent advocacy services, social policymaking, and social actions and executions among others. To complete the course, students will be asked to conduct research in social work and be able to put theories into applications once they kick off their career in the field.

Students looking for strong study education are fit enough to become Social Administration degree holders. Since the course also offers counseling and integration guidance, one of the future careers that awaits students is a counseling position for opportunity cohorts and individuals undergoing various life crises.

Graduates of the course are also qualified to perform the duties of a social policymaker wherein their main duties is to help a specific society promote social change and look for resolutions that will address social issues that require immediate actions.

Since the program involves making and evaluating of policies, students need to determine the effectiveness of policies that are formulated. By taking the course, they will not just evaluate policies but be certain that policies meet their objectives. Because social policies are designed and created to affect people, targets that will become recipients of the policies will be identified. Moreover, the policies should not just provide universal benefits but also govern social practices that will overcome identified problems.

Indeed, the course is a multifaceted program that calls for refined and educated professionals who have the potentials and credentials to make choices that will benefit other people. If a student acquires the position of a social policymaker, he then aims to meet the social needs and enhance the social welfare systems of the state. Yes, Social Administration degree holders are not the most-compensated workers but they lead the way to the betterment of people’s welfare.

Study Social and Economic Development Studies

Choose where you would like to study Social and Economic Development Studies:

AustriaIcelandSpainThe United KingdomThe United States

Are you seeking a degree in the social sciences, one that combines Sociology and Economics in the study of how cities, states and/or nations develop?  If so, you may be a perfect candidate for the Bachelor of Arts degree program in Social and Economic Development Studies. The Bachelor of Arts degree in Social and Economic Studies is the perfect pathway for students who wish to learn about the various social and economic changes and issues that either positively or negatively affect a region’s development.  The course of study in its entirety is based on the theoretical and methodological foundation of the social sciences, with an emphasis on the causes of rapid social changes in both the developed and developing regions of the world, and the consequences of those changes.  Below we will discuss the Bachelor of Arts degree program in Social and Economic Development in a bit more detail, including a brief synopsis of the curriculum, the eligibility requirements and some of the career opportunities available for graduates.
 
Bachelor of Arts in Social and Economic Development Studies
 
The Bachelor of Arts degree program in Social and Economic Development Studies is designed to provide students with a preliminary basis for careers in the fields of society and developmental issues, both domestically and abroad.  Additionally, the degree lays a foundation for advanced studies in other branches of the social sciences.  Through the course of the program students will acquire a basic insight into the attributes and characteristics of various societies and the social and economic issues those societies face.  Among the many topics covered in the program are:
 
  • The principal theories and research conducted in the sector of society development
  • Methodology of statistics and field studies
  • The characteristics of both the natural and human environment
  • The structure of societies and their politics, both at home and abroad
  • The organization and implementation of social and economic research
  • The presentation of research conclusions for both laymen and scholars
 
The Bachelor of Arts Degree typically takes three to four years to complete, amounting to 180 credits under the new Bologna credit and degree system.  Student evaluation is generally based on periodic appraisal throughout each semester, culminating with a capstone research project in the final year.  During the initial year of the program a foundation is laid for studies in the social sciences and economic theory.  Topics such as the Industrial Revolution and its consequences throughout the world will be a major area of focus in the program, as will the principal theories in sociology, social and economic trends, and the current climate of Western thought in the 21st century.
 
All students with a high school diploma or its equivalent are eligible to apply for admission into the Bachelor of Arts degree program in Social and Economic Development Studies.  However, depending on the university some students may be required to take and pass an entrance exam prior to admission.
 
Careers in Social and Economic Development Studies
 
According to employment studies, graduates with a B.A, in any of the social studies are highly sought in today’s employment market.  While a degree in this field does not necessarily amount to professional certification in any one area of expertise, there is a significant demand for qualified individuals with a well-rounded knowledge of society, a command of methodology procedures, and discipline in their work procedures and training.  Social Science majors can go on to work in jobs linked to development issues both domestically and abroad, in fields such as sociology, economics and social anthropology.  The degree can also qualify students as social science instructors at primary and secondary schools, and also a great first step towards an advanced degree in the social sciences, which is typically required for students who wish to teach at the college and university levels.

