Studies & Degrees in Health

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Aerospace Medicine Aesthetic Medicine Aesthetics Allied Health Anaesthesiology Anatomy Animal Assisted Therapy Anti-Aging Therapy Applied Gerontology Aromatherapy Assisted Reproduction Audiometry Audioprosthesis Ayurveda Bioenergetic Therapy Cancer Studies Cardiology Cardiovascular Diseases Chemical Dependency Child Psychology Chiropractic Clinical and Psychosocial Epidemiology Clinical Diagnostic Laboratory Clinical Medicine Clinical Microbiology Clinical Pharmacology Clinical Practice Clinical Psychiatry Clinical Psychology Community Medicine Comparative Medicine Critical Care Cytotechnology Dental Assistant Dental Hygiene Dental Surgery Dentistry Dermatology Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Pharmaceuticals Drug Research and Development Ear, Nose and Throat Early Care Emergency Medical Technology Endocrinology Endodontics Endoscopic surgery in Gynecology Energy Healing Environmental Health Environmental Medicine Epidemiology and Public Health Unit Experimental Medicine Family and Community Health Care Food Security General and Digestive Surgery Genetics Geriatric Geriatric Pharmaceutical Care Geriatrics and Gerontology Assistant Gerontology Gestalt Therapy Global Health Gynecology Health and Fitness Health Occupations Health Psychology Hematology and Hemotherapy Hemodialysis Technician Hepatology and Gene Therapy Herbal Medicine Herbology & Phytotherapy Histology and Pathological Anatomy Histopathological Laboratory Holistic Integral Therapy Homeopathy Human Embryology Human Health Studies Human Nutrition and Dietetics Human Physiology Hypnotherapy Immunobiology Immunology Implant Prosthesis Industrial Pharmacy Internal Medicine Investigative Medicine Iridology Kinesiology Massage Therapy Maternal and Child Medical Analysis Medical Assistant Medical Bio-Chemistry Medical Coding Medical Microbiology Medical Radiography Medical Technology Medicine Mental Health Microbiology Microsurgery Midwifery Morbid Anatomy Natural Health Science Natural Medicine Nematology Neuro Linguistic Programming Neurobiology Neurology Neuropsychology Neuroscience Nursing Nursing Assistant Nutrition and Health Nutrition and Metabolism Obstetrics & Gyanaecology Occupational Therapy Odontopediatrics Oncology Oncology Pharmaceutical Opthalmology Optics Optometry Oral Biology Oral Implantology Oral Medicine Oral Pathology Oral Surgery Organizational Psychology Orthodontics Orthopaedics Otolaryngology (ENT) Palliative Care Paramedicine Parapsychology Parasitology Pathological and Citological Anatomy Pathology Patient Care Technician Pediatrics Periodontics Periodontology Pharmaceutical Quality Pharmaceutical Technology Pharmacology Pharmacy Technician Physical Therapy Physical-Chemical Methods of Analysis Physiotherapy Podiatry Practical Nursing Pre-Forensics Pre-Physician Assistant Preventive Medicine Primary Care Psychiatry Psychomotor skills Psychosomatic Therapy Psychotherapy Quantum Healing Therapy Radiodiagnosis Radiography Radiology Radiotherapy Regenerative Biomedicine Regenerative Cellular Therapy Rehabilitation Respiratory Care Restorative Dentistry Sensory Therapy Sexology Soul Therapy Speech and Hearing Speech-Language Pathology Sports Medicine Surgery Surgical Technology Thanatology Therapeutic Massage Practitioner Therapeutics Toxicology Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Transpersonal Psychology Traumatological Surgery Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis & Respiratory Disease Urologic Surgery Veterinary Medicine Veterinary Technician Woman and Child Health Yoga

Study Aerospace Medicine

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Study Aesthetic Medicine

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In the earlier years, society did not accept Aesthetic Medicine as something medical just as they did not accept aesthetic surgery. They look down on people who had undergone aesthetic treatments and considered them shallow and vain. However, as time passed and as technology improved the techniques and methodologies of, not only aesthetic, but all medical treatments; people came to accept, sometimes even encourage, Aesthetic Medicine.

Aesthetic Medicine did not develop before the invention of the first collagen grafts. It originated from aesthetic surgery which, in turn, came from plastic surgery. For so many years, the history of Aesthetic Medicine and surgery had been confused with plastic and reconstructive surgery although the two had never been apart because the first ones to develop aesthetic techniques were plastic surgeons. The crudest forms of aesthetic surgery existed 2,500 years ago but the greatest development it had was during the two world wars. In 600 B.C., Indian surgeons could reconstruct a nose by using flaps of skin from the cheeks while in the year 1,000, rhinoplasty or nose surgery using skin from the forehead also became a known Indian technique. At the end of the 15th century, many people were affected by syphilis which had a symptom of a depressed nose. Gaspare Tagliacozzi, an Italian barber and considered the Father of Plastic Surgery, successfully reconstructed a nose by using flaps of skin from the upper arm. A significant advancement in rhinoplasty came in 1880 when a New York surgeon, John Orlando Roe, developed internal rhinoplasty which operated on the nose by making incisions inside the nostrils. John Orlando Roe also classified five different types of noses—Roman, Greek, Jewish, Snub or Pug, and Celestial—which he related to psychological traits. This could be considered as the start of using plastic surgery for aesthetic purposes. In 1906, Charles C. Millers wrote series of articles about physiognomic surgery and, finally, a book titled Cosmetic Surgery where he described various surgical techniques for the ears, eyelids, and for the correction of thin or thick lips. He also proposed certain techniques for removing wrinkles and preventing them from appearing.

Should a student choose to take this major, they will learn the practical and clear-cut approach of Aesthetic Medicine. Most schools and training schools include theory lessons, live demonstrations, and hands-on basics such as Botulinum Toxin Type A (BTA)—their indications and complications, chemical peelings, injectable fillers, and lasers including laser lipolysis, laser treatments for vascular lesions, laser tattoo removal, laser treatments for hair removal, and laser for pigmented lesions. Students will also learn about anti-aging medicines, phebology and aesthetic lymphology, POFE Cellulitis, hyper and hypopigmentation management, and sclerotheraphy. They will also gain knowledge on facial wrinkles classification, skin conditioning—its indications, side effects, results, and skin regimen. Most schools, however, allow only nurses practitioners, and physicians to take Aesthetic Medicine or any formal cosmetic surgery training. Students who graduated or finished formal training on Aesthetic Medicine can find many career opportunities in today’s society where outward beauty does matter. Here are some career paths a licensed aesthetician can follow: aesthetic nurse practitioner, aesthetician or therapist, aesthetic doctor, clinic managers, trainers, receptionists, and sales consultant.

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Study Allied Health

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Study Anaesthesiology

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Study Anatomy

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Anatomy is largely known as the branch of biology dealing with the structures of animals. This could either be Zootomy, or the study of lower creatures and animals, or Human Anatomy, which is for most cases, the more important and sought after branch. It is knowledge of the structures, form, composition, size, position and relations of the body parts with each other. Human Anatomy is a vast and complex subject that there are only a few professionals in this area of study. To gain knowledge and expertise in human anatomy requires one to undergo years of training and observation, dissection and inspection of cadavers and an equal amount of knowledge in palpation for live subjects. Every landmark and structure in the body is considered and its relation to other parts, most especially in cases of emergency. Human anatomy is a required area of study and mastery for medical students or pre-medical students and doctors. In the practice of their profession, a mere miscalculation or mistake in identifying the location, position and function of a structure could cost them their license or their patient. Every detail in Human anatomy must be exact from the most superficial to the deepest area. Human Anatomy is divided into two branches: Gross Anatomy and Microscopic Anatomy. Gross Anatomy is the study of the entire human body through what can be seen by the naked eye, while Microscopic Anatomy is the study of the human body with the aid of microscopes, reaching the tissue and cell levels or studies known as histology and cytology respectively.

Anatomy had its beginnings from the 5th – 4th century BC where it was an area of study that triggered the curiosity of many Greek scientists. The first scientist to be known for using dissection in his studies and researches is Alcmaeon. His research was not focused on anatomy itself as he was more interested on the roots of human intelligence. But through his works in dissection, the first discoveries were made in the field of human anatomy. In the early 3rd century BC Herophilus and Erasistratus of Alexandria made the first scientific studies directed to uncover the working and structure of human anatomy. Throughout the centuries many scientists devoted their time to discover more and more of the human body and its composition. The invention of the microscope paved way for the understanding of the deeper structures lying in the body and the discovery of pathways in the body connecting each organ to another. By the 1830’s great milestones were established in the field of microscopic anatomy including cell structures, tissue organization and the like. In 1953, a deeper study of microscopic anatomy revealed the structure of DNA which has unlocked so much knowledge on human disease and cures since the introduction of genetics.

Anatomy is widely studied by all students involved in the medical profession such as nurses, physical therapists, undergraduate medicine students, dentists, paramedics, radiologist and much more. This study is complement to physiology and biochemistry since a deeper understanding can be obtained when the whole function of the human body is reviewed in detail.

The history of the study of human anatomy can be traced back to the ancient Egyptian civilization. In fact, the earliest evidences that humans studied anatomy was found in an ancient Egyptian papyrus dated 1600 BC. In this treatise was a list of the recognized parts during that time such as the heart and its vessels, liver, spleen, kidneys, hypothalamus, uterus, and bladder. Another treatise, called the Ebers papyrus and dated 1550 BC, noted the heart including its vessels were the center of the blood supply. The knowledge recorded in the past was improved during the 5th and 4th centuries by Greek physicians who used animal cadavers to study the inner parts of the human body.

Hippocrates, a Greek physician, was the first to demonstrate the most basic knowledge on musculoskeletal structure and was the first to discover the tricuspid valve of the heart which he recorded on his treatise On the Heart. Other Greek physicians like Aristotle also performed numerous dissections on animal cadavers; their knowledge improved the recorded difference between the arteries and the veins, and the relationship between the different organs. It was only during the late 4th century BC that human cadavers were used for dissection. Two physicians, Herophilos and Erasistrasus, were the first to perform a vivisection or live dissection on criminals under the observation of the Ptolemaic dynasty. Their findings greatly improved the accuracy of the knowledge in anatomy and became the first step to greater improvements as time passed.

With the rise of technology, sciences like evolutionary biology, molecular biology, and endocrinology emerged. These helped the physicians in understanding the human body more accurately. The focus of the study of anatomy shifted from understanding the inner works of the human body to the understanding of the development, evolution, and function of anatomical features.

As a field of study, Anatomy is perfect for students who are interested in learning and understanding the functions of the human’s inner body. Students will learn about the different systems such as digestive, cardiovascular, respiratory, integumentary, reproductive, lymphatic and immune, endocrine, nervous, urinary, skeletal, and muscular systems. They will be required to take biology courses that will help them learn about tissue structures, cellular and structural components of the body. Chemistry courses are also required to help them learn about the different chemical functions and reactions inside a human body such as protein/enzyme production, synthesis reactions, mitoses, meiosis, diffusion, and osmosis. Students will also learn about the different common elements present in the human body, and they will be able to differentiate between carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Courses in other sciences such as cell biology and histology, structural biology, regional and gross anatomy, molecular mechanics, endocrinology, secretory dynamics, embryology, and neuroanatomy are also required.

For graduates who have in-depth knowledge on human Anatomy can find career opportunities in education as post-secondary biological science teachers, in research as biological scientist, and in medicine as medical scientist and natural sciences managers.

Job positions for Anatomy:

Prosthetic Designer-Researcher

As an Anatomist, one can work as a prosthetic designer and prosthetic researcher for private companies and/or manufacturing laboratories. Prosthesis is the artificial replacement of a missing body part due to a disease or an accident. Designing prosthesis is more than just creativity, for the most part, it requires an in depth knowledge of gross anatomy, making sure that every part or extremity in the body is learned in detail. An Anatomist may work as the sole designer of prosthetics or may work hand in hand with a team of fellow anatomists or designers and researchers to create innovations and improvements on the current trends in prosthesis making. It is involved in the field of biomechatronics, or the science of fusing mechanical devices with human muscle and tissues. A Master’s degree or Doctoral degree in anatomy is sufficient to make one credible as a consulting Anatomist in prosthetic projects for clients.

By understanding the mechanism, composition, structure and functions of body parts, anatomists are able to copy the basic make-up of a part that needs to be replaced. The knowledge in muscle insertions and actions are critical, since the limb must be designed in such a way that the patient or client is still able to move the whole affected segment as one and in unison. The artificial limb must be designed to be move under the full control of the patient and it must follow the ambulation rhythm of the body it is designated to fit. Anatomists are usually educated in related fields such as kinesiology, which deals with the movement of the body. By understanding this, anatomists who design prosthesis are also able to measure the exact dimensions of artificial limbs. They are also able to calculate the proper weight of the prosthesis, in relation to the whole body weight.

The primary job of Anatomists in prosthesis making is to be able to make the artificial limb as realistic as possible to the real part that was removed. Anatomists involved in this field usually work with engineers and design experts and they should be able to coordinate very well and explain their complex ideas and proposals to the members of the team to be able to generate the appropriate make of an artificial limb. Anatomists also work with physicians in talking to the patients and clients about the mechanics of wearing prosthesis, and the initial adaptation of the body. Certain adjustments in the body that patients must make are also researched by the anatomists to ensure the comfort of the person who will receive the prosthesis.

A lot of people are willing to pay great sums of money for a first- class prosthesis, since prosthesis is worn permanently for those who purchase them. Anatomists who prefer to work as prosthesis designers are hired by large prosthesis companies and are usually very well compensated. It is also a favourable career because the trends in prosthesis making are now being developed and the demand for artificial limbs are now increasing.

Anatomy Professor

In the field of Anatomy, one can work as an educator in schools, colleges and universities. The usual qualification is a degree in anatomy, biology or its equivalent followed by a Master’s or Doctorate degree accompanied by mastery of the subject both in theory and application. As educator, anatomists in this field also work as researchers and work in laboratories and focus on the human form and function. As an educator, anatomists train students in professions that require a mastery of this subject, such as medicine, nurses, dentists, therapists, etc. It is the duty of the professor to hone the skills of the pupils in palpation and localization of important anatomical landmarks, identification of structures and functions in the body, and the relation of each body part from the whole or to another system. This involves training the students to master the theory behind human anatomy as well as the hands-on or practical application of these theories. The field of anatomy is very broad, requiring educators in anatomy to have some knowledge in the other essential branches of anatomy such as embryology, human development, neurology, pathology, genetics and the like.

To qualify as an educator of anatomy, an advanced degree is usually required. In the tertiary level, science courses like biology, chemistry, pre-medicine and other are ideal majors. After college, a master’s degree in anatomy would further boost your career and land you occupations on teaching and researching in the field of anatomy. For a teaching position in universities, a doctoral degree is usually required. Even after studies, anatomists continue to study the new discoveries and developments in their field. Anatomists that hold a doctoral degree are more qualified to advance to positions like assistant, associate and full professor or a director for research in a particular university or educational institutions. Some anatomists with doctoral degrees also assume administrative work, most especially in schools and research facilities, where they head projects and research work aiming for new discoveries in anatomy. Educators also publish their works in scientific and medical journals when it is deemed as an importance discovery.

The working environment of educators in anatomy is usually the general surrounding of any professor in a college or university, involving class schedules, lab sessions and practical examinations. Some of them also work in laboratories for long hours depending on the specific task they aim to accomplish. Anatomists often spend their time creating and checking examinations, researching, attending meetings, publishing their material and continuously studying to keep themselves updated with the current developments in their field. Educators in anatomy must be able to work alone or with a group of other professors or researchers. To be able to teach students, they must be able to explain complicated subject matter and concepts in simple, understandable terms. They should be able to explain their findings and researches to their students and colleagues.

In the United States of America, the job outlook for anatomists with doctoral degrees is good through the year 2014 with a high average salary.

Study Animal Assisted Therapy

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Study Anti-Aging Therapy

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Study Applied Gerontology

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Gerontology is the study of the social, psychological, and biological aspects of getting old. Although it deals with old people, it is different from geriatrics which is a branch of medicine that deals with the disease of the elderly. The activities involved in Gerontology are: studying the physical, mental, and social changes of people during the aging process, understanding the aging process itself (called biogerontology), understanding the interface of normal aging and learning age-related diseases (geroscience), investigating the effects of the aging population on society; and, finally, applying the knowledge to policies and macroscopic and microscopic programs.

Gerontology started in the Agriculture Age when people finally settled down from being hunter-gatherers to farmers. It was during this age, when humans did not move around much and encounter less danger, that old people finally had a place in society. They usually watched the farm, make pottery or clothing, and watch over the children. They could also perform social functions like story-telling and teaching the younger generation their culture which, then, consisted only of techniques on farming, tool-making, religion, etc. Society’s perception of the elderly changed throughout history. In general, however, most civilizations respect the elder people for their wisdom. It was not until the 1940s that pioneers began organizing Gerontology as a field of its own. In 1945, Gerontological Society of America was founded and, two decades later, James Birren, one of the pioneers of Gerontology, was appointed the founding director of the first academic research center, the Ethel Percy Andrus Gerontology Center, devoted to the study of aging. In between the 1950s and 1970s, Gerontology was only concerned with issues like nursing homes and health care. It all changed, however, when Leonard Hayflick, with his research in the 1960s showing that a cell line culture would only divide about 50 times, helped lead to a separate branch of Gerontology which was biogerontology. This began the understanding of the aging process itself and what could be done about it.

Students who are interested in taking this course can expect to learn the impact of aging on individuals and cultures. They will learn how to maximize the application of gerontological knowledge especially in the areas of direct service, consulting, program development, management, and administration. Students will also get a chance to work with older people in a variety of settings like long-term care and retirement facilities, senior centers, government offices on aging at all levels, home health care agencies, adult day care programs, adult protective service agencies, and many more. Most schools also require students to be part of an internship either in an agency or facility that serves older people. Since Gerontology is a mixture of social and medical sciences, students will also be taking courses in management, behavioral and social sciences, economics, political science, and natural sciences.

Trained gerontologists can become part of the direct service provision of an elderly-designed facility or office where they work one-on-one with the elderly and their families, determining their needs and then providing assistance. They can also be part of the program planning and evaluation team which is in-charge of establishing the interests and needs of the elderly at the community level, designing programs that will meet these needs, and determining how effective this program is. Trained gerontologists can also have a position in the management and administration where they will oversee the daily operation of facilities, agencies or programs addressing the needs of the elderly and their families. They can also take part in advocacies that articulate the needs of the elderly and urge the adoption of public or private programs designed to meet these needs. They can also have positions in the education and training part of facilities where they will develop and deliver educational programming responsive to the needs of the elderly and those who serve them. Finally, trained gerontologist can also carry out research on the nature of aging process and on the effectiveness of intervention programs and policies.

Study Aromatherapy

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Study Assisted Reproduction

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Study Audiometry

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Study Audioprosthesis

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Deafness or a hearing impairment is a complete or fractional diminishing in the capability to become aware of or recognize sounds. Such can be due to a variety of environmental and biological factors. The loss of hearing can occur to any kind of organism which can perceive sound. What is being referred to those who are deaf are known as the “hearing impaired”, but “hard of hearing” and “deaf” is preferred than the term “hearing impaired”.

The branch of science which deals with the hearing impaired is known as Audioprosthesis. It is a study which makes use of an auditory prosthesis which is a device that replaces the ear or increases the hearing ability. An auditory prosthesis is commonly known as a hearing aid. The word "prosthesis" itself roots from the new Latin from the Greek word "prostithenai" which means to add to, or to put in addition.

With the use of prosthetic ears, the individuals’ can improve their hearing as well as their speech recognition, especially for those who had surgeries or outer ear injuries. In a number of cases wherein the outer ear or what is known as the pinna has been lost, the usually intact external auditory canal, and the remaining normally functioning of the hearing system. In these, for the patients, the physicians should attempt not only to correct the hearing defect which has been caused by the lost pinna, but at the same time to correct the loss of hearing due to the absence of the pinna.

Audioprosthesis synthetically repairs the ear which has been affected due to various treatment procedures like amputation, radical cancer surgery, congenital defects or burns. The fragile structure which remains after the surgery is then covered by a thin, exceedingly sensitive skin. This particular soft tissue, is very fragile, and should be kept free from any kind of irritation as well as debris coming from the environment. The protective position of the helix aids in cleansing the air from the small particles which can damage and injure the extremely sensitive auricular structure. The purpose of the prosthetic ear is to direct the sound waves into the auditory canal and be able to sustain an apposite environment for all the membranes of the inner ear. By means of Audioprosthesis, hearing is improved up to 20%. Overall the process of using a hearing aid via the Audioprosthesis has a very great benefit for the psychological rehabilitation of the patients.

Students taking up Audioprosthesis are expected to:

  • Learn the physiology and biology principles of apparatuses and organs which are involved in the function of hearing
  • Gain familiarization of the various disabilities and pathologies of the hearing function
  • Learn various methods of rehabilitation and the functioning techniques and principles of Audioprosthesis
  • Gain knowledge with the repercussion of diseases on the environmental, social and psychological aspects
  • Learn to take the thought of the build prostheses and acoustic canal and apply them and be able to teach how to make use of them
  • Evaluate the efficiency of their involvement in the course of proper tools and tests

Study Ayurveda

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Study Bioenergetic Therapy

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Study Cancer Studies

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One of the leading causes of death is cancer. Nowadays, there are millions of people who have had cancer or are living and suffering with cancer. The factors which cause cancer may be reduced by means of changing one’s lifestyle. These are by means of eating a better diet and quitting smoking. If cancer is diagnosed at an early stage, and is treated accordingly, then there will be bigger chances of remission and healing.

The science of cancer covers almost all clinical cancer and academic research. Cancer Studies predominantly deals with clinical and translational research of cancer. This greatly involves a great deal of mutual research with social groups across an organization. Cancer researchers use lifetime risk as the term which refers to the chances of a person to develop cancer or die from cancer. Cancer Studies is a team of science which builds multidisciplinary advances in order to make progress in the comprehension and treatment of cancer.

Cancer starts in the cells, which serves as the building blocks of the human body. On average, the body forms new cells as needed, and then replacing the old cells which have died. Every now and then this development sets off incorrectly. The new cells can grow even when not needed by the body, and at the same time the old cells will not die even if they should die. Those excessive cells can then transform to a mass commonly referred to as a tumor. The tumors can either be malignant or benign. Those diagnosed as benign tumors will not result to cancer, those identified as malignant are cancer. The cells which came from the malignant tumors can attack the tissues and later on break away and at worst if not addressed can spread to the entire body.

Most of the cancers are termed for where they have started. For instance, breast cancer started in the breast and lung cancer started in the lung. The swell of cancer rooting from one part of the body spreading to another is known as metastasis. The indications and management will depend on the type of cancer type and how it advances. Plans of cancer treatment may consist of chemotherapy, radiation or surgery.

Caner types have been identified to be more than 100 in number. These include lymphoma, lung cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, skin cancer and prostate cancer. A patient’s cancer prognosis is due to a number of factors, principally the type of cancer which a patient has, the cancer stage, the extent with which it has spread, and the cancer’s aggressiveness. The impulsiveness of cancer can be deemed as constructive, and at the same time as unconstructive, there are patients who have experiences of recoveries in various cases which were claimed to be as untreatable.

Making sure that a person has a sound mental and physical health can extensively decrease the probability of cancer development. Motivated to sustain sound emotional and mental health is understood to facilitate cancer prevention. Adopting any activities like t'ai chi, meditation, yoga, and the likes are identified to promote relaxation and diminish or eradicate stress, as well as the maintenance of healthy relationships among various support groups can facilitate cancer awareness and prevention.

Study Cardiology

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The study of the care of all things in relation to the heart and the cardiovascular system in general is called Cardiology. Unlike Cardiac Surgeons who perform operations, Cardiologists are responsible for performing procedures and tests that concern the heart.

This discipline delves into researches, diagnoses and treatments for various heart diseases as well as their origins. A cardiologist is not only expected to treat your heart conditions, they are also expected to keep track of your other conditions as well such as increase in blood pressure, increased cholesterol levels, diabetes and other contributing factors that increases the risk of heart damage. These risk factors include sedentary lifestyle, hereditary conditions, obesity, cigarette smoking, and poor eating habits.

Heart matters should not be left in the hands of a regular or general healthcare provider. We should entrust our special matters to the field of medicine that specializes in certain types of conditions and the organs involved. Cardiologists will be able to remedy minor conditions and can refer you to other specialist if the need arises.

Specialists can notify your doctor about certain beneficial drugs that work well with you, or refer you to other specialists in case your symptoms are more severe than expected. Regular physicians also seek the consult of cardiology specialists in order to identify the best course of action for your health situation. Cardiologists often request for an EKG or blood test in order to study the causes.

Observations on the heart’s anatomy and physiology were first discovered by William Harvey in 1902. This became the main foundation of cardiology in the year 1628. Physicians began broadening their understanding of this field in the 18th and 19th centuries. It was Jean Baptiste de Sénac’s publication on the contemporary wisdom of the heart in 1749 that contributed to the study of Cardiology. It was during the 19th century that diagnostic methods showed improvements and in 1905, the invention of the ECG or the electrocardiograph machine, measured the electrical activity of the heart. And it was in the 1950s when Echocardiography, was made possible by ultrasonic waves that showed the images of the heart through the chest wall. Heart transplant was one of the many surgical advances in cardiology in the 20th century.

There are a number of organizations that devote to increase awareness in keeping the heart healthy such as the American Heart Association that has made it their obligation to help the public fight the battle against heart illnesses and stroke. Their center of attention is on the definite causes intended to lend a hand to people in attaining a “hearty” lifestyle. Through their assistance, people are encouraged to take preventive measures and provide them with the necessary supporting materials in helping them make a positive action towards their cause.

Job positions for Cardiology:

Pediatric Cardiologists

Do you know that not all people who suffer from heart diseases are due to smoking or live a sedentary lifestyle for that matter? Most often, we associate the occurrence of heart diseases with vices and poor eating and health habits that we sometimes forget that others experience it even before the onset of their first birthday! The onset of the diseases of the heart is not only exclusive for adults because even adolescents, toddlers and fetuses inside the womb suffer from heart diseases.

It is the job of a Pediatric Cardiologist to take care of such illnesses. There are two types of heart conditions that are commonly observed in children and these are: congenital heart disease and acquired heart disease.

It is the responsibility of the Pediatric Cardiologist to identify the presence of a heart illness in a fetus through the use of an echocardiogram to acquire an ultrasound illustration of the heart. The fetal echocardiogram can present data that aids in evaluating the structure, action and arrhythmias of the baby’s heart. Once a nurse, midwife or obstetrician discovers a risk in the expectant mother’s condition, he or she then refers her to a Pediatric Cardiologist.
Conditions such as children experiencing heart murmurs, irregular heartbeats, palpitations or fainting spells are all referred to a Pediatric Cardiologist. It is now in the hands of the Pediatric Cardiologist to conduct an EKG test and an echocardiogram to see an ultrasound illustration of the heart. Sometimes, a Pediatric Cardiologist might feel the need to monitor a patient’s heart within a 24-hour period.

Hypertensions, heart damage because of infections or viruses, and irregular heart rhythms or endocarditis are all heart diseases in children that are acquired and may develop in any stage of growth and development. They need the expertise of a Pediatric Cardiologist so that tests, evaluation and recommendations for the best treatment plan can be initiated. It is also the work of the Pediatric Cardiologist to know the family medical history, past medical history of the patient and his or her lifestyle patterns. The major focus of the physician is to prevent the occurrence or the progress of any heart condition.
Medical attention is required for babies, children and adolescents who are experiencing the first signs and symptoms of a heart disease because this is a serious matter. The decisions regarding heart catheterization and heart surgery procedures can also be decided by the Pediatric Cardiologist as well as screen increased cholesterol levels.

It is the job of a Pediatric Cardiologist to direct the care and treatment plans with other physicians and nurses who will also be taking care of the child. Everybody works as a team.

Cardiac Electro-Physiologist

To become an Electro-Physiologist, a cardiologists must first finish four years of medical school, three years of training as a resident and then proceed to his or her preferred cardiology fellowship which takes two to three years depending on the kind of fellowship selected. Cardiac Electrophysiology takes an additional of one to two years to complete. This area deals with the study of the bio-electrical impulses of the heart responsible for controlling the rate of a person’s heartbeat. Malfunction of the electrical impulses causes an arrhythmia which, if left untreated, can be very serious and deadly.

It is also the responsibility of the Cardiac Electro-Physiologist to insert a pacemaker to correct the heart’s irregularities although today, there are a variety of cardiac procedures available as well as drug therapies that controls the complexities of arrhythmias.
It is the responsibility of the Cardiac Electro-Physiologist to measure the reaction or cardiomyopathic myocardium to PES on particular pharmacological treatments in order to evaluate the probability of success of the given therapy to avoid impending fatal sustained ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation in the future. Electro-Physiologist must oftentimes perform a series of EPS drug trials in order to identify the best treatment for long-term therapy. It is also the responsibility to perform such studies in the existence of a newly-implanted cardiac pacemaker.

In diagnostic testing, an electrophysiologist is expected to interpret holter and loop recording; tilt table testing; T-wave alternant testing; Signal-averaged electrocardiogram; as well as catheter ablation procedures; and pacemaker and defibrillator implantation.
This sub-discipline of cardiology and internal medicine is comparatively young with developments arising during the mid-1970s by Mark E. Josephson from the University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

An international society of basic and clinical scientists and doctors known as the Cardiac Electrophysiology Society is concerned with cardiac electrophysiology and arrhythmias. This society was founded during the 1940s by George Buch in Atlantic City holding meetings at the Haddon Hall. The multipolar nature of cardiac events and the importance of having multiple lead systems were discussed thoroughly during the 1950s which later on changed to Cardiac Physiology. Members are expected to meet at least once every year to discuss the latest in research developments presented by the leading experts in the area.
Gordon K. Moe is the featured speaker every year to lead the gathering. The group also offers career opportunities for all the applicants who are specifically-inclined to the study of cardiology, especially in the sub-discipline of electrophysiology.

Study Cardiovascular Diseases

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What do we mean when we say Cardiovascular Disease? The word “cardio” is a medical term which means “heart” and the word “vascular” pertains to the vessels in our body known as our veins and arteries. So when we talk about Cardiovascular Disease, it means diseases affecting our heart and our vessels.

There are many cardiovascular diseases known to man. Heart disease is the number killer of men and women. More people are dying from cardiovascular diseases compare to cancer. Do not think that because you are young you are not susceptible to having cardiovascular diseases. There are those between the ages of thirty and thirty five who are already suffering from such illnesses.

There are many cardiovascular diseases. The most common of which are coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, and congestive heart. Now, do not get intimidated with the names. Coronary artery disease simple means disease of the arteries surrounding the heart since the name of the artery that around the heart is coronary artery. For myocardial infarction, it is also known as heart attack. Congestive heart failure on the other hand simply means that the heart is unable to pump blood. Other heart diseases congenital in nature and other are infectious types.

Varicose vein is one of the common vascular diseases. Others include occlusion of vessels with fatty deposits and extreme reaction to cold temperature.

Understanding diseases that involves the heart and the vessels would require a great understanding of the parts of the heart and the vessels as well as the specific function of each. In simple terms, a specialist on this field must know the heart and the vessels inside and out. Knowing the anatomy and physiology will help you in analyzing the causes of the each disease. Studying the contributing factors as to how can someone acquire cardiovascular diseases is important because it can lead to preventing the disease itself. For example, most cardiovascular disease started out from being a simple block or plaque cause by eating fatty foods. So avoiding fatty foods can help a lot in avoiding such disease. Another risk factor is tobacco use which markedly increases the chance for heart attack.

Cardiovascular disease medicine is a specialty under internal medicine. To become a specialist in the field, after graduating from medical school and passing the licensing exam, you will need to study additional three years to become an internist then pursue an additional one to two years training in an accredited program and pass an examination to become board certified. Only then can you call yourself a full-pledge cardiologist. Cardiologists are the expert on the field of cardiology, but they do not work alone. There are other members of the team like the cardiac surgeon who specializes in the surgery of the heart and vascular surgeons specializes on the reconstruction of the vessels. They also work with dietitians, nutritionists and other therapists who also contribute to the recovery of the patient with cardiovascular diseases.

Our cardiovascular system is an interesting network that works in perfect rhythm 24 hours a day 7 days a week. Our heart does not rest. It works even while we are sleeping so taking care of our heart is of utmost importance. Specialization in the field of cardiovascular disease will provide you with the opportunity to save people’s lives while providing you the potential to grow professionally.

Study Chemical Dependency

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Chemical dependency is used interchangeably with such terms as chemical dependence, addiction, alcoholism, drug addiction, substance dependence, or substance abuse. The Dual Recovery Anonymous World Network of Kansas, United States, defines it as a primary disease characterized by addiction to mood-altering chemical. Some authorities say it is a psychological or physical need to use alcohol or drugs, and this need stays even if the use of such alcohol or drugs causes negative consequences. The Encyclopedia Britannica agrees that chemical dependency is a person’s physical or psychological addiction to a psycho-active or mind-altering substance, such as narcotics, nicotine or alcohol. A chemically dependent person is usually characterized by his inability to stop drinking or taking a mood-altering chemical, loss of power or choice over using mind-altering chemicals, his increased tolerance for alcohol or drugs, by distortions in his thinking, and the desire to stop using chemicals for awhile only to return to it repetitiously against his intention or will power.