Study Social Justice

Choose where you would like to study Social Justice:

SpainThe United KingdomThe United States

Study Social Policy

Choose where you would like to study Social Policy:

AustriaFinlandIrelandNew ZealandSouth KoreaSpainThe United KingdomThe United States

Are you a student with a strong interest in Social Policy and how social policy issues are made shaped and influenced at local, state, national and global levels?  Do you want to better understand the various world views, assumptions and philosophies underlying social policy solutions?  If so, you may want to consider pursuing a Master of Science Degree in Social Policy.
 
Master of Science Degree in Social Policy:  Course Overview and Details
 
The Master of Science degree in Social Policy is a graduate level program offered by most major colleges and universities throughout the world.  The program, which typically spans eighteen months to two years in duration, is designed to prepare students to assume policy leadership positions in government, philanthropic organizations, research institutes, non-profit and non –governmental organizations, and others related settings.
 
Students enrolled in the Master of Science Degree program in Social Policy will study the factors that underlie social policy decisions, such as political ideology, religious views and morality.  Through coursework and practical applications they will acquire information as to how social policies decisions are made at each level of government and learn to formulate a social agenda that is evidenced-based and aims to improve the equity, effectiveness and efficiency of policy creation and implementation.  The program is great for those who have recently earned a bachelor’s degree in one of the social sciences and perfect for mid-level professionals working in a wide variety of organizational settings.
 
Master of Science Degree in Social Policy:  Coursework
 
The coursework for the Master of Science degree program in Social Policy may vary slightly from one institution to the next, but it typically contains course titles such as:
 
  • Issues, Strategies and Processes in Social Policy.  In this class students will learn that analyzing social policy requires a broad understanding of social problems and issues and the processes by which policy is developed and implemented.
  • Research and Evaluation Design.  This course introduces social research methods in the context of social policy and program evaluation.
  • Quantitative ReasoningQuantitative Reasoning is a course designed specifically to provide students with a broad range of quantitative methods and applications. The course enables to students to gain a conceptual understanding of inferential statistics including probability theory, confidence intervals, and hypothesis testing.
  • Social Policy and the Courts.  This course takes an in depth look at policy making in the United States, particularly the social policy that is set and evaluated by the judicial branch of government.
  • Economic and Financial Foundations for Social Policy.  This class enables students to test and develop their capacity for applying conceptual tools and analytical methods to sometimes messy and always complicated, real-life situations.
  • Capstone Research Project.  In the Capstone Research Project students will work as a team to evaluate real-world social policy and present their findings to the faculty.
 
To qualify for admission into the Master of Science Degree Program in Social Policy students must possess, at minimum, a bachelor degree, preferably in one of the social sciences (political science, sociology, etc.), with a 2.5 grade point average (GPA) in all required coursework.  In most cases, students in the U.S. will also need to earn a combined score of 1000 or better on the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) prior to being considered for admission.

Study Social Welfare

Choose where you would like to study Social Welfare:

AustraliaBrazilChileColombiaIndiaMexicoPeruSouth KoreaSpainThe United States

Are you thinking about pursuing a career in which you can truly affect the lives of others in your community in a very positive manner?  Have you considered a career in social welfare, helping those less fortunate live fuller and more productive lives through counseling and other methods?  Social welfare programs are not only a positive aspect in societies, but in many cases, they are absolutely essential, ensuring that every person is able to tend to their most basic of needs.  However, in order to qualify for a career position in this ever-growing field, you will first need to acquire the knowledge and skills that will allow you to successfully provide this type of assistance.  This is exactly what you will gain with an undergraduate or graduate degree in social welfare.  To help you get started, below we have provided a brief description of both the undergraduate and graduate degree programs in social welfare, including some of the courses you will encounter and the eligibility requirements for admission into each of these programs.
 