Many institutions, especially community colleges, consider chemical dependency as an important program as any course of study. The Yakima Community College in Washington state offers a 2-year Associate in Chemical Dependency program in which students are prepared for work in the field of chemical dependency counseling, especially in addiction treatment facilities, schools, hospitals, employee assistance programs, the clergy and other social service agencies. Their training involves assessment, treatment, and referral of individuals who are afflicted with addiction to either alcohol or other mind-altering chemical. The Wenatchee Valley College, also in Washington, also offers a 2-year, 94-credit Associate in Chemical Dependency in such courses as Survey of Chemical Dependency, Cultural Diversity Counseling Techniques, Interpersonal Communication, General Psychology, Adolescent Treatment Plan, Chemical Dependency and the Law, Community Prevention, Basic First Aid, and Personal Wellness, among others. The Westchester Community College in Valhalla, New York has a 2-year Certificate program in chemical dependency, consisting of 300 credit hours. The curriculum covers courses and seminar, such as Biochemistry of Addiction, Psychosocial Issues in Addiction, Ethics in Addiction Counseling, Alcoholism, Substance and the Family, Addiction Counseling Methods, Addiction Counseling Models, and Addiction Group Counseling.

The California State University’s 18-month certificate program in Chemical Dependency Studies is offered under its East Bay Continuing Education unit, with the objectives of enhancing skills of professionals in the substance abuse field, and serving the needs of counselors, therapists, nurses, officers in probation or correctional institutes, and those who work with alcohol and/or chemical abusers. The St. Cloud State University in Minnesota has a 4-year, 120-credit Bachelor of Science in Chemical Dependency in a program that is focused on community psychology and chemical dependency courses.

Study Child Psychology

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Study Chiropractic

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Chiropractic is a profession that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of disorders relating to the musculoskeletal system, most particularly the spinal column. The hypothesis behind Chiropractic practice is that maladies and disorders are generally connected centrally to the nervous system. Although, initially, Chiropractic practice has been much maligned and ballyhooed by the medical community, recently, the World Health Organization and mainstream medicine has somehow given it a little more credit and has given it a Complementary and Alternative Medicine Status. Though, a lot of chiropractors would not like to have their practice called alternative medicine but still the recognition by the WHO as it is being a complementary and alternative medicine as opposed to just being alternative medicine definitely give chiropractors’ patients little bit of assurance that they are not having a quack doctor treating them.

Since, Chiropractic Medicine gives a notion that those practicing chiropractic deals mainly with bones or bone setting and that’s why maybe the reason people consulting chiropractors usually have bad backs or those with broken bones. But, that was before because the field of Chiropractic has actually gone beyond treating backaches. In terms of scope of practice it involves different diagnostic methods which include skeletal imaging, orthopedic and neurological evaluation and observational and tactile assessments. As it has been established that the general well-being of a person is centrally connected via the nervous system, chiropractors can diagnose almost any disease based in their diagnosis of the spine and nervous system. If indeed they find anomalous findings that may be related to a heart condition, then they would refer a patient to a heart doctor or cardiologist. As a proof of wider acceptance of this medical approach, American health cards do cover chiropractic consultations and treatments.

The first school of Chiropractic was founded by Daniel David Palmer, a magnetic healer, in 1890 and then was carried on by his son Bartlett Joshua (BJ). However, during this time and a few generations later, those practicing chiropractic were incarcerated due to practicing of medicine without license and also it was founded with religious undertones into it somewhat comparable to a cult. Because of these cultic element somewhat getting mixed to it, a lot of controversy arose but modern day chiropractic practitioners are more science based and even now required to have a license before being allowed to practice.

In the United States, it has been found out that the number of licensed chiropractors total to about 60,000. In fact, chiropractors, as compared with other alternative medicine like yoga and acupuncture, have a wider audience as 7.4% of the population has gone to a chiropractor for treatment or consultation (based from 2002 figures).

Usual Chiropractic Medicine patients usually are those suffering from acute and chronic headaches, migraines, tennis elbow, carpal tunnel, neck pain, chronic back pain, ear infection, digestive problems, menstrual pain, asthma, frozen shoulder and other sports related injuries. More or less the conditions mentioned above are being treated effectively by chiropractic therapy.

Right now, chiropractic therapy and care is really gathering steam as more and more people consult a chiropractor on a year-on-year basis. It will just be a matter of time that Chiropractic Medicine will be a full-pledged medical branch as more and more universities are offering chiropractic courses.

Job positions for Chiropractic:

Chiropractic Doctor

Chiropractic practice since the days of its foundation has generally evolved and is gaining wider acceptance throughout the globe.

Different schools of thoughts have sprung up but it is the Mixer Chiropractors that have become more popular as they tend to be more modern in approach as opposed to the straight chiropractors who have stuck to the original concepts of its founders. Mixers are called as such because they combine other type of treatments like osteopathic methods, massages, nutritional supplements, yoga, herbal medicine and acupuncture with chiropractic methods as a total package. Osteopathy have a close resemblance to chiropractic practice where physical and manual interventions are employed in the treatment of muscular, joint and back pains but is more concerned to the efficient flow of blood in the veins and arteries while chiropractic is leaned towards better flow of neurotransmitters of the nervous system which is located centrally in the spine. Massages including reflexology are also getting more popular and are employed for therapy purposes like those who got bed-ridden for a long time causing muscle atrophy. Nutritional supplements and herbal medicines are also becoming popular as technological advancements can now isolate key active ingredients of herbs beneficial to the body which are now readily available in gel or powdered forms and are easily mixed with the patient’s favorite juice flavors.

Mixer Chiropractors as with any type of chiropractors primarily can diagnose patients through the misalignment of the spinal cord but does not shy away also from traditional methods like interviewing the patients’ medical histories and would employ modern diagnostic machines like x-rays and MRIs and even give interpretation. When diagnosis is arrived at and their patients cannot be readily treated by chiropractic methods, then they would advise patients to seek further medical advice and treatment from specialists specially those who are extremely sick and those who have surgery left as their only recourse. For example, the Chiropractor found one of the vertebra is misaligned and that vertebrae is directly related to the kidneys, what they would do is align that particular vertebrae and then would do further test like subject the patient to an X-ray machine or MRI to confirm if the patient would need to go see a kidney specialist if indeed they need to have one of their kidneys removed. Mixer Chiropractors would also advise patients on matters of nutrition, exercise, correct sleeping habits and ways to reduce stress.

Mixer Chiropractors are generally graduates of chiropractic degree courses. Some schools have incorporated other sciences into their curriculum like massage therapy, nutrition, acupuncture and physical fitness. Yoga are usually taught by Yoga gurus so if somebody have mixed chiropractic methodologies with yoga, most probably that chiropractic doctor have took it to himself to learn yoga from a yoga master.

Chiropractic Doctors with mixer orientations generally have a broader range of patients as they have more services to offer compared to straight chiropractors. Opportunity-wise they can set up their own clinics provided they have obtained necessary licenses and accreditations or they can have themselves employed by hospitals, chiropractic clinics or be a personal therapist of athletes or of an athletic team.

Sports Therapist

Sports games that require extreme physical conditioning like basketball, American football, soccer, hockey, tennis, volleyball to name a few have seen great players come and go and come back again due to injuries. Some players have managed to come back and play the remainder of the season, some have missed important games and caused their teams to be out of contention, some have sat out the remainder of the season and some have retired from the sport because their injuries would just worsen should they continue playing. Because millions of dollars are at stake especially for team sports like basketball, American football and soccer, team owners usually hire a medical team consisting of a medical doctor and therapists. Like the players, the medical team is also present in every game including practice games in case the players get themselves injured while in the line of duty. In a medical team, of course, it is always the doctors who get initial contact with the players but it is the therapists who do the actual therapy and care so that the players are in tip-top shape.

The nature of team-based sports is on a season basis and so when a player gets injured, it is a tall order to rehabilitate the injured player as soon as possible and hopefully in time before the season ends particularly when a championship title is within reach.

The team’s therapists are indispensable side-team members because their services are rendered whether the players are injured or not. In the case of healthy players, team therapists make sure that every muscles and bones of the players are as tight as ever. They make sure that the body parts susceptible to injury like knees, tendons, fingers, neck, elbow, calves and back muscles are regularly checked upon. Should they find or suspect that a player might be suffering from any condition that might worsen should they play in the next game or more, they would immediately tell the team doctor that if they don’t rest, the player might tear a tendon or aggravate his back muscles or something.

In the case of a real injury, athletes’ usual injuries are torn ACL like the one Tom Brady had, broken foot like the one that made Michael Jordan 64 games, it is the sports therapist’s job to make sure that the injured players get rehabilitated. Getting the players up and playing again is not just a health issue but a matter of economics too as the team owners would be forced to pay the players millions of dollars even though they are not playing as long as the players are under contract. They would make sure that the players are eating the right food and taking their medicines and special food supplements to speed up the healing process. They would also be responsible for keeping track of the player’s schedule of tests like MRIs, CT Scans to monitor the level of healing of the injury and design appropriate programs based on the test results.

To sports fanatics, becoming a Sports Therapist is a sure way to have season tickets for free while being paid top dollar. One of the sure ways of becoming a sports therapist is by obtaining a chiropractor’s license as a lot of sports therapists are chiropractors.

Study Clinical and Psychosocial Epidemiology

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Epidemiology is a discipline that involves the investigation of the correlation between various determinants and resulting outcomes in terms of health. In fact, Epidemiology in Clinical and Psychosocial studies is considered to be central to research in Health Sciences as well as Medical studies. The correlation between the sharp increase in the number of people with chronic diseases and their psychosocial disposition towards these ailments is alarming. Various factors such as public mental health, quality and standard of living are some factors that come together and cause these problems. In Clinical and Psychosocial Epidemiology studies, students are trained to use basic concepts in complex issues to find a solution
Students are made to conduct research in order through the Master’s program which will result in a final thesis. This project usually begins right at the beginning of the course giving students a hands-on experience of research. This gives students all the required experience and skill to carry out research in the field. Students are assigned to senior researches in a discipline of their choice. However, the individual performance and aptitude of each student is also taken into consideration. As students pass through various stages of the course, they are offered a host of opportunities to sharpen their skills and get better at their work. Many universities conduct periodic meetings where students can develop their scientific thinking.

Requirements and Qualifications
  • The student must possess a Bachelor’s degree or diploma in Medical Sciences, Psychology or any other health science based program
  • The student must also have a TOEFL score of 580 or above
  • Motivation to learn more and contribute towards the world of medicine and Health Sciences is a must
  • Depending on the college in question, the student may have to appear in an entrance test, personal interview, group discussion or any other method of evaluation required by the college
Career Prospects

The course focuses on taking students from basic concepts and ideas to more advanced ones during the duration of the course. It involves a lot of mandatory group based models that provide students with the fundamental knowledge of Clinical and Psychosocial Epidemiology. Students who finish this course also get an excellent chance to pursue their PhD studies in health studies throughout the world. Even if students do not go for PhD studies, they have various options when it comes to positions in private as well as public organizations. These organizations could be connected with health research and development, health insurance, municipal health services and various others.

A lot of PhD scholars also take up these positions at important organizations. So they have the option of studying while pursuing a career at the same time. This, obviously, depends on the organization as well as the university you are pursuing your PhD in.

A course in Clinical and Psychosocial Epidemiology needs the student to be committed to health care and medical research. The field is buzzing with opportunities. A course of this kind will only improve your chances of pursuing your passion for medical studies and health sciences.

Study Clinical Diagnostic Laboratory

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Are you a graduate student who dreams of a career in the medical field, assisting doctors in properly diagnosing patients while working in a clinical laboratory setting?  If so, you may want to pursue one of the many degree options now available in the field of Clinical Diagnostic Laboratory.  To help you get started, below we have chosen two of the programs currently being offered by colleges and universities throughout the world:  the Master of Science Degree in Clinical Diagnostic Laboratory and the Master of Science Degree in Clinical Laboratory Management, and provided a brief description of each of these degrees, including the eligibility requirements for admission.
Master of Science in Clinical Diagnostic Laboratory
The Master of Science degree in Clinical Diagnostic Laboratory is a full-time graduate-level program designed to educate and train individuals who plan to pursue a career as a medical laboratory specialist, and certify them in the latest techniques that are regularly employed in these positions.  Students participating in this program will be exposed to a wide range of specialties, including microbiology, hematology, chemistry, transfusion services, immunology, and molecular diagnostics.
Upon graduation, those who earn an M.S degree in Clinical Diagnostic Laboratory will play an invaluable role in the medical process, particularly in the detection, diagnosis and treatment of a wide range of illnesses and diseases.  Graduates will be trained to use state-of-the-art and very sophisticated equipment to perform tests and analyze blood, cells, urine and other bodily fluids to detect abnormalities in the patient.  These professionals are a significant source of diagnostic information for doctors who use these tests to determine and monitor a proper course of treatment.
To be eligible for admission to this program, candidates must possess a bachelor’s degree in the same or related field—a field in the sciences such as biology, chemistry, biochemistry or microbiology.  Certain universities may also require a passing score on an entrance examination and/or an interview with the appropriate faculty.
Master of Science in Clinical Laboratory Management
As you might have guessed, the Master of Science degree in Clinical Laboratory Management is also a graduate-level program, but instead of training individuals to become laboratory specialists, this program focuses more on the business side of the clinical laboratory, teaching students how to effectively manage staff and oversee the lab’s daily operations.
The M.S. in Clinical Laboratory Management gives students a unique opportunity to learn the practical skills and acquire the credentials to manage clinical laboratories.  The program is divided into four sections—finance, operations, personnel and marketing—giving students a comprehensive and well-rounded management education and providing them with the skills they’ll need to become effective and productive laboratory managers.  The program requires approximately 36 credit hours depending on the institution, during which students will be challenged to make important management decisions and, following graduation, will possess the administrative capabilities needed to fill a vital management role within the laboratory setting.
To be eligible for admission into the Master of Science Degree program in Clinical Laboratory Management, students must possess at least a bachelor degree in one of the business fields—fields that may include business management, finance, marketing and business administration.  Some institutions may also require two or more years of practical experience working in a clinical laboratory, either in a diagnostic or operational role.

Study Clinical Medicine

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Medicine generally is an art and science of healing, involving health care practices that are developed to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of diseases. Medical practitioners are easily recognized through its symbols represented by a Rod of Acclepius, Greek God of medicine, with its single-coiled serpent, or by an ancient Summerian God, Ningishzida, patron of medicine, accompanied by two gryphons. The study or practice of medicine on the basis of direct observation and examination of patients is what we refer to as Clinical Medicine. In this practice, a doctor assesses a patient for the purpose of diagnosing, treating and preventing the disease with the use of available clinical or typical medical devices, and in a process starting with the medical interview of patients, their clinical examination and laboratory up to the treatment plan for the patients.

Cognizant of the increasing number of clinical medical practices by both doctors and licensed professionals, institutions have opened up programs of study on the subject, usually under a school or department of medicine or a medical science division. A number of institutions offer Clinical Study or Clinical Sciences curricula with strong emphasis on the sciences and participation in patient care activities, or clerkships in such areas as Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pediatrics, Psychiatry, Surgery and Family Medicine, among others. A three-stage Clinical Study teaches students to become proficient in basic clinical methods, on the major causes of ill health, and attachments in general practice medicine. A five-year degree program in Medicine has focus areas in Clinical Skills, Public Health, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, and the Psychological Aspects of Medicine, with a part of the study taking place in hospitals, general practice and in the institution’s facilities. A Bachelor’s Degree program in Clinical Sciences is offered for five years, concentrating on clinical practices and sciences, while a four-year Bachelor of Medicine degree course deals in the examination and procedural clinical skills essential to effective interaction or relationship between a doctor and a patient, as one of the three major themes of the course.

Numerous subjects are offered under the Clinical Medicine curriculum or Medicine degree programs with Clinical Medicine as a major subject and, in some schools, with electives of Herbal Medicine, Reflexology, Aromatherapy, and Massage Therapy. Among the common subjects in schools are Chemistry, Human Physiological Structure, Disease Immunology, Foundations in Microbiology, Molecular Basis of Life, Evolution of Biological Diversity, General Pathology, General Pharmacology, Genetic Disorders, Microbiology, Dermatology, EENT, Neurology, Stomatology, Surgery, Pathological Foundations of Medicine, Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Sensoric Disorders, Failure of Vital Function, Trauma, Mental Disorders, Tumors, and Disorders of Renal Function and Edema.

Some colleges boast of the so-called state-of-the- art facilities to support certain fields of study in Clinical Medicine such as Structural Biology, Protein Biochemistry, Genetics, Cell Biology, Chemical and Genetic Screening, Imaging, Epidemiology, and Clinical Trials.

They also help their graduates land jobs in distinguished national and international research groups or organizations, educational institutions, community health care services, social welfare agencies, sales and manufacturing groups, and health retreats. Others generally enter clinical practice either alone or as partners in health care clinics, or can become consultants in public health, pharmaceutical industry, and regulatory agencies involved in licensing new medicines in their own country or other progressive countries of the world.

Study Clinical Microbiology

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Are you a graduate student interested in the study of diseases and bacteria and the various strategies for preventing a potential disease outbreak?  Have you considered earning an advanced degree in Clinical Microbiology, the branch of science that most closely reflects these types of studies?  With a Master of Science degree in Clinical Microbiology you’ll acquire the knowledge and skills to seek any number of exciting, rewarding and lucrative career opportunities, positions in which you will study and serve as part of the solution for the thousands of diseases caused by bacteria and microorganisms.  To help you become more familiar with this course of study, below we have provided a brief synopsis of the Master of Science program in Clinical microbiology, including a brief course description and some information regarding the career outlook for graduates who hold this degree.
Master of Science Degree in Clinical Microbiology:  Course Overview and Career Outlook
The Master of Science degree in Clinical Microbiology is a graduate level program offered by thousands of major colleges and universities around the world.  The program, which generally spans two to three years in duration depending on the student and university, is designed to help prepare students for a career in clinical microbiology, a field concerned with the growth and control of bacteria and other microscopic organisms and how they interact with different environments, often with the aim of solving human health problems.
With a degree in this field students will be eligible to enter careers in which they will work to identify and stop the spread of a wide range of potentially catastrophic diseases, including HIV/AIDS, SARS and tuberculosis.  Graduates will learn to lean upon their knowledge and skills in related fields such as biotechnology, and will work to further understand how cells produce and how diseases are spread amongst humans and animals.
The Master of Science degree in Clinical Microbiology includes over a dozen core and elective courses, as well as a substantial amount of time spent in research laboratories.  There they will learn to examine specimens and analyze various types of infections—research that will help doctors and other medical professionals in the diagnosis of certain illnesses.  Many graduates of the program will go on to work for government agencies, using their skills to help prevent dangerous bacteria-related outbreaks and identify and control bioterrorism threats.
Eligibility Requirements
To qualify for admission into the Master of Science Degree program in Clinical Microbiology, students must possess at least a bachelor degree, preferably in biology, microbiology, chemistry, biochemistry or a closely related field, with a 2.8 grade point average or better in all required coursework.  Many universities may also oblige students to submit letters of recommendation from people with knowledge of their academic ability, and/or require students to sit for an interview with the program faculty prior to admission.
Career Outlook
The career outlook is very positive for those possessing a Master of Science degree in Clinical Microbiology.  According to the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, the employment growth for microbiologists—13 percent—is predicted to be above average from 2012-2020.  This increase in clinical microbiology jobs can be partially attributed to the fact that development of biological procedures and products that can benefit human health is in very high demand.

Study Clinical Pharmacology

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Clinical pharmacology is a branch of biomedical science that concentrates on the therapeutic application of pharmaceutical drugs and their effect on humans. Usually, a pharmacologist would perform tasks like discovering and evaluating different substances with the purpose of treating diseases; modifying the chemical structure of existing substances in order to remove undesirable side-effects; testing newly manufactured drugs for their safety and possible use; examining other substances that have an influence on living organisms (i.e. poisons and pollutants); writing scientific reports on research, and other similar tasks.

A clinical pharmacologist is considered to be a specialist in pharmacology, who specializes in direct patient care. They are often responsible for patients with various medical problems, who are prescribed different medications that may not fit each other. Finally, clinical pharmacology also includes the study of pharmacogenetics – this is the clinical measurement of biological effects while taking into consideration the physiologic variances among different populations. For instance, age, genetics, previously occurring diseases, and use of other medications can affect how a drug is accepted by the body. Conclusions that have come from these and other factors are documented and analyzed to help physicians better anticipate adverse side effects among different groups.

Personal Qualities

  • Enjoy science and research
  • Good communication skills – ability to write reports, based on research
  • Analytical qualities combined with logical thinking
  • Able to work accurately and pay attention to detail
  • Problem-solving skills and a certain amount of science-related creativity
  • Excellent team player

Study Options

Clinical pharmacology is usually pursued by students at the postgraduate level. You should be highly committed to your education, as programs of clinical pharmacology do require a good first degree in Medicine, Biological Science, or Pharmacy. The degree would be highly demanding, and usually include subjects like the development of new medicines – including research strategy and the drafting of toxicological profile of new drug candidates, as well as predicting drug safety; human pharmacology – examining moral and regulatory requirements of study design in healthy human volunteer subjects; ethical and legal aspects; research methods, and many others.

You should be seeking for a program that will provide a good balance between lectures, directed self learning, and practical classes and tutorials that support the lecture material. External experts, getting involved with latest developments and innovations of the field are also crucial for such an area of study. Most programs in clinical pharmacology should also require an assessed coursework, based on real research.

Career Options

Careers prospects for clinical pharmacology graduates include the pharmaceutical industry, academia, Clinical Research Associates and Clinical Trials Coordinators, Regulatory and Safety Pharmacology, but you could also decide to specialize in one of the following disciplines – toxicology, kinetics, or drug interactions. Kinetics are concerned with the investigation of how drugs move through the organisms and examine how the body dissolves and absorbs a certain type of chemical substance, as well as its response to the substance. On the other hand, toxicologists study the negative effects that drugs and poisons can have on the body, while aiming to reduce or reverse side effects. Finally, the pharmacologists involved with drug interactions determine how a specific drug is made more or less effective by natural body chemicals and environmental factors.

If you decide to work in a research laboratory, you would definitely need a master’s or a doctoral degree in medicine or pharmacology, but prospects are very good, because there is a growing demand for pharmacologists to conduct experimental research on drugs for complicated diseases like cancer and AIDS. You would also have to train to use advanced testing equipment and computer programs; therefore, in order to be employable in this field, a great deal of commitment and perseverance would be required.

Study Clinical Practice

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Study Clinical Psychiatry

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Study Clinical Psychology

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Study Community Medicine

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A new branch of medicine provides comprehensive health services for the prevention of illness, promotion of health, curative and rehabilitative services to the community is called Community Medicine. Community Medicine, like preventive and social medicine, public health and community health, shares a mutual understanding and that is, to take care of the local community. The concern does not focus on the optimum health of the individual anymore; instead it has expanded into those that concern the community as well. The key factor in making the “Health for All” goal is through Community Medicine.

New problems concerning slums, accumulation of refuse and human excreta, overcrowding as well as other social problems developed during the industrial revolution of the 18th century. Frequent disease outbreaks such as cholera gained the attention of the people and the government to better the health conditions of the public. A great sanitary awakening was brought about by the Public Health Act of 1848 in England as a sign of acceptance to the fact that the state is responsible for the people’s health. A more comprehensive act was made in 1875 known as the Public Health Act of 1875. The American Public Health Association was created in 1872 as an organized professional body.

To become a specialist in Community Medicine, a medical student is required 5 years of approved residency training after medical school which includes:

  • Basic Clinical Training for one to two years
  • Three years in a RCPSC-approved, university-sponsored program which includes course work in the community medicine sciences and responsibilities.
  • Further training for another year in a RCPSC-approved, university-sponsored programs that can include residency in any relevant clinical specialty usually internal medicine, pediatrics, obstetrics or psychiatry
  • Clinical Training for two years through the Family Medicine Residency Program which leads to the eligibility to gain certification for family medicine (CCFP).
  • Students are also required one year of academic courses in Community Medicine plus an additional one year of minimum field placement.

There are various settings where a community medicine specialist can work in. The highest percentage work in an administrative office, followed by a university or faculty medicine, academic centers for health sciences or research unit, and lastly in private offices or clinics. The following are the career options for the Community Medicine Specialist:

  • Epidemiologist
  • Public Health Officer in State or Central Health Services
  • Project Health Manager
  • Family Physician
  • Clinical Instructor or Teacher in a University or Public Health Schools

45% of community medicine specialists state that their main patient-care setting is an inter-professional practice. Those who are into group practice are on-call and all the expenses including office staff, equipment and office space are equally shared and divided among the physicians. A small percent of 17% engage in a solo practice.

40% or two-fifths of the community medicine specialist’s income comes from a salary and only one-fifth and below receive 90+% of their income from sessions or hourly rates. 27% get their income from a mixed source such as free-for-service, capitation, per session contract, benefits or pensions, or on-call remuneration.

Job positions for Community Medicine:

Health Advocate

People of the community who may or may not have access to appropriate health care services can turn to a Health Advocate who focuses on such population segments for support. A Health Advocate can opt to primarily focus on a single parent household to make sure that the primary caregiver and the children visit a physician on a regular basis regardless if the family has no health insurance policy with very little financial funds to support medication and the physician check-ups. Some advocates choose to deal basically with older patients or persons living together with individuals sick with AIDS or HIV or people with chronic and permanent disabilities.

The Health Advocate can function in diverse ways which make working in the field more exciting. An advocate is often involved in shelling out important information to various clients in the private and public aspects. An advocate can teach a diabetic client for example the differences between simple and complex carbohydrates, know how to maintain a balanced nutrition and food portions, and the role of daily exercise as a part of the ongoing health regimen.

Advocates can wish to work in any setting or area of the health care system such as hospitals or functioning as a liaison between the hospital and the community. He or she can opt to be a part of a community health agency such as free clinic. Health Advocates are also being employed by insurance companies to help in evaluating the claims filed by the clients. Since the specific duties are dependent on the type of position handled, there is no doubt that a Health Advocate can be as versatile as can be.

The role of a Health Advocate is to assist members of a particular community with their problems and to find solutions for those that are related to health care as well as their health insurance needs; they can also locate and research on all the latest treatments for a medical conditions, give second opinions to help enrich peace of mind, do initial check-up on clients or refer them to specialists; and obtain information on health in an unbiased way.

To become a Health Advocate you have to have a college degree. Community medicine specialists who choose to practice as health advocates have a far greater edge in this field compared to others who do not have medical science-related courses. There are certain colleges who do offer programs on health advocacy, but mostly, degrees in specializations are more accepted. Among the companies that specialize in health advocacy is the National Patient Advocate Foundation which employs Health Advocates to assure that every client is given the chance to make informed decisions regarding healthcare for them. Hospitals and clinics do employ health advocates as a part of the staff to work as liaisons. Even with advanced knowledge regarding patients and their basic unit, every Health Advocate must enhance his or her knowledge and skills by attending relevant training programs.

The United States has just recently launched a wake up call for the nation’s public health workforce. Federal funding was increased in 2002 for everything that concerned public health. Public Health Advocates are now in high demand with various advancement opportunities. Annual salary ranges from $37,050 to $ 161,400.

Study Comparative Medicine

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Study Critical Care

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An area of medical practice which focuses on pain relief and overall care for the surgical patients is known as Anesthesiology. Professionals of this field are referred to as anesthesiologists who have typically rendered work in outpatient clinics or hospitals as a member of a team for patient care. These professionals have the medical background needed in order to handle various and several kinds of critical situations. The initially provide cardiac and pulmonary resuscitation, provide airway management, pain control and advance life support. As consultants in nature, they also hold active role in the stabilization and preparation of patients for emergency surgeries.

During the course of their jobs, the anesthesiologists take a big part in the following procedures:

• Assessment and preparation of surgical patients for anesthesia

• Overall care for critically ill patients

• Detecting and curing severe, unceasing and pain related to cancer

• Understanding and analyzing medical charts

• Properly positioning the patients on the operating table according to the type of procedure

• Delivering sedating medicine and giving anesthesia

• Equipment monitoring

• Monitoring vital signs of patients and keeping in track the flow of anesthesia

• Counter any complications or reactions caused by anesthesia

• Documenting information of patients

• Having consultations with involved medical staff and doctors

Anesthesiology as a medical practice requires that those who are interested to take on a career in this field should initially complete the educational requirements compulsory as a medical doctor. This is consisting of finishing a 4-year degree, usually in pre-med or science area. This is pursued by completing internship or residency in general medicine or in a medical school. After completing a program in a medical school, there are some countries which will require the practitioner to attain completion of an anesthesia’s residency program. In many cases, another requirement is passing a licensure before being employed as an anesthesiologist. Moreover it involves passing a series of tests which varies per country or state where an anesthesiologist intends to practice.

Furthermore, aside from the regular coursework in math, health, patient care, biology and other areas necessary to becoming a doctor, the anesthesiologists are also required to render on the job training in areas such as research practices for anesthesiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacology and in pain management.

Anesthesiologists often render their work in a hands-on environment together with the patients. In such setting they may focus on general medicine, surgery, osteopathic medicine, pulmonary care, emergency room rotations, pediatric and geriatric patients. They can also work in other specific departments like the cancer ward.

Additionally, they can work in research, an educational setting or in a business wherein they can address both political and social issues like addiction to pain medication, right to die and bioethics.

The outlook for the careers anesthesiologists, as well as the surgeons and physicians is anticipated to be increase due to the growing population which will call for more doctors to cope all their needs for health care. Anesthesiologists will get to experience the peak rise in employment in reaction to the demands of the patients for accessing specialty care.

Study Cytotechnology

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Study Dental Assistant

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Dental assisting is the profession of the men and women that assist dentists in the practice of dental care to patients. They are by profession Dental Assistants, who passed the Dental Assistance course and hold a one-year certificate of the course, or a two-year associate degree in Dental Assisting, or certificate in Dental Surgery Assisting. They may also have earned either of the degree Associated in Applied Science (AAS), or the Associate in Occupational Studies (AOS). Dental assistants, also called as dental nurses, or dental chair side assistants, together with dental hygienists are those who help the dentist with the work inside the dental room.

The student in dental assisting inculcates in mind what was taught in school. What he has learned in school is what he has to apply when he enters his field: 1. he communicates with equipment suppliers and with the patient; 2. sterilizes dental tools and implements; 3. performs management tasks such as keeping records and accounts; 4. makes indentations and images of the patient’s teeth for record keeping; 5. does office up keeping; 6. develops dental X-rays; 7. brings about the comfort of the patient; 8. reminds the patient on suitable oral health care. The student learns in school the appropriate way to keep the mouth of the patient dry during the treatment. He is trained the proper way of handing the dentist the instruments needed.

Dental assistants can pursue their education further by taking up advance training courses such as offered in New South Wales: Certificate IV in Dental Assisting or Oral Health Education; Certificate IV in Dental Assisting or Dental Radiography; or Certificate IV in Dental Assisting or During General Anesthesia and Conscious Sedation. He can also take the Bachelor Degree Program on Dental Hygiene, as additional course.

The student of dental assisting should have finished high school courses in English, Mathematics, Health, Sciences, and Speech and Psychology. He has to take four modules of the course: Biology, Pathology, Dental Materials, and General Practice Dentistry and other modules such as: 1. effective communication and work in health; 2. follow infection control rules and procedures when at work; 3. processing reusable tools and implements; 4. join in occupation, safety, and health activities; 5. helps during the implementation of oral health procedures; 6. aids with dental radiography, and 7. supports in the rendering of dental exercise.

The student’s course subjects are as follows: Study Skills, Anatomy, Physiology, and Terminology, Computer Basics, Math Fundamentals, Dental Anatomy and Pathology, Fundamentals of Dentistry, Dental Office Administration, Dental Pharmacology, Clinical Dental Procedures, Dental Equipment Use and Care, Dental Radiography, Dental Materials, and Externship.

The schools where to study dental assisting are: California Dental Assistant Schools; Texas Dental Assistant Schools; New York Dental Assistant Schools; Florida Dental Assistant Schools; New Jersey Dental Assistant Schools; New York School for Medical & Dental Assisting; The Allied Health School—Virginia; Allied College - Missouri; Bradford School; Cambridge College; Career Centers of Texas; Central Florida Institute, Inc.; Charter College – Lancaster, Everest; Colle Milan Institutege; Vatterott College; Western Career College; and Thompson Institute – Philadelphia.

After graduation, he can land into a job as a: Dental Receptionist, Dental Assistant, Dental/Office Assistant, Dental Scheduler/ Dental Receptionist, Dental Hygienist, Medical Assistant, or office manager.

Study Dental Hygiene

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Having a clean mouth and good set of teeth is important not only in achieving a winning smile. More than just merely looking and feeling good, proper dental hygiene is essential in maintaining good oral health. Poor dental hygiene can lead to a variety of oral health problems such as bad breath, gum disease, infection, tooth decay and others. Further more, certain diseases have also been found to be linked to poor dental hygiene. These systemic diseases include cardiovascular diseases, diabetes complications and bacterial pneumonia, among others.

That is why in the maintenance of good dental hygiene and the prevention and treatment of dental diseases, the assistance of a professional is important. A dentist or a dental hygienist is a licensed professional who specializes in keeping smiles picture perfect by helping in the prevention and treatment of oral diseases that normally come about without the right health practices.

Proper dental hygiene practices done at home can only go as far as maintenance. For the avoidance of problems arising from poor dental hygiene, as well as the various systemic diseases linked to it, professional care is important. A dental care professional can perform various measures such as imparting helpful information, cleaning and, of course, treating various oral diseases.

Care procedure done by a dental professional includes a number of steps, and the effectiveness of the procedure may be reevaluated over a period of months or years. First, the patient will undergo a complete assessment. This may include reviewing the patient’s medical history, dental hygiene practices, and dental health evaluation. Once the cause of any existing dental health problem has been established, the professional will then come up with a plan, which usually involves several different series of treatments, depending on the patient’s immediate needs.

After coming up with a treatment plan, execution of such plan is the next step. This part involves frequent clinical visits for treatment, combined with common dental practices as instructed by the professional, which will be carried out by the patient at home, such as proper brushing or avoidance of certain food and beverage.