Degree Programs in Social Welfare
 
Undergraduate Degree
 
The undergraduate or A.B. degree in social welfare is a four to five-year liberal arts major, with a focus on the social sciences and core social welfare courses.  Through this program, students will be introduced to the various societal problems that affect individuals and families, along with the methods and policies currently in place designed to help provide assistance.  The undergraduate degree in Social Welfare allows students to test their career interest in social work before seeking employment in the field or moving on to complete graduate-level professional education.  The program also serves as a flexible pre-professional major for various other fields in the social and behavioral sciences.
 
To qualify for admission into the A.B. degree program in Social Welfare, students must possess a high school diploma or its equivalent and achieved a passing score in a number of lower-division prerequisite courses, including:
 
  • Introduction to Psychology
  • Introduction to Statistics
  • Introduction to Sociology
  • Introduction to Anthropology
  • Introduction to Economics
  • Political Science I
 
Successful candidates must also complete the Letters and Science Reading and Writing Composition requirement prior to admission into the program.
 
Graduate Degree
 
An undergraduate or A.B. degree in Social Welfare can certainly help lay the groundwork for a successful career helping others, but for students who plan to pursue employment as a Social Worker at the city, county or state level, they will first need to earn, at minimum, their Master’s degree in Social Work, or M.S.W.   This two-year program helps prepare students for advanced practice in the social welfare field, and combines classroom courses and professional fieldwork designed to teach students how to use tested knowledge, skill and research methods in their practice. 
 
Applicants for admission into the M.S.W. program must have a Bachelor Degree in a related field, with strong academic preparation in the liberal arts and sciences, including coursework in the social and behavioral sciences.  In addition to these requirements, students will need to take introductory coursework in social welfare and social work, with a special emphasis on current research methods and quantitative reasoning.

Study Sustainable Development

Choose where you would like to study Sustainable Development:

AustraliaCanadaChinaFranceGermanyIrelandItalyNepalNetherlandsNew ZealandSpainSwedenThe United KingdomThe United States

The concept of Sustainable Development started in 1980 as a call for environmentalism going hand-in-hand with the needed development. The basic idea is to find ways of satisfying today’s needs without depriving the future generations of a chance to meet their own needs, as well. This was given more emphasis in early 1980s as the United Nation’s (UN) World Commission on Environment and Development spearheaded programs for worldwide realization of this concept. They then defined two founding pillars of Sustainable Development, namely [1] the essential needs of the poor people of the present and [2] the limit or control mechanism into how environment should be utilized to meet these essential needs. Sustainable Development has then evolved to add to environmental sustainability the concepts of socio-political (i.e., promoting democracy, through basic human rights, to enable people to improve their lives) and economic sustainability (i.e., availability of employment opportunities that will provide the means on how people may meet their basic needs). It is, therefore, a balance among today’s needs, tomorrow’s needs, and taking care of the means that provides these needs – the environment and natural resources. Programs gearing towards Sustainable Development are deployed in developing and third world countries, where the tendency to exploit the environment to be able to alleviate the poverty level is higher.

But how do we apply Sustainable Development amidst today’s challenges, such as rapid population growth, food shortage, dwindling environment and ecosystems, diminishing sources of energy, industrialization, and urbanization? Sustainable Development, for instance, says that we should only cut trees that we can replace, provided the newly planted ones will grow in a rate that would make it ready for logging when the next need comes. The increasing demand for paper products, textiles, furniture, and other products that we make out of trees does not allow for this. What about the increasing demand for oil products? Oil is a non-renewable resource. How does the present generation manage all these? The challenges we have today are never easy to face; and our continuing problems in these aspects of life give high tendency of passing it to generations to come. This is why the global programs supporting the concept of Sustainable Development are towards finding the root causes and solving or at least mitigating the problems from there. For example, these programs take a look at the rate at which world population grows. Overpopulation makes a lot of things uncontrollable and unsustainable – environment-wise and socio-economic-wise. Worldwide campaign for population control or responsible parenting has been running for years. Sustainable Development programs also collaborate with industries and governments in search for alternative ways of doing business – the use of environment-friendly materials, producing reusable or recyclable products, implementation of governing laws to ensure control mechanisms are observed, etc.