At the end of the course of treatment, an evaluation will be performed. This will help the professional establish whether the treatment received by the patient has been effective or not. As mentioned earlier, care procedure may be reevaluated after some time, depending on the outcome of the treatment.

While, generally, dental professionals recommend professional cleaning to be done at least twice per year, maintenance of good dental hygiene is done at home. Regular tooth brushing is helpful in preventing cavities and gum diseases. Most professionals recommend the use of toothbrush labeled as “soft” to prevent eroding the tooth enamel and irritating the gums. The use of toothpaste and mouthwash is also recommended, paired with limitation or restriction of food and beverage that are known to cause damage to overall dental health, such as foods with high sugar content or beverages that stain the teeth.

Study Dental Surgery

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Study Dentistry

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There are studies showing positive correlation between person’s healthy smile and person’s quality of life. Dentists – they are the ones in charge of giving us this healthy smile. Dentistry is the science of evaluating, diagnosing, preventing, and treating diseases and any disorders related to oral cavity and function and how it relates to the overall health of an individual. Good oral health is widely considered essential in achieving overall health. So, beyond the teeth, dentists treat oral conditions that affect patient’s tongue, jaw, gums, and lips.

Majority of graduates go for private practice by having their own dental clinic. About 20% go for employment in hospitals as specialists in related areas, such as orthodontics, endodontics, maxillofacial surgery, cosmetic dentistry, dental anaesthesiology, pediatric dentistry, aesthetic dentistry, and others. There are those who go for forensic dentistry, which is a specialty focusing on legal matters. This field is well-known in criminal investigations and is used in identifying human remains based on dental records, identifying who committed the crime given bite mark as evidence, etc. Some become part of academic and research aspect of Dentistry. Pediatric dentists, on the other hand, are focused on taking care of oral health of children from infancy to their teenage years. Patients of this age range are often uncooperative during dental procedures, and pediatric dentists know how to handle such cases. They also use dental equipment designed specifically for these patients. There is also a field of Dentistry specializing in dental needs of animals – veterinary dentistry. One can also go for public dental health involvement, where dentists promote awareness about oral health in a society through some organized mission groups.

Regardless of specialization or choice of career line, a Dentistry graduate cannot practice dentistry without passing certification or licensure exam for dentistry. Just like other fields of medicine, dentistry should be done with utmost care since this concerns patient’s health. This is why license becomes a requirement. Malpractice may lead to revoking of license that would prevent a dentist from practicing the profession.

Dentistry requires high level of precision and good hand-eye coordination along with strong understanding of pathology and biology of concerning region of the body. This is typically a 4-year or a 5-year program. Since Dentistry is about one-on-one interaction with patient, the program also prepares the students on how to effectively handle patients, especially because patients often fear dental procedures.

With the advances of technology in Dentistry augmented with the increasing level of vanity of mankind, dentistry, nowadays, deals with more than fixing problems in oral cavity region – rather, this field is known to “beautify” people. Specifically, cosmetic dentistry and aesthetic dentistry are the specialties responsible for this. While most people see these fields as basically the same, there are actually differences between the two. Aesthetic dentistry focuses mainly on tooth implants or the technology of filling in the space due to missing tooth. With that said, aesthetic dentistry is the field responsible for creating dentures, bridges, dental crowns, and tooth implants. Cosmetic dentistry, on the other hand, is 100% cosmetic in function. Cosmetic dentist is where you go when you want your yellowish teeth become stunning white, when you want misaligned teeth to come as perfect as it can be through braces and retainers, and other dental cosmetic techniques that would give beauty to a person’s smile. Having incomplete or misaligned teeth cannot kill a person, and this is why aesthetic dentistry is regarded as “for vanity.” However, it is difficult to eat and to speak clearly with incomplete or misaligned teeth. It also makes a person uncomfortable smiling - leading to lower self-confidence, and thus, affecting quality of the person’s social life. With these, aesthetic and cosmetic dentistry may or may not necessarily mean a need. For those who have career requiring clear speaking ability and for those who have career requiring high interaction with people, it is a must.

Study Dermatology

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Dermatology is a branch of medicine that focuses on the conditions of the skin, scalp, hair and nails. Dermatology is a very unique specialization since it combines surgery, cosmetics and of course medical aspects as well. Dermatologists are usually knowledgeable in a lot of things since the skin is affected by many factors, like nutrition, genes and the environment. Since the earlier days of medicine, doctors, or physicians as they used to call them, were very interested in everything in relation to the skin – the diseases, functions and so on. But it is only more recently that doctors actually focused on the largest organ of the body. It was only in the late 1570s that an Italian doctor named Geronimo Mercuriali wrote the very first book about dermatology which was entitled “On the diseases of the skin”. The interest in dermatology returned during the 1800s when a few doctors focused on the skin and its diseases and produced photographs and drawings that detailed the different kinds of skin diseases and the possible cures. After the renewed interest of doctors in the skin and its diseases, what we now know as dermatology has thrived ever since.

Dermatology has many branches or subspecialties. The most common of which is cosmetic dermatology, followed by dermatopathology and pediatric dermatology. Cosmetic dermatology deals mainly with the improvement and beautifying of the skin; dermatopathology on the other hand is concerned with the pathology of the skin and the accompanying diseases and infections; meanwhile, pediatric dermatology focuses on treating the diseases more commonly found in infants, children and teenagers.

There are other less common subspecialties as well like immunodermatology, Mohs surgery and the most recent subspecialty, teledermatology. Immunodermatology is mostly concerned with the skin as the first layer of protection of the body against different kinds of microorganisms. The main focus of immunodermatology is to identify the different effects of the environment on the skin and how this in turn affects the way the body functions. Mohs micrographic surgery on the other hand, which was developed in the 1930s by Dr. Frederic Mohs, focuses on treating skin cancers or more specifically, on the removal of non-melanoma cancers in areas of the body such as the face and the neck. Meanwhile, Teledermatology is a subspecialty that is very promising. Basically, its aim is to lessen the time between diagnosis and treatment by making use of technological advancements, mainly the internet. There are both pros and cons when it comes to Teledermatology but a more in depth research about this could remedy the situation and add more pros instead of cons.

Basically, dermatology is a very important specialization since skin problems and diseases are one of the most common problems that many people face every day. Dermatology has increased the quality of man’s life and this generation is certainly reaping the benefits of yesterday’s research in this medical specialty. Hopefully in the years to come, more and more skin diseases will not only be curable but also be preventable.

Job positions for Dermatology:

Pediatric Dermatology

There are some cases wherein a young person’s disease is exactly the same as an older patient’s but the symptoms are different or the medications don’t have the same effect. This is especially true if the patient in question has a skin disease. The skin is a very complex organ that changes as people get older. Many external and internal factors can affect its functions, and age is always a determining factor when it comes to treating skin diseases. As we all know, there are Pediatricians that specifically treat children. That’s why there are pediatric dermatologists who combine the two specializations in order to correctly diagnose children’s skin diseases.

So why is there a need for the combining of the two specializations? First of all, it must be taken into consideration that children are not smaller versions of adults. Their skin is different, their thought processes are different. If a child has a rash or any other kind of discomfort causing skin problem, then only a Pediatric Dermatologist can help them. Why? Well, children cannot correctly or fluently express what they feel. A dermatologist who has absolutely no experience when it comes to dealing with children cannot properly diagnose a skin disease. Pediatric dermatologists on the other hand were trained to treat children with ease so they can question them properly and make an accurate diagnosis. Another thing is that Pediatric Dermatologists invest in medical equipments that were specifically designed for children. Seeing as children are smaller than adults, some medical equipment will only serve to make diagnosing a child’s disease much harder than it ought to be. Another thing is that since pediatric dermatologists cater specifically to children, the examination room and waiting areas of a doctor’s office are most probably decorated with children in mind. Toys and children’s books could be found in the waiting areas of these doctor’s offices so that the children may be at ease while waiting for their turn.

What does it take to become a pediatric dermatologist? Well, first a person must complete at least twelve years of schooling. A student must obtain a bachelor’s degree, then a graduate degree in medicine. After that, a year of post-graduation training should be completed. When the year is finished, one must apply for both a pediatric and dermatology residency. A residency will last for three years. But one can just apply for a fellowship after a residency, instead of finishing two residency stints. Then, he or she can now take up the board exams.

But along with proper schooling, a few other traits and skills are needed in order to be an effective pediatric dermatologist. First, he/she should have that desire to be with children and must know how to deal with children’s tantrums and so on. Another, having a long patience is the key – if one losses patience easily, then, this could hinder one’s career. Also, the desire to gain more knowledge and learn about new things is also important.

Cosmetic Dermatologist

In an age where a beautiful face is considered an asset and good skin as an investment, it is no wonder that more and more people are opting for cosmetic procedures in order to improve their appearances. Before, cosmetic dermatology was mainly for the rich and the famous. But now, even non-celebrities go under the knife and make life altering changes to their appearances. That is why the increase in cosmetic operations has more than doubled in the past few years, what with many people jumping on the bandwagon of cosmetic surgery fans. In the world of cosmetic surgery, dermatologists are the leaders in this field since they specialize in skin care and skin conditions. These dermatologists who focus on the cosmetic part of their practice are known as Cosmetic Dermatologists. The most common procedures that cosmetic dermatologists do include Botox injections, liposuction and face lifts. The treatments that cosmetic dermatologists do range from the non-invasive, which includes prescribing topical ointments to patients with acne problems, to the more invasive treatments like the removal of varicose veins. Many people think that cosmetic dermatology is only present because it is man’s version of that elusive fountain of youth, but in reality, it is so much more. People who need skin grafts can go to cosmetic dermatologists in order to have burned or cancer-ravaged parts of their body embedded with new skin from a donor. Many people’s self-confidences are raised because unsightly birthmarks or scars can now be removed. The reality is that cosmetic dermatologists have managed to single-handedly uplift the spirits of many self-pitying individuals who lack confidence in the looks department, and THAT is a good thing.

So how does one become a cosmetic dermatologist? First of all, a person should get a bachelor’s degree in pre-medicine, then, it is followed by another four years of a medical school degree and lastly, one must have dedicated a year to post-graduate training or internship. After that, a person can now apply for a residency in dermatology. A residency usually lasts for three years and when a person has completed that, he or she can now take up a board examination.

A complete education is not the only requirement for aspiring cosmetic dermatologists. A few skills and traits are needed, including the ability to relate to people from all walks of life, good problem solving skills and most importantly, a dermatologist must have an open mind and a desire to gain more knowledge as he/she goes along. Other key characteristics include tactfulness and of course, patience. But the most important thing of all is the desire to help people no matter the circumstance and consequences.

A cosmetic dermatologist’s salary is usually big compared to other jobs, which is not a surprise considering the amount of money needed in order to study medicine. But other factors like the treatments one offers and the location of the office can also affect the salary.

Usually, cosmetic dermatologists in the US can earn more than $200,000 annually.

Study Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Pharmaceuticals

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Designing, synthesizing and evaluating the biological aspects of pharmaceuticals is an intensive field of study that requires expertise in multiple fields. Designing pharmaceuticals requires pharmaceutical development education, medical studies and even some artistic design. On the other hand, synthesizing and evaluating these products includes studies in chemistry, biology and biotechnology, in order to increase their efficiency and assess their characteristics.
These studies often fall under a medicinal chemistry degree, which will cover almost all of these fields in unison (such a degree is applicable, though not unique to pharmacology). Universities, colleges, technical institutions and medical schools will all provide courses in these fields. Since it a scientific and medical study, it is rare to find credible education programs other than those offered by higher education institutions. It is also possible that schools will not provide this course except at a graduate level.
A medicinal chemistry major, or a compilation of pharmacology and chemistry studies, will both usually be enough to provide expertise in this specific area of study. If interested individuals cannot study at a post-secondary school, there are some online programs available for study. Nearly all programs will require laboratory experience and an internship.
Skills, Qualifications, and Prerequisites for Studies in the Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Pharmaceuticals
Since nearly all offered courses in the design, synthesis and biological evaluation of pharmaceuticals exist in higher education institutions, candidates must meet the admission requirements to these schools. This usually includes earning a secondary school completion certificate and passing a standardized aptitude test or entrance exam.
An aptitude for science is fundamental for any individual seeking to pursue this study, as it focuses on mainly scientific methodologies and education. A background in chemistry and biology is preferred, as well as extreme dedication (the course of study can be lengthy) and high intelligence. Extreme attention to detail and concrete ethical practices is crucial, as workers in this pharmaceutical field must consider that their products affect the health of the consumer.
Other key qualities in a prime candidate include:
  • Ability to work efficiently, both individually and on a research team.
  • Effective communication skills.
  • Ability to document, record and interpret a wide variety of data.
Skills and Qualifications Acquired from Studies in the Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Pharmaceuticals
This field of study can be broken down into its three components, all of which teach essential skills in the field of pharmaceutical development. These components, however, are still highly interrelated and interdependent. In pharmaceutical design, student will acquire skills in these areas:
  • Types of pharmaceuticals (drug classes, etc.)
  • Pharmaceutical design and marketing.
  • Advanced biology and medicinal chemistry.
  • Molecular and cellular structure of pharmaceuticals.
  • Molecular bonds, systems and properties.
  • Properties and biological components of pharmaceuticals.
  • Biotechnologica l equipment and uses in pharmaceuticals.
  • Effect of pharmaceuticals on cells and biological systems.
  • Testing procedures, laws, regulations and ethics.
  • Chemical synthesis methods and chemical reactions.
Careers for Studies in the Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Pharmaceuticals.
Students who graduate from this program of study are ideal for careers in pharmaceutical development, testing and quality control. They will most often find employment in medical research labs for private or government institutions. Sometimes these pharmaceutical scientists will forego the research career path and aid in the design and marketing of pharmaceutical products, teach at a post-secondary educational level or pursue further studies towards a physician’s certification.

Study Drug Research and Development

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The Americans are lucky enough to have access to the safest and highly-advanced pharmaceutical system than anywhere else in the world.

The pharmaceutical system is closely monitored by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research or CDER. Their primary responsibility is to evaluate new drugs before they can be released and sold to the public. This does not only prevent the spread of fake and harmful drugs, they also provide the health care professionals and their patients with information regarding the proper use of medications. Because of this strategy, both doctors and patients are forewarned about the harmful and advantageous effects of branded and generic medications to their health making sure that it outweighs the former. Before the drugs are being sold to the country, they should be primarily tested by the drug company who has developed them after which they are to send the results of the test to the CDER. The company’s data and proposed labeling for the drug are then reviewed by a group of physicians, statisticians, chemists, pharmacologists as well as other scientists. If the result of the review is more inclined to the drug’s health benefits thus outweighing the risks, it can now be sold to the public. Drug research is a very important study because it determines the drug’s quality, safety and effectiveness.

It is the company’s accountability to sponsor laboratory and animal tests in order to know exactly what and how the drug works and whether or not it is safe to use in humans. Once this is done, a series of tests in people is started to identify if the drug is safe when being used as a treatment of a disease and whether or not it offers real health benefits. This is how the directions for use, side effects and adverse effects, and warnings are recognized.

The Food and Drug Administration has joint forces with the National Cancer Institute, the pharmaceutical industry as well as the academia, as part of their Critical Path initiative to facilitate the development of new imaging technologies which will be used during the development of products. It is believed that the imaging agents and technologies will contribute necessary biomarkers and surrogate endpoints during the progression of a disease and provide the development of new therapies to treat them.

Drug Research and Development can anticipate and resolve the scientific and technical obstacles before they can become much more. Through the applicability of research, the challenges and gaps in the drug process can be resolved. Gaps unaddressed by traditional basic research and the resolution to specific scientific challenges can be filled through the research programs. The traditional basic drug research is ultimately linked with applied research so as to acknowledge the concerns that arise in the pre-marketing and post-marketing stages. The Drug Research and Development works collaboratively with other research programs of government agencies, pharmaceutical industries and the academia.

Drug Research and Development is tasked to investigate applied and theoretical concerns in the communication of risk and benefit date in direct-to-consumer and professional promotionally prescribed drug materials. It depends on what research program is being used to utilize a number of various research methodologies which includes surveys and experimental research, and for developmental purposes, qualitative research.

Study Ear, Nose and Throat

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The medical field concerning the bodily areas of the ear, nose and throat is referred to as ENT, head-and-neck surgery or otolaryngology. This study equips students to perform surgery on these areas of the human body, or to act as physicians in patient services. It revolves around the diagnosis and treatment of various ear, nose and throat disorders and diseases.
 The field of ENT is a strictly medical profession, and a thorough course of study is only available through a post-secondary school (colleges, universities, technical institutions, medical schools). Majors in ENT or otolaryngology are becoming increasingly common, and can be achieved at a bachelor, master or doctorate degree level – though it is more likely that this course is offered at a master’s or doctorate level. Due to the surgical training and education required, most candidates achieve a bachelor’s in a related area, studying ENT at a higher level.
Some schools will not offer a unified course in ENT. This means students may have to study in related fields, such as audiology or laryngology. It is also important to note that a field of study in ENT will require internships, lab work, clinical experience and a residency before completion. Few online programs exist in this field, and far fewer that would provide certification.
Skills, Qualifications, and Prerequisites for Studies in Ear, Nose and Throat
Universities, technical institutions and colleges will almost always require some form of secondary school completion certification, along with a passing score on a standardized aptitude test. Medical school requires candidates to first achieve a bachelor’s degree, and pass another standardized exam before admissions.
A high aptitude for science and math is essential to success in this field, as there is a steep learning curve for ENT medical information. Candidates should also be extremely detail-oriented, as ear, nose and throat examinations can require miniscule observations, detailed note-taking and carefully assessed conditions. Great interpersonal and communication skills are important qualities, as ENT specialists will be interacting constantly with patients and team members. An ENT course is also a particularly long field of study (as high as 14 years), so students should be dedicated from the start.
Skills and Qualifications Acquired from Studies in Ear, Nose and Throat
If a student is forced to major in several areas aside from a unified ENT course, their learning may vary significantly from a traditional ENT major study. Otolaryngology studies will all usually train students in the following areas:
  • Surgical practices for the ear, nose and throat.
  • Ear, nose and throat anatomy and functions.
  • Examination tools and practices for the ear, nose and throat.
  • Basics of preliminary evaluation process.
  • Basics of follow-up assessments.
  • Signs, symptoms and treatments for ear, nose and throat disease.
  • Environmental, social and other factors on ear, nose and throat health.
  • Treatment of ear, nose and throat injuries.
  • Medical data documentation.
  • Medical and patient laws, standards and regulations.
Careers for Studies in Ear, Nose and Throat
Almost all individuals that study the ear, nose and throat of the human form are prepared for clinical or surgical practice. Whether they work for a hospital, free clinic, government agency or other medical facility, they will find work as ENT surgeons and primary care physicians. More rarely, these graduates work in medical research facilities, universities, relief work or health and service projects.

Study Early Care

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One of the most wondrous and unique times of life is infancy. There are several individuals who work with the babies, or those who deliver early care. They normally enjoy the fast growth of the children during their early years, they intend to deliver consistent early care services and be able to establish strong bonded relationships with toddlers and infants in various early care settings.

Early care for the infants calls for a commitment to maintain caring relationships among the babies and their families. In the early care settings, the quality of the relationships serves as the determinants of the care quality. It usually takes a while to earn the trust of the families by the Early Care service providers, they need to establish consistent contact with the babies and get to know them intimately.

This kind of relationship will be achieved if their contact has developed into a meaningful and strong bonded relationship, this is why a normal early care setup is relatively small, a ratio of one adult to 3 babies ensures that they were able to deliver the needs of the infants for affection and attention as well as be able to do their routine care which involves changing, bathing and feeding.

The routine care giving in Early Care tasks basically include diaper changing, feeding, and as well as toilet training which provide the opportunities for affectionate personal contact with the child. Moreover, the infants need the environment of tranquility and peace in order to grow. These would also take them from over simulation which negatively overwhelms the infants. In early care, it is very significant to do the routine as often as needed and not by following a fixed schedule. The routine also involves strict sanitary measures as well as hand washing most importantly before physical contact with the infants.

One of the most important roles of Early Care is to deal with stranger and separation anxieties of the infants. As the infants have developed their love and attachments with their families, the early care providers must also learn how to achieve the trust of the infants so that they will be comfortable enough while they are under their care. Early Care should also help the infants to explore; they should provide the opportunities for them to use their senses. They should assist the infants in all their developmental stages, but they have to ensure the safety of the infants at the same time as they explore their environment.

In Early Care, it is also important for them to establish communication points with the families. On of its goals is to build strong relationships with the families of the children. They ensure daily communication among the families in order to build true and strong relationships under their care, they see to it that they get into the knowledge, experiences, child care beliefs and culture of the families. Early Care focuses also in maintaining effective communication with their everyday contact with the children as well as with their families.

Study Emergency Medical Technology

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Emergency medical technicians, also called paramedics, are the people performing lifesaving actions in various emergency situations like car accidents, fire outbursts, natural disasters, and so on. They are trained to give first aid to patients and transport them safely to a hospital or another medical facility.

Some actions that the emergency medical technician can perform are check vital signs, master techniques to treat shock and fractures and correctly assess the patient’s condition. They also need to be well- acquainted with medical terms in order to report to doctors, or get instructions through the radio station. Normally EMTs work from their ambulance with one or two partners assisting them.

Personal Qualities

To practice this profession, you need to be extremely stable mentally, while also genuinely drawn to helping others. Further qualities are:

  • Extremely patient
  • Physically fit; able to stay awake long hours and take night shifts
  • Ability to work under pressure
  • Very organized and able to solve problems fast

Study Options

EMT training can be undertaken in various community and two-year colleges, as well as some universities and vocational schools. Depending on the level you wish to gain, your education can continue from six months to two years. If you decide to gain a Basic certification, you would be allowed to deal with some basic critical conditions, nearly all of which are non-invasive. For example, a Basic emergency medical technician might splint broken bones temporarily, control external bleeding, or use a bag mask to give positive pressure ventilation. On the other hand, the intermediate levels would equip you with the skills to carry out more invasive and pharmaceutical procedures, while the most advanced emergency medical technician is called a paramedic.  He or she can engage in procedures such as cardiac monitoring, resuscitation, and some drug administration. Finally, you can choose to get a special certification to practice in a particular environment. A good example are Wilderness EMTs, who learn how to use improvised devices, such as branches, to do things like splint broken limbs.

Career Options

There are EMTs working for private ambulance companies, while others are employed by a certain hospital or hospital system. Job descriptions and pay levels are normally similar, and the same applies for the training and certification required. It is most likely that you would work for 24 hours, after which you would have a 48 hours rest, but of course this is just an average estimation. A typical day at your job would involve waiting for calls from the dispatcher, after which you would have to reach the place of the accident at a relatively fast pace. The job can be very demanding, so you should be prepared to work long hours in all weather conditions.

Study Endocrinology

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Endocrinology is a subdivision of medicine that deals with illnesses concerning the Endocrine System and its particular secretions known as hormones. The beginnings of Endocrinology can be traced back to the country of China. By 200 B.C., the Chinese were already segregating sex and pituitary secretions found in a person’s urine for the purpose of medicine. Sublimation was a complex method that was used for such procedure. This happened 1500 years before Europeans, through a man name Berthold who discovered that the castration of cockerels did not result in wattles or combs nor did it display explicitly male deeds. It was in 1935 that pure, crystalline male sex hormone known as testosterone was isolated.

Relevant tissues and other endocrine glands have long been recognized and discovered by the anatomists of early years, but the classical thinkers such as Hippocrates and Aristotle were responsible for the more humoral move toward understanding its functions biologically as well as the corresponding diseases. It was until the introduction of the germ theory, physiology and pathology during the 19thcentury that these theories held influence.

In the United States, there are approximately 4,000 Endocrinologists who are specializing in internal medicine and pediatrics.

Endocrinologists who deal primarily with the fertility and menstrual problem are called Reproductive Endocrinologists. But before Endocrinologists can formally practice their specialty, they go through a training first in obstetrics (in the case of REI) depending on the training system the State they are under has.

Residency is the term designated for the training to achieve a board certification in the fields of internal medicine, pediatrics and gynecology in the United States or Canada right after medical school. For sub-specializations, a formal training is also required to be able to practice adult, pediatric or reproductive endocrinology termed as a fellowship. In North America, Endocrinologists are required four (4) years of college, another four (4) years for medical school, residency of three (3) years and lastly, three (3) years for fellowship. The American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) board certifies Adult Endocrinology.

There are a variety of principal professional organizations recognized in North America which includes The Endocrine Society, the American Diabetes Association, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and many others. The main professional organizations in the United Kingdom are the Society for Endocrinology and the British Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes. The largest international professional organization that is directly-related to Pediatric Endocrinology is the European Society for Pediatric Endocrinology.

Job positions for Endocrinology:

Reproductive Endocrinologist

The next step forward for treatments in infertility can be readily answered by physicians who specialize in the field of Reproductive Endocrinology. Increased chances of conceiving have been discovered by many couples after choosing to put the infertility problem in the hands of a Reproductive Endocrinologist. This type of practice undergoes a special training that allows them to provide the best treatments and undivided attention to the needs and issues of clients or patients individually.

The subspecialty of surgical obstetrics and gynecology is called Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility or REI. The physicians are educated in the area of reproductive medicine handling hormonal functioning that is directly related to the processes of reproduction with great emphasis on the subject of infertility. Aside from the Reproductive Endocrinologist’s main focus on infertility, REIs are also trained to assess and deal with other dysfunctions of the hormones in women and men outside the scope of infertility. Anatomical conditions that affect a patient’s fertility are also surgically operated by REIs. They first undergo specialty training in obstetrics and gynecology before proceeding to the sub-specialty partnership training of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility.

Among the many scope of a Reproductive Endocrinologist are problems that are directly in relation to the reproductive system include but not limited to the following:

Hormonal Disorders – it has been found out over the years that a great number of complex hormonal disorders are impacting women of childbearing years more substantially than previously believed;

Menstrual Problems – menstrual problems are mostly mediated by culture and particular lifestyle factors. Another factor in the occurrence of menstrual problems is stress and diet;

Infertility – the inability of a person to biologically contribute to the process of conception due to problems in ovulation, blocking of the fallopian tubes, male-associated infertility, factors in relation to age, problems in the uterus, tubal ligation, vasectomy, and an unknown cause;

Loss of Pregnancy – This is brought about by a miscarriage or an ectopic pregnancy. There are four possible causes of pregnancy loss and they are: a blighted ovum, miscarriage, ectopic and molar pregnancy;

Sexual Dysfunction – This is the term coined for the difficulty encountered by a couple in the process of sexual intercourse in its various stages: desire, arousal, and orgasm; and
Menopause – this is the permanent termination of the reproductive fertility of a woman.

Who can a Reproductive Endocrinologist treat? REIs can treat clients, men and women in different stages of life. It is the duty of the Reproductive Endocrinologist to run a variety of tests that concern fertility in the cases of clients or patients presenting an infertility problem. They can also suggest necessary and appropriate treatments that will help increase a patient’s chances of conceiving. The most common treatments that are offered are the use of fertility drugs, infertility surgery and assisted therapy for reproduction.

What are the qualifications in becoming a Reproductive Endocrinologist? Reproductive Endocrinologists need to complete a residency in OB-GYNE first plus allotting two to three years of training in reproductive endocrinology afterwards. To become a certified and qualified reproductive endocrinologist, they take a written and oral exam.

Pediatric Endocrinologist

What is Pediatric Endocrinology? Pediatric Endocrinology is a subspecialty of medicine that carries out care for the differences in physical growth and sexual advancement of childhood, as well as dealing with endocrine diseases such as diabetes and many others.

What does a Pediatric Endocrinologist do? Why does my child need a pediatric endocrinologist? A Pediatric Endocrinologist takes care of patients from birth to late adolescence. Children who have problem in growth and development, youth, Diabetes Mellitus, as well as other endocrine-related diseases that occurs during the early stages of life. It is the responsibility of a Pediatric Endocrinologist to treat a child with these kinds of health problems.

Chemicals that affect the proper functions of the other parts of the human body are called hormones. It is the hormone that decides how a certain child will grow and mature and at what particular stage and time. Hormones in the bloodstream are discharged by the pituitary gland. It is the study of Endocrinology that focuses on the glands and the hormones’ effects. A Pediatric Endocrinologist’s job varies from that of a general Endocrinologist in a way that the hormonal disorders being dealt with by a Pediatric Endocrinologists are those that occur during the childhood stages and puberty whereas from the endocrinologists who specialize in the care of adults.

In typically 50% of all clinical practice, the disease that is the most common under this specialty is Type 1 Diabetes. The growth disorders are second on the list especially the ones that are cured by the Growth Hormone Treatment. Pediatric Intersex Disorders are medically-cared for the Pediatric Endocrinologists, as well as hypo- and hyperglycemia, and problems in the adrenal, thyroid and pituitary organs. Pediatric Endocrinologists too have expertise in the metabolism of bone, lipids, congenital errors and pubescent gynecology.

A board certification follows the fellowship training in the countries of the United State and Canada for the medicine subspecialty known as Pediatric Endocrinology. This certification is issued by the Board of Pediatrics. This subspecialty has relatively limited procedures and importance on the evaluation of diagnostics.

Pediatric Endocrinology can be traced back to the pioneer of the pediatrics specialty, Lawson Wilkins, who practiced at the Pediatrics Department of John Hopkin’s Medical School and Harriet Lane Home, Baltimore. This occurred during the period of the late 1940’s and the middle of the 1960’s. In honor of the pioneer Wilkins, the North American Professional Association is named after the Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society.

The training for Pediatric Endocrinology takes two to three years of fellowship and a finishing point of a three-year period of residency in pediatrics. Both the fellowship and the specialty are research- and academically-based. Pediatric Endocrinologists are found in diverse settings which include the children’s hospital, private offices, Medical Centers, Provincial and Large Community hospitals all over the country.

Pediatric Endocrinologists understand the totality of a child because children are more than just little adults. Children, in relation to their growth and development, have special needs that not just any other doctor can correctly diagnose and cure.

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Study Environmental Health

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Study Epidemiology and Public Health Unit

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Epidemiology and Public Health are two different fields of studies but are very much inter-related. The relationship of these two fields of science can be compared to the proverbial half-filled-glass-half-empty-glass-of-water point of view. Generally, they share the same purpose, which is to prevent the outbreak of communicable diseases but the functions of an epidemiologist and a public health worker are totally opposite to what the other does. However, as opposite are their approach to each other, epidemiology and public health should work side by side in order to safeguard the general health of the population. When diseases like the ones caused by the SARS and H1N1 viruses kills a number of people in so short a time, leading epidemiologists and public health authorities are called in to contain these viruses.

Epidemiology largely deals with the understanding of how often and why diseases occur in different groups of different people. Generally, Epidemiology is not offered as an undergraduate course by most universities but rather as postgraduate courses. Usually, epidemiologist have different backgrounds, among them are usually microbiologists and veterinarians. Those specializing in Epidemiology should have extensive laboratory work experience and should be willing to do field work as sometimes there are now equipments portable enough to carry out analysis of pertinent data.

On the other hand, Public Health deals with prevention of outbreak of diseases and promotion of health of the populace. Since, public health is more concern with the overall well-being of the population, individual cases are not prioritized unless a particular disease has been contacted by a number of patients. Public health actually has a wide scope to cover. During times of outbreaks, they need to work side by side with epidemiologists since it is their responsibility to look after the health of the population. Another major task of the Public Health unit is to inform the public whatever piece of information regarding how to safeguard their health. Disseminating information sometimes calls for a massive campaign so that’s why public relations specialists are also key personnel of public health units. From virus or disease outbreak alerts to the simple proper way of washing one’s hands or anything the public that needs to know, it is important that the message or alert warnings reaches the public in time.

In third world countries, epidemiologists and public health units are much busier than their counterparts in developed nations. This is because incidences of outbreaks of diseases like cholera, malaria, dengue, high fever and among others occur more frequently. These occurrences are more frequent because developed nations have more efficient methods of educating the public about public health issues. Third world countries tend to have remote areas that are hard to reach and the illiteracy level are quite high making the health education programs of the government more often ineffective.

However, since most diseases are already known and containing them are easy as long as the disease or virus have been identified, it is really during outbreaks of unknown diseases that epidemiologists and public health units are most worried about. Some strains of viruses would take time to be identified and by the time the new strain of virus got identified, sometimes hundreds of lives have already been claimed.

Those who would like to embark on a career specifically in saving millions of lives from deadly viruses like SARS and H1N1, acquiring a medical science related undergraduate course would be the first order of battle and then specialize in an epidemiology and public health unit course later on.

Job positions for Epidemiology and Public Health Unit:


Epidemiology is defined as the study of factors concerning the health and illness of the populations, and serves as the groundwork and logic of the interventions made in relation to public health and preventive medicine. It is recognized as the cornerstone methodology of public health research and holds high regard in evidence-based medicine for the risk factor identification of diseases and optimal treatment approaches in the clinical practice. The work of an Epidemiologist in the study of communicable and non-communicable diseases such as conducting an investigation due to an outbreak is to design, collect data and analyze it including the developments in the statistical models to test the hypotheses and the documents of the results for submission to various peer-reviewed journals. Among the other scientific disciplines relied on by Epidemiologists are biology, geographic information science and the social sciences.

An Epidemiologist should hold a bachelor’s degree in any of the sciences and a Master’s or PhD degree in epidemiology. Graduate level studies should involve learning about chronic and infectious disease, psychology or the study of the human mind, physiology or the study of the functioning of living things, biochemistry or the chemistry of living organisms, genetics or the study of heredity, toxicology or the study of scientific poisons, biostatistics or the biological form and function as well as health service administrations. It is a prime requirement for every Epidemiologist to have satisfactory math skills especially in the area that concerns statistics and probability since the work is more inclined in the analysis and interpretation of data. An Epidemiologist is not only limited to the studies aforementioned instead, they can also specialize in particular areas depending on where their interest lies.