Some critiques of Sustainable Development see the concept as idealistic, all by-the-book, quite a long shot, or even a fantasy. This is true if people of today will not shift their paradigm into being forward thinkers. We often hear about “one day millionaire.” They are those who spend all their resources in one day and could not care any less about what tomorrow brings. Maybe their mindset is “What if tomorrow does not come? Might as well enjoy what I can with whatever I have today!” Sustainable Development is a mindset on its own. Its programs are needed to put balance in adverse effects of different mindsets of billions of individuals that make up this world.

There are institutions offering courses about Sustainable Development. These courses are taken by people who have depth and sincere concern about environment, economics, and sociology. It requires its advocates to have founding knowledge of economic assessment and planning, risk management, industrial awareness (to see how one industry can still operate with minimum cost and less damage to the environment), and environmental science (marine, forestry, air, etc.). Students are immersed in communities and situations, where they can possibly observe problems with balance among environment, economics, and sociology; and recommend possible solution. Since Sustainable Development is a global concern, these courses offer career opportunities in global setting.

Study Tax

Choose where you would like to study Tax:

GermanyIndonesiaSloveniaSouth KoreaSpainThe United States

Tax is a combination of administration, accountancy and law. It describes or symbolizes a vast range of intellectual, philosophy and personal skills. Tax is a charged that inflict by the government on income, goods or commodities and activity. It is not a voluntary charge or contribution, but an imposed donation, demanded pursuant to lawmaking authority to support the government. A Tax refers to direct and indirect taxes. A direct tax is imposed directly on corporate or personal tax, while indirect tax is imposed on the value or cost of a service or goods.

The primary purposes or consequences of taxation include revenue, representation, reprising and redistribution. The money raise from the revenue taxes is utilized on schools, hospitals, routes and other indirect government purposes. Representation refers to the catchphrase or motto of the American revolutionary "no taxation without representation" means monarch tax citizens and nationals require liability from their monarch as other part of this deal. Reprising pertains to taxes charge to tobacco in order to show opposition or persuade against smoking. Redistribution is a way of transferring the assets or belongings from the wealthier parts of high society to lower class society.

Pecuniary resource rendered by taxation has been utilized by countries and their operational equivalents during the olden times to accomplish or fulfill numerous functions. These operational equivalents include consumptions or expenses on war, social control of public order and law, protection of belongings, public works, social engineering, economic infrastructure and the function of government itself. Recently, the government also utilizes the taxes to finance public services and benefit. These services and benefits can include health care systems, education systems, unemployment benefits, pension for senior, public transportation, water, energy, and waste management systems. The social security systems are destined or planned to support the disabled or handicap, the retired, the poor by means of taxes that were collected for those people who are still working. Also, Taxes are enforced to fund overseas and military financial support, to have an effect on the macroeconomic public presentation of the economy or to adapt patterns of expenditure within an economic system.

Some of the categories of Taxes are ad valorem (is base in value of service, property, goods and usually enforced at the value added tax), capital gains (charged on the income released upon the auction of a capital cost), corporation (pertains to direct tax imposed by several legal power on the income made by organizations), sales (imposed when the product is sold or disposed to its final shopper or user), tariffs (fee for the movement of merchandise via a political border), toll (fee to travel by way of bridge, canal, tunnel, road or other transportation amenities)

Opportunities for Tax career include Tax Director (supervise the entire functions of the company tax department and rendering the necessary direction or advice for long-run planning), Payroll Tax Administrator (in-charge for entire payroll tax activities, as well as filing and compliance with state, local, and federal payroll tax returns) and Tax Accountant (responsible in tax planning, research and submission, financial statement preparation, evaluate and prepare the tax return).

If you choose Tax as a profession, there is a chance or opportunity to work in the government, private companies and industry as a tax practitioner. It can also guide you to commercial management.

Job positions for Tax:

Tax Advisor

A Tax Advisor is an individual who is an expert in financial matters particularly in tax law. They clarify and give details to the customers regarding the complicated legislation in simple or straightforward terms. Other countries demand Tax Advisors to assert the balance sheets of organizations. Individuals normally need Tax Advisors to reduce or understate the taxation and to understand the facts of tax law from an expert point of view.