This area of study is one of the prime features in identifying and determining the various public health policies. Government agencies usually employ Epidemiologists to aid in the public health crises research and in the setting of the public health policy.

Epidemiologists are usually hired by organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). An Epidemiologist can also opt to work at a privately-owned research facility, a college or university, or in private or public agencies as a consultant. In developing plans for managing terrorist attacks that may cause a big number of casualties, epidemiologists can work for government law enforcement agencies.

The duties and responsibilities of an Epidemiologist vary depending on the different causes of disease or illness and injuries. But in any given day, he or she can perform any of the following tasks:

  • Take part in the everyday research of specific diseases

  • Plan and design a study on any issue about public health

  • Address public issues by talking to the community, write
  • related concerns and solutions and advocate for the implementation of changes.
  • Write a report that evaluates and summarizes a finished research assignment

  • Join forces with other doctors and health care workers to direct specific health concerns.

  • Develop and refine strategies of coping for the identified disease risks and concerns.

  • Propose a public health policy that will target all kinds of individuals in the community.

The average annual salary received by epidemiologist is within $30,000 and $50,000 in the United States.


Remember the mad-cow disease, the avian flu that hit Asia sometime back and perhaps SARS? The common denominator of these diseases is that all of them originated from animals. The mad-cow disease obviously got its name because they exhibited first from cows, the avian flu from birds and SARS from civet cats, an animal endemic to China. And where and when there are animals involved, veterinary doctors or Veterinarians or Vets are sure to be involved.

From city living experience, we know Vets to be those guys treating our pets when they get sick. Kids usually call them the animal doctors. Even in children’s stories, veterinary doctors are represented by the famous Dr. Doolittle, who treats animals because he can talk to them.
Aside from treatment of sick pets, professionally, little is known about the practice of veterinary medicine. What a lot of people may not know is that the meats being sold in the markets or groceries have passed through a Vet’s inspection. Meaning Vets make sure that the food we eat as far as animal products are concerned are disease free. Notice that some parts of the meat have a blue coloration to it, that is because it is the ink of the vet’s stamp of certification that the meat is guaranteed fit for human consumption.

Large commercial farms dealing in livestock cannot do without a Vet. The Resident Vet would be the one to look after the health of each livestock. Each livestock is checked upon depending on the schedule of check-ups the company adheres to. Vets would be on the lookout for animals exhibiting symptoms of any kind. Once a symptom is observed, these animals are immediately put under quarantine for more testing and confirmation. Those commercial farms that have so many livestock invest in their Resident Vet and sponsor their Vet’s post-graduate courses such as Epidemiology. Since he will be exposed to thousands of animals on a day-to-day basis, the threat of outbreak within the farm needs to be contained immediately so as not to contaminate the whole herd. Not only that, the company will suffer tremendous amounts of money should the Vet fail to contain the outbreak. Mad cow disease and SARS are rare occurrences but in a livestock farm, it is also the Vet’s job to recommend practices that will ensure safety of the animals and those people working with the animals. There are viruses that may not affect the animal itself but when farm cleanliness policies are not strictly followed down the letter, the pathogens may be passed on to humans and a different effect might happen. Sometimes, a simple wearing of gloves or washing of hands may already kill millions of disease-causing viruses and bacteria so making sure that those practices recommended are diligently followed.

Practicing veterinarians can easily transition to become epidemiologists because they won’t have to learn so much on the topic of animals as common hosts of pathogenic agents. For those who want to be an epidemiologist, taking veterinary medicine would be a good stepping stone. A word of caution though for those who want to pursue epidemiology, since diseases is what will be the topic throughout most of the course make sure to eat lunch outside the classroom as the petri dishes inside the laboratory might have live germs on them.


As they say, an Epidemiologist’s job is the hardest job of all because they are always exposed to live specimens of microorganisms that cause diseases. Also, during times of outbreaks of unknown strains of viruses, they would be the one to go in quarantined areas or suspected contaminated areas to investigate and study the development of patients and possibly develop a method in checking the disease from spreading further.

The movie “Outbreak,” starred by Dustin Hoffman, exemplifies best what an Epidemiologist does. In the movie, an airborne virus, a virus that can be contacted in the air, was spread by a monkey to a human and then to other humans. The Epidemiologist called in to combat and check the spread of the disease, portrayed by Dustin Hoffman, the first things he did was to contain the spread of the disease by ordering a state of quarantine on the areas with incidence of the disease. Then got the findings from the tests from afflicted patients to identify and understand how the virus is causing the disease. When it was identified that the cause of the disease was a type of an Ebola virus, which are naturally present in a specific species of monkey, Dustin Hoffman ordered a search for a particular monkey in order to produce an antidote and stop the outbreak altogether.

However, the things that happened in the movie cited above were what just what Epidemiologist would do in real life if and if there is really an outbreak of a virus or bacteria that is potent. Sometime back, the SARS virus scare forced airlines around the world to have arriving passengers from countries with SARS cases be thoroughly checked by Epidemiologists to make sure that no traces of the virus would be set free in their respective countries.

Since outbreaks and virus scares that may wipeout communities instantaneously seldom happen, normal or typical day for an Epidemiologist would be inside a laboratory with their petri dishes and live cultures of whatever microorganism. Apparently, there are diseases that are breaking out now and again, diseases like dengue, cholera, typhoid fever and malaria among other tropical diseases. Although, these diseases are very much treatable and easily contained, Epidemiologists are still constantly researching cases of these diseases as new strains might come out especially when exposed to a different group of people.

Probably, being an Epidemiologist would mean a government position employment because outbreaks of diseases are also a matter of national security. Any government should be concern with controlling and containing diseases because millions of lives are at stake when an outbreak or pathogen is left unchecked.

The primary function of an Epidemiologist really is to understand how and why a particular disease occurs. When the workings of a particular disease are understood, an Epidemiologist can give recommendations on how to control and get rid of the disease. However, since a different agency is in charge of disseminating information, which usually falls under the Public Health Unit/Department, an Epidemiologist must work in unison with the Public Health Unit so that his findings will not be for naught.

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Study Food Security

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Study General and Digestive Surgery

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The surgical specialty which focuses on various abdominal organs such as the intestines, stomach, esophagus, colon, small bowel, liver, gallbladder, bile ducts and pancreas is known as the field of General Surgery. The field also includes the thyroid; aside from these organs it also covers various diseases which involve the hernias and skins. General Surgery is commonly carried out to lessen the suffering when there is no possible medication cure. It can be performed for common procedures executed in the office of the physician, like vasectomy or much complicated procedures like laparoscopic cholecystomy or the removal of the gallbladder which would require a hospital setting and a medical team.

New techniques and methods less persistent compared with the older procedures which were impossibly considered. For instance is the microsurgery which has been resorted in order to successfully reconnect the nerves and small blood vessels. Such techniques are more effective and efficient thus speeding up the healing process, lowering the rates of postoperative infections and leaving only small scars

As time past by the areas of General Surgery has dramatically advanced by means of the introduction of endoscopy in the medical field. The process of endoscopy involved the use of an instrument which visualizes the interior of a hollow organ or a body canal. The process relies on a pencil like instrument which has the capability of lighting its system and its built in video camera. The endoscope is placed via portals or tiny incisions. While viewing the entire procedure on video, the surgeon will proceed with the operations using other smaller instruments. One example of an endoscopic procedure is colonoscopy which makes use of an endoscope used to examine the colon visually, on the other hand, there is gastroscopy which uses an endoscope via the mouth to examine the inside of the stomach.

In relation to General Surgery, there is also another related field known as digestive surgery which specializes on billiary surgery, liver transplant, endocrine surgeries and obesity surgery. The professionals of this field are known as digestive surgeons, as doctors they work with other specialists like the digestive radiologists and gastroenterologists who are greatly involved in the diagnoses and treatment of various digestive illnesses or they can work with the endocrinologists, oncologists and radiotherapists.

Patients who have different digestive diseases have the need to consult expert surgeons in specific cases, perceptibly during an operation which other expert’s advice might be needed. There are also the general surgeons, and the others who concentrate in digestive surgery. Similar to gastroenterologists, they can also closely focus so that other surgeons can focus on hepato-pancreatico-biliary surgery, esophageal surgery, colorectal surgery and liver transplantation.

The management of various digestive diseases has greatly improved over time. The field has also grown into complexity as the rise of new treatment procedures, which makes it more significant for various specialists to work as a team in order to provide the most reliable and effective patient treatment in the optimization of digestive health. The collaboration of general and digestive surgeries within a coordinated group guarantees a strong fight against life threatening digestive illnesses.

Study Genetics

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Genetics is the discipline of Biology which was coined from the Ancient Greek word “genetikos” or genitive and “genesis” meaning origin. It is the science that deals with lineage or heredity and the distinctiveness of living organisms from each other. Gregor Mendel opened the view of the modern science of genetics as the search for the understanding of the course of inheritance during the middle of the 19th century. He was able to observe how each organism inherited qualities through distinct units of inheritance now known as genes. Although what defines an organism are the life experiences it goes through, genetics has played a big part in the physical attributes as well as its behavior of the organism.

Genetics as a science occupies a vitally important position in modern Biology understanding of which is relevant to a student of the life sciences. Even outside the academia, genetics influences all aspects of living from the food we eat to the clothes that we wear, all of which are modified and improved by the methodical application of the level of quality of genetic principles. There are a lot of opportunities offered to undergraduates studying genetics providing them with a multidimensional view of genetics and its wide range of possibilities in genetics research.

Among the Departments that administer Genetics as an undergraduate course are Biochemistry, Biophysics, as well as the Department of Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology. Undergraduate degrees are commonly offered by the College of Agriculture and the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences. For students majoring in other areas of the life sciences such as Animal Science, Biochemistry, Biological Sciences, Crop Science, Microbiology, Natural Resources, Plant Biology, Zoology and Poultry Sciences; Genetics is also offered as a minor in order to provide a strong preparation for students regarding the principles of Genetics and Molecular Biology, in addition to the preparation for Statistics and Biochemistry. Most Genetics minors demand at least 18 credit hours, 15 of which are specified and the other three are elective. Every student taking up Genetics Minor courses is required to achieve a “C” rating or better.

Genetics holds a reputation as a notorious course that demands influx of high-volume information in such a short period of time. However, students will be guided more efficiently if they follow studying methods religiously. Among the study methods are know the basic essentials, understand each of the concepts seriously through practice, and chart disorders accordingly.

Among the career opportunities for Genetics are employments in teaching, research as well as other health-related professional occupations. While some find employment right after their baccalaureate training, others pursue their education by undergoing graduate and professional programs and trainings. Graduate students who have a BS or BA degree may be able to find employment in health, food industry or biotechnology. The latest graduates have also enhanced careers in conservation biology, science journalism as well as technical writing, business and genetic counseling.

The salaries for Genetics in the United States range from $42,000 to $50,000 for a Cytogenetic Technologist; $53,000 to $54,000 for a Genetic Counselor; $85,000 for a Statistical Genetic Analyst; $86, 000 for a Research Geneticist t0 $95,000 for a Senior Scientist and lastly, $90,000 to $125,000 for a Medical Geneticist with an MD.

Job positions for Genetics:

Laboratory Geneticist

In the field of Biology, Geneticists are the principals who are among the last front liners. They are the key people who unlock the remaining mysteries of life and living. Geneticists are unique in a way because their working environment which they more or less consider as their home is the laboratory unlike other physical scientists who need to do field work in order to uncover the secrets of their study.

They try to put together piece by piece of a puzzle that primarily involves DNA and heredity. Long hours in the laboratory are considered as perks of the job instead of curse. They are more than passionate about their work to the point that they consider it as an obsession, willingly devoting many years of trial and error just to answer a single question about a genome correctly. Genetics is also involved in most fields where more technological advances can be expected to catch up on research. Among the major fields of Geneticists are medicine, agriculture and solving criminal cases.

Geneticists can work in the laboratory of pharmaceutical companies who are looking for ways to unravel the origins of a specific disease, causes of birth defects and the like, and in turn devise new strategies to avoid or cure them. Those who are involved in this field are married to their work from start to a finish that is indefinite.

Geneticists on the other hand who work in the agricultural laboratories develop crops that can withstand any catastrophic condition or grow to immense sizes. Because of a better understanding of DNA, they can put their knowledge to the test by solving crimes by running tests in the criminal laboratory. As a Laboratory Geneticist, one is expected to apply all learned genetic technologies no matter which area they choose: medicine, crime or agriculture.

To become a Geneticist, you are expected to undergo extensive studies in the physical sciences. One needs to hold a degree as a Bachelor of Science either in Chemistry of Biology although it is also acceptable to take up any physical science course so long as it complements Biology as a minor study. To excel as a Laboratory Geneticist, one is also expected to hold more than a Bachelor of Science degree for if so, there is only a little room for expanding the career. A master’s degree in Genetics is not even enough to command authority in research and development thus one should pursue a Ph.D. or M.D. After completing an undergraduate degree, the norm is to spend four to six years of school having the first two years taking advanced classes while the remaining years doing personal research projects. Usually research projects are being granted by universities, the government or by a private pharmaceutical company. This project serves as your circum vitae which can earn you extra points influencing a company’s decision to hire you or not. The main point in getting a fine job as geneticist is to possess more advanced degrees in order to move faster up the ranks.

Medical Geneticist

Medical Geneticists are highly-trained in diagnostics studies as well as therapeutic procedures for patients who have diseases that are genetically-linked. These specialized training make use of modern cytogenetic, radiological and biochemical testing to provide assistance in specialized genetic counseling, application of necessary therapeutic interventions and cater to prevention through prenatal diagnosis. It is the responsibility of the Medical Geneticist to plan and coordinate large-scale programs related to screening of inborn errors of metabolism, hemoglobinopathies, abnormalities in chromosome structure and neural tube defects.

The training required for Medical Geneticists is two to four years. The board does issue multiple general certificates for the following areas of Medical Genetics:

  • A Clinical Biochemical Genetics Certificate which can be obtained if the Geneticist demonstrates competent skills in performing and translating biochemical analyses important to the diagnosis and management of genetic diseases targeting humans and is also a consultant concerning laboratory diagnosis of a wide range of disorders concerning inheritance.

  • A Clinical Cytogenetics Certificate through the demonstration of competence in delivering laboratory diagnostics and clinical interpretative services handling chromosomes associated with cancer and other inherited disorders.

  • A Clinical Genetics Certificate through the demonstration of proficiency in handling comprehensive diagnostic, management and counseling services for those who are at risk in acquiring clinical disorders with a genetic inclination.

  • A Clinical Molecular Genetics Certificate through the demonstration of proficient skills in performing and translating molecular analyses significant to the diagnosis and management of genetic diseases in humans, and also plays as a consultant on laboratory diagnosis of a wide range of inherited diseases.

For the subspecialties of Medical Genetics, an additional training and examination is required for certifications in Molecular Genetic Pathology and Medical Biochemical Genetics.

The scope of Medical Genetics includes many different areas which include even the clinical practice of physicians, nutritionists, genetic counselors, activities in the clinical diagnostic laboratory and extensive research into the causes of inherited genetic disorders. Among the conditions that are within the scope of medical genetics are birth defects, mental retardation, autism, metabolic and mitochondrial disorders and many others. Medical Genetics has recently been becoming increasingly significant to various common diseases. It often overlaps with the other specialties of medicine as the latest advancements in genetics are illuminating etiologies for systemic: neurological, endocrine, pulmonary, cardiovascular, ophthalmologic, renal dermatologic and even psychiatric conditions.

The existing practice in the clinical setting is where patients or clients are being evaluated identifies the scope of practice, diagnostics and therapeutic interventions. The typical patient and genetic practitioner encounter may involve:

  • A referral to an out-patient genetics clinic which specifically caters to any growth bracket: pediatric, adult or combined or if preferred by the patient, an in-hospital consultation most often done for diagnostic evaluations.

  • For the management of inborn errors of metabolism, skeletal dysplasia or lysosomal storage diseases, patients are encouraged to seek help in the specialty genetic clinics.

  • For prenatal counseling, prenatal genetic clinics discuss with the patient that risks of the pregnancy, laboratory results as well as prenatal diagnosis such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling.

In the United States, there are a number of careers paths for the Medical Genetics field naturally differing considerably. It is the American Board of Medical Genetics who issues board certifications for clinical, counseling or diagnostic subspecialties. It takes four years of college, four years of Medical schools, two to three years of primary residency, and another two years for Residency in Clinical Genetics. For a Geneticist to acquire a PhD degree, another four to seven years is necessary.

Study Geriatric

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Study Geriatric Pharmaceutical Care

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Geriatric Pharmaceutical Care is the constant supervision, supply or support of the right medicine to the elderly. Geriatric means coming of age and pharmaceutical care is the reliable and responsible catering or serving of medicine. Disease curing, completely eliminating or lessening the symptoms, preventing the disease or slowing down the patient’s possible condition outcome are the main purposes of pharmaceutical care. While pharmaceutical care is for everybody, geriatric pharmaceutical care is specifically for the elderly.