The work of a Tax Advisor has two main areas: the tax planning and the tax compliance. Tax planning engages in looking forward and coordinates with the customers concerning legally or lawfully to reduce the tax liabilities in the future, while the tax compliance involves in making and submitting tax returns, figuring or working out other related documents.

Tax Advisors should render clients with the highest quality service. They communicate with the customers concerning the terms of the participation or commitment. For instance, the advisor must determine the customer’s anticipated outcome and must have an agreement between the client about the form and extent of the advice or support to be provided. They research, study and understand the tax legislation. They form or create the details or information, find out which facts are applicable, evaluate or analyze the rationality of any statement or ideas concerning the relevant law to the pertinent facts and making a conclusion affirmed by the data and law. They advise the customer with regards to the significance of the conclusion or decision reached. Tax Advisors may also accomplish complete calculations to compute tax liability. They also submit the tax returns in the applicable time limit or deadline. They deal and mediate with HM Revenue & Customs in behalf of the customer. They also act reasonably and with integrity in exercise prior to the Internal Revenue Service. Customers include worldwide transnational, individual taxpayers and small local business organization.

Some freelance Tax Advisor also tender or provide their customers with accountancy services, for instance value added tax (VAT), payroll and bookkeeping. A Tax Advisor’s work is dependent on the type and size of the company or employer. Bigger accountancy business firms incline to follow a structure that allows greater specialization.

The required education for this kind of profession is a Bachelor's degree or Master's degree. A Tax Advisor must have the ability to communicate with various professionals at all levels of the company. They must have the capacity to work under pressure to meet the deadline on time. They must inform the team and the administration with regards to improving course of action or processes. Other qualifications needed to become a successful in this kind of career include time management, interpersonal skills, teamwork, and problem solving abilities.

According to the salary survey report in United States, the approximate salary for Tax Advisor particularly in New York, New Jersey, South Dakota, North Carolina, Texas, Washington and Kentucky ranges from 80,000 to $115,000 per year. But it also depends to the company, state, duties and responsibilities, projects and level of expertise.

Study Territory Organization

Choose where you would like to study Territory Organization:

SpainThe United States

Study Treasury Public Funds

Choose where you would like to study Treasury Public Funds:

SpainThe United States

Study Urban Studies and Planning

Choose where you would like to study Urban Studies and Planning:

ArgentinaAustraliaAustriaBangladeshBrazilCanadaChileChinaDenmarkEcuadorEgyptEthiopiaFinlandFranceGermanyGreeceIndiaIranItalyLebanonLuxembourgMaltaNetherlandsNew ZealandNigeriaPanamaPeruPhilippinesSaudi ArabiaSouth KoreaSpainThe United KingdomThe United StatesUgandaVenezuela

Urban planning deals with urban studies that involve land use planning, transportation planning, urban renewal, designs of settlements, regeneration of cities, and exploration of social environments of municipalities and communities that are urbanized. This study even extends its scope to architecture and landscape architecture. More so, Urban Planning paves the way to the execution of urban planning methods that aim to alleviate and improve the causes of long-term infrastructural decay.

The study of Urban Studies and Planning can be rooted to Roman’s ancient civilization, the time when city planning was done for military defense and civil convenience. At present, the concept behind city planning is mainly linked to sustainable development and sustainability of a particular city or region as it faces problems cause by overuse of natural resources, pollution, and the rise of social inequality, ecosystem annihilation, and large-scale climate change. As a result, there is efficient use of land, better access to transportation, efficient use of resources, less pollution and waste, good housing and settlement, healthy social ecology, restoration and conservation of natural resources, and even preservation of the city’s culture and values.

Students who take the course are able to learn theories and practices that will enable them to build livable communities in the future. With the kind of education they will acquire, challenges along their way of completing the course will be faced to spark and bring about social change in much larger contexts.

There are many communities around the world that are impacted with natural calamities, worse, natural disasters triggered by man’s irresponsible actions and activities. As students learn the principles behind the study of Urban Studies and Planning, reconstruction of previously destructed areas will take place.

The course highlights many areas of studies that discuss the right participation when it comes to planning, supporting, recovery, and rebuilding of communities and cities. Apart from that, students get to develop their skills and capabilities in various planning events like public administration. During the period of the course, students get to immerse themselves to holistic approaches that will not just study various urban environments but how they become a part of the social, historical, and cultural aspects of urban areas. To create skilled and responsible professionals, universities and other educational institutions offering Urban Studies and Planning should make clear the relevance of complementing their course with other in-depth understanding and studies of equally relevant subject matters that include: nonprofit leadership, geographic information systems, historic preservation, urban design and housing, environmental studies and public culture among others.

The expeditious urbanization of the last century paved the way to various significant changes and demand for planning the utilization of resources and the desire to restructure urban landscapes to make it much better place to live in.

Graduates of the course are expected to become excellent and legitimate urban planners who will initiate improvements and betterments in cities that undergo a total makeover and makeshift that will help in resolving urban issues and manifest principles, practices, and actions needed in addressing urban concerns.

Study War Studies

Choose where you would like to study War Studies:

AustraliaThe United KingdomThe United States

Throughout man’s history, there has never been an occasion as momentous as war. Normally, war disrupts the normal flow of any civilization’s way of life. Men leave their families to fight while those left behind, the women, children and the elderly, are in constant fear praying that their love ones make it back home and that the enemy doesn’t reach their homes. Usually, as a form of reference, a lot of people refer a point in time in history by citing great war leaders to refer to a particular point in time like Alexander the Great’s time or Napoleon Bonaparte’s time or it could be an era when a nation flourished because of their superior military might during their golden age as was the case of Ancient Rome, the Hittites, the Akkadians, the Babylonians or sometimes great wars like World War I and II, The Seven Years War or the Crusades. History of man is basically the history of the evolution of warfare.

Wars are constantly present in any century and almost every nation has its own internal war to fight. Because war is really that an undeniable an event, studying war is only but a logical path to traverse to. The field of study that takes an in-depth look at war is officially called War Studies.

War Studies is apparently distinct from Military History as it also tackles different fields of studies such as Philosophy of War, Psychology of War, International Studies and Military Strategies.

The subject of Military History will tackle the chronology of armed conflicts in man’s history along with their impact to society, their cultures, economies and internal and external feuds. Analyzing military history is a useful tool in formulating future plans and policies in the development of society.

Philosophy of War on the other hand examines war beyond strategy and weapons used in combat. The scope of this subject includes the relationship between war and human nature. The ethics of war is also included under this topic where political justice, religious and moral considerations of waging or engaging in a war is examined very closely.

In Psychology of War, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (or PTSD) and Psychological Operations (better known as PSYOPs) are the main topics that students of War Studies would most likely encounter. Post traumatic stress disorder usually develop among the citizenry and military personnel in societies involved in a war and this subject would give guidelines on how to minimize and deal with PTSD and as well as how to increase morale of everyone be it combat or non-combat personnel. Psychological Operations, meanwhile, are concerned with techniques in influencing a target’s value systems, morale, emotions, reasoning or behavior. Basically, this is what the Vietcong used in warring with a stronger force like the US Army. They tortured US soldiers and leave them in such a traumatic state and let them be rescued so the rescued soldiers can recount how they were mutilated and punished during their captivity. The Vietcong did also a lot of damage with land mines causing American soldiers to go home with a lost limb or two. When the public had seen enough soldiers in such a state of shock, the clamor to abandon the Vietnam War got enough steam and forced them to admit defeat.

International Studies come to the picture as wars are usually fought between two different nations and would concern with relationships with other nations that would be strained or would need to be sacrificed. International Studies would also delve in other fields such as international laws and politics, economics, foreign interventionism, human rights and nuclear proliferation.

Of course, Military Strategies would be the best part of the course. This is where the famous war treatise “The Art of War,” by Lao Tzu would be thoroughly discussed. Strategies like deterrence strategy (used by Americans during the Cold War), economic embargo, cutting supply lines and decapitation among other things would definitely make student listen with both ears.

Although modern weaponry like satellite tracking, stealth planes and smart bombs are changing how wars are currently waged and perhaps giving an upper hand to those possessing modern weaponry, it is however still human nature that would dictate the tide of any war as humans are the ones waging the war and weapons are but tools.

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