Pharmaceutical care was first tested by pharmacists in their own community pharmacy. The Pharmaceutical Society of New Zealand started a program in pharmaceutical care and then went on applying it all throughout the country in 1996. They tested 500 pharmacists more or less and even though they were very much qualified for this job because of the kind of education they went through, they found out that most of the pharmacists lacked skills especially in thorough interpretation of a patients’ medication. Pharmacists now have to undergo a series of training and educating before qualifying as a “clinical pharmacist” and then in the field of “pharmaceutical care” later on.

R. Tim Webster (born on Oct. 9, 1946 and died of cancer on July 6, 2003) who was also a Doctor of Science (or SCD) was the founder and executive director of American Society of Consultant Pharmacists (or ASCP). In 1969, after he earned his degree at Ohio State University (OSU) in pharmacy, he pursued and concentrated his entire career developing and advocating quality pharmaceutical care for the elderly. He is one of the first pharmacists who represented and was very dedicated in Geriatric Pharmaceutical Care.

Geriatric Pharmaceutical Care should be taken seriously before getting into the job. Because people coming of age gets more delicate in time, the drugs they take should be exact and precise. A “One drug fits all” does not work for elderly patients, as quoted on the “Why the Elderly Need Individualized Pharmaceutical Care” pharmacist’ guide handbook by David B. Nash, MD, MBA, Jennifer B. Koenig and Mary Lou Chatterton, PharmD. Books like this are very helpful because honestly, most of us make mistakes when it comes to the actuality of situation and like the book said, elderly needs individualized pharmaceutical care.

Omnicare is one of the biggest and leading pharmaceutical-care for the elderly. Their pharmacist serves more than 1.4 million residents in 47 states in US and Canada.

The average salary in Geriatric Pharmaceutical Care is $32,059. Salaries as always is based on education, skill and work experience.

Before you can venture and go further into pharmaceutical care for the elderly, you have to be educated first as a pharmacist and experienced in general pharmaceutical care.

Belmont University School of Pharmacy in Nashville, USA offers A Course Introducing the Principles of Pharmaceutical Care. University of Toronto prepares students in pharmaceutical care with direct learning to case basis situation examples. This teaching technique is very helpful in preparing students for the real future situations that they are going to face.

Study Geriatrics and Gerontology Assistant

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Study Gerontology

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In science, aging is one of the multidisciplinary fields in study. Under the field of aging is the study of Gerontology. This study covers the aging processes of humans from the middle to later life stages. It also covers mental, social and physical changes which take place as people age. It also includes the various changes in the society which leads to the aging population. Gerontologists apply their area of study on various programs and policies which is the main focus of the study.

The populations all over the world are aging. This concludes that people are living their lives longer as the number of the older people increases. Such trend is very evident in the society of America. In the United States, half of those who are born during the 1900s have died before reaching the age of 50. But nowadays, people can expect to live longer until they reach 75 and beyond. Back in the 1900s too, among 25 Americans, one is 65 years old, but now, out of 8 Americans is 65 years old. According to many studies, the aging population will more likely to grow in the future. Such trends of population growth will lead to the increasing demands for professionals with competitive expertise and knowledge in the study of aging. There will be guaranteed opportunities for geriatrics and gerontology in many disciplines and professions.

Gerontology is a very diverse field; it offers a wide variety of opportunities for employment. Such multiplicity has existed, in part, for the reason that older people are very different in so many ways from each other. As people age, the needs, experiences, abilities and resources differ, according to factors like race, gender, economic status and ethnicity. For instance, many of the older people are very active and healthy. The people who are working with such older persons may have been providing leisure and recreation programs as well as volunteer activities and educational opportunities. On the other hand, there are older people who are less active and frail. The jobs which are related to more susceptible older people may be under long-term care, certain agencies or health care settings which deliver services to the older people. The comparative innovations of the field only mean that there will be more opportunities for new ideas, products and programs. Nowadays, there are many people engaging to businesses which involve health care coordination or businesses which offer products and services which would target the older group of consumers.

As a professional under the field of Gerontology, an individual can carry out services for the community and society as a volunteer, for instance, by facilitating talks on different aging aspects to various community and civic groups or programs for pre-retirement. As gerontologists, there are exciting opportunities to positively influence the organizations and agencies catering to older people and the policies and legislation which affects their elderly lives. Studying Gerontology also gives the perspective of keeping track of their own aging as well as of their own families.

Study Gestalt Therapy

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Study Global Health

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Study Gynecology

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The surgical specialty that deals with the reproductive health of a woman is called Gynecology; it literally means “the science of women”. Gynecologists today also practice as Obstetricians.

Dated way back in 1800 BCE, the Kahun Gynecological Papyrus is the oldest medical text that has documented health illness cases in women such as fertility problems, methods and problems with contraception and the process of pregnancy. Each specific problem is articled in its thirty four divisions with each section tackling on the disease condition, diagnosis and treatment methods although the prognosis is not mentioned. The womb is the main site where the causes of the complaints arise. The treatments consisted mostly of non-surgical procedures such as the application of medicine into the affected body part or through oral intake.

An ancient Greek physician named Soranus of Ephesus as stated by the Suda, was able to practice medicine in Alexandria and later on in Rome. Soranus of Ephesus was a chief delegate of the school for physicians widely-known as the “Methodists”. His dissertation called Gynaikeia is well-documented and still exists collectively with Muscio’s Latin rewording, a fellow physician in the same school. In the United States on the other hand, a man by the name of J. Marion Sims is recognized as the founder and father of American Gynecology.

Gynecology is typically regarded as a consultant specialty. Women in some countries first seek the services of general practitioners prior to a referral to see a Gynecologist. Referrals happen when a woman’s condition is beyond the scope and practice of the general practitioner and involves training, adequate knowledge, surgical methods or paraphernalia that are not available to the general practitioners.

Gynecologists in the United States are required by law and several health insurance plans to supply primary care on top of the other features of their own practiced specialty. Because of this set up, women prefer going to a Gynecologist right away instead of waiting for a referral from other physicians who are not specialists.

It is generally practiced in the study of medicine to use the patient’s clinical history and physical examination as the chief tools for arriving at a successful diagnosis. Among all the physical examinations, the gynecological examination involves invading the personal boundaries of the woman because it requires the physician to examine the private parts (vagina and perinea area) with the use of an instrument called a vaginal speculum. It is used to retract the vagina of the woman for a better view and examination of the cervix, located on the upper portion of the vagina and the lower portion of the uterus. A bimanual examination done by a gynecologist requires one hand to rest on the abdominal area while one or two fingers to enter the vagina and do the palpation of the bony pelvis, cervix, uterus and ovaries. For a complete assessment and evaluation of the pelvis to rule out the presence of suspicious masses, it is very uncommon for a gynecologist to do a recto-vaginal examination.

Some of the main conditions that are dealt with in Gynecology are reproductive organs’ cancer and precancerous diseases that consists of the vulva, vagina, cervix, ovaries, fallopian tubes and uterus; urinary incontinence; absence of menstrual periods also known as Amenorrhea; intolerable pain during menstruation known as dysmenorrhea; infertility problems and heavy menstrual flow known as menorrhagia, making the patient a potential candidate for hysterectomy as well as the prolapsed of the organs of the pelvis.

Job positions for Gynecology:

Professor in Gynecology

Gynecologists can choose not to work in the hospital or clinical setting and can instead work as a professor in university hospitals. Many universities offer positions for gynecologists to work as an Assistant or Associate or a Full-time Professor in the levels of Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology or as Clinical Professors in the field of Health Sciences. The main responsibility of a Professor is to act the role of a Faculty member in the designated department, can either function as an expert in gynecologic oncology, maternal or fetal medicine, reproductive endocrinology and infertility, urogynecology or reconstructive pelvic surgery or other subspecialty services in the inpatient and outpatient care, education and research studies. Each of these subspecialties has its corresponding certification which will remain valid provided that the board certification in obstetrics and gynecology is also up-to-date.
Among the other important responsibilities of a professor are:

• High-quality clinical care of the patient in the whole scope of general obstetrics and gynecology which deals with but not limited to prenatal care, care of the pregnant woman during labor and delivery, emergency room cases and the like

• Inpatient and outpatient case management, surgery and specific procedures applicable to high risk patients

• Involvement in educational activities with other residents, fellow interns and medical students

• Develop advancements in research and contribute in various research activities

• Contribution to the university’s and hospital’s committees

In order to apply as a Professor in a university, some of the requirements that need to be met are: eligibility in the Board or possess a Board Certification in Obstetrics and Gynecology; successful completion of subspecialty trainings and consequently hold a Specialty Board Eligibility and/or a certification in the subspecialty which takes a minimum of four years; he or she must also possess a medical license in the state applied; must manifest effectiveness in his or her teaching experience and show competence in the field of research, its corresponding and potential activities; and demonstrate skills in diagnostic testing, examination and genetics.


Derived from the Latin word “obstare” meaning to stand by, obstetrics is a surgical specialty that deals with the total care of women and the process of pregnancy from the first trimester to childbirth to puerperium – the period that directly follows childbirth. An Obstetrician focuses on women undergoing a difficult or complicated pregnancy. Because of the wonderful occurrence of life through childbirth, many medical students are drawn to this career path.

Among the responsibilities of the Obstetrician during pregnancy and delivery are:

• Monitoring the health condition of the pregnant woman who have undergone screening for risk problems
• Performing standard pregnancy examinations such as blood pressure monitoring
• Health teaching the pregnant woman on the process of pregnancy and the developmental stages of the baby
• Diagnosing impressions on fetal abnormalities
• Ultrasounds
• Formation of a birthing plan
• Referral of soon-to-be mothers to other specialists to support and observe the duration of pregnancy
• Delivering the newborn as well as conduct the first examination to make certain that the newborn is free from any abnormalities and potential problems
• Proper documentation of the treatments carried out to both the mother and the newborn

The basis of a patient’s frequent health visits is follow-up on the various risk factors and potential resources noted during the previous health check-ups. An Obstetrician can also act as a primary health care provider and oftentimes serve as a consultant to other doctors. Obstetricians can choose to work in a private practice, in the hospital or clinical settings, work as professors or other teaching positions at university hospitals or become public health workers in the primary preventive measures in medication administration.

Obstetricians can also opt to specialize in any of the following areas:

• Pubescent gynecology
• Behavioral crisis
• Cancer
• Acute and Chronic health conditions
• Endocrinology
• Proper health maintenance of the pregnant woman
• Problems with infertility
• Disease prevention measures
• Urinary Tract Disorders
• Sexually-transmitted Diseases
• Maternal and Fetal medicine
• Critical care medicine
• Oncology

The American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ABOG) is responsible for setting the education and training requirements of Obstetricians and Gynecologists alike. In order for a person to become an Obstetrician, he or she must have finished or graduated from one of the approved medical schools; completed a residency program in OB/GYN for the time span of at least four years which should also be recognized by the American Council for Graduate Medical Education or ACGME ; must have undergone clinical rotations in the field of obstetrics, gynecology, gynecologic oncology, reproductive endocrinology and ultrasonography; undergone a six-month residency in the role of a primary and preventive health care provider which includes experience in the in-patient and ambulatory care, breast disease diagnosis and management of dysfunctions of the lower urinary tract; reading and interpretation of diagnostic pelvic and transvaginal ultrasound results; constantly updated in patient care responsibilities in each year of training; and serve as a senior resident physician during the last year.

After all the requirements have been met, the physicians will then be allowed to obtain a board certificate after taking the examinations provided for by the ABOG. A successful board examination allows the physician to earn the status of Obstetrics and Gynecology which is necessary in acquiring a subspecialty certification. For physicians who have obtained their status after the year 1986, he or she must once again complete a recertification which takes about 10 years to process in order to maintain his or her certified status. If the certification was obtained before the year 1986, the physician is given the option to take a recertification process voluntarily.

Study Health and Fitness

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A degree in Health and Fitness gives access to a career of a Personal Instructor, wellness specialist, nutritionist, and other similar positions. Most of all, you would be learning the principles of exercise science in a variety of health and wellness settings. Health and Fitness specialists are responsible for helping individuals improve and maintain their physical health and fitness levels through following a customized exercise regime and diet plan. They usually provide instruction and advice either on groups or individuals.

Health and Fitness specialists typically start by evaluating the needs and capabilities of their clients by weighing, measuring and carrying out fitness tests to check blood pressure, heart rate and lung capacity. Afterwards they design personal exercise programs, tailored to the clients’ fitness level and age. They advise them how to properly use weightlifting equipment, exercise bikes, treadmills and other training and exercise machines. Besides, Health and Fitness specialists craft diet plans, advising on how to properly prepare and plan daily meals. These professionals can also be responsible for instructing specialized classes like aerobics, spinning, yoga, etc. They can also work in collaboration with medical practitioners, physiotherapists and exercise physiologists to draw out wellness plans for individuals with special needs.

Personal Qualities

To pursue a career in Health and Fitness you need to be committed to healthy living yourself, whilst also having the patience and determination to help and motivate others. Further qualities include:

  • Excellent communication and interpersonal skills
  • Outgoing, enthusiastic personality
  • Empathetic, tactful, and people-oriented
  • Good level of physical fitness
  • Background in sports and various fitness activities

Study Options

If you wish to study in the field of Health and Fitness, you have loads of opportunities to choose from – bachelor’s, associate’s, and master’s programs are available at various institutions. You can also take courses online or part-time. On the other hand, there is the option to get on-the-job training at first, and then enroll on a distance learning program if you get more serious about it. If you decide to pursue a degree at a university, though, make sure that it is an accredited one and that your diploma will be allowing you to practice in the region of the world you wish to live in. The possibilities that the course provides for hands-on experience are of the highest importance, too. You need to learn how to motivate people and keep them interested in the exercise program, which can only be learned by working with real individuals, rather than only reading theory. Finally, it would be useful if the course you choose would be giving you the opportunity to specialize in an area of your choice.

Career Options

Health and Fitness specialists usually work in health and fitness clubs, gymnasiums, sports centers and community recreation organizations. They can also pursue careers as personal trainers and visit their clients at their homes or personal gyms. Career prospects for such specialists are very good, considering that a greater part of the world population has become more health conscious and fitness-oriented. Keeping this in mind, if you wish to become such a Health and Fitness professional, you can have your own business, providing health and fitness support and information either online, or by opening your own health and fitness center or practice. Finally, an opportunity is to specialize in disciplines like aerobics, aqua-fitness, or exercise for people with special needs.

Study Health Occupations

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Health professions in the category of majors that includes such diverse areas of study as occupational therapy, clinical laboratory science, physician assistant, nursing, veterinary medicine, and of course premedical and pre-dental studies. It includes all of the many areas of study that may lead to careers in medical fields, and is generally geared toward technical and applied specializations, rather than specializations of a purely academic nature. Due to the complexity of careers in the health industry, some graduate study will be necessary for almost any specialization within the area of health professions. This is particularly true for pre-med and pre-veterinary students, as the schooling for becoming a doctor or veterinarian is intense and takes many years to complete.
Personal Qualities
  • Patience, diligence, and willingness to be in school for several years
  • Desire to help others who are sick or suffering
  • Calm, comforting demeanor
  • Comfort with the sight of blood, body parts, etc.
Study Options

Study options within the health professions are numerous and diverse. In nearly all cases, the choice of the specialization will be dependent on a choice of careers–a degree in nursing is of little use to someone who wants to become a radiologist, so it is important to select a career early on if you think you want to be in the healthcare industry. Your choice may also be influenced by the amount of school you are willing or able to undertake – it is advisable not to major in pre-med or go to medical school unless you are sure that you have the time and funds to complete this extremely demanding educational track. Any degree in this area will be highly specialized, and will require you to learn a large amount of highly technical information. Examples of possible careers in the health care industry can be found in the next section.
Career Options

Healthcare is a thriving sector of the global economy, and careers in this area often have the potential to become highly lucrative. There are a myriad of possible options for those who seek a career in healthcare, and positions are not limited to doctors and nurses. One possibility, for example, is to specialize in occupational therapy a form of medicine that uses everyday activities as part of the healing process. Occupational therapy is known to be effective for people who have a variety of injuries, and a degree in OT is a good option for people who want a career in medicine but don't see themselves going all the way through medical school. Other possible specializations include health information management, physical therapy, and other less well known medical professions.

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Study Hematology and Hemotherapy

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The field of medicine which involves the study of the blood is known as hematology. The blood is made up of proteins, fluids and particles which came from the bone marrow and lymphatic organs. The patients are usually put under the care of hematologist upon referral of primary hospitals. Hematologists are tasked to investigate on tests or symptoms which are signs of blood clotting diseases, anemia, platelet irregularities and blood count irregularities. In order to diagnose diseases, the hematologists also perform extensive analysis of the bone marrow cells and blood cells.

The study of Hematology is time and again shared with other pools of disciplines to make a diagnosis and cure diseases wherein which the blood is concerned. Doctors known as hematopathologists are doctors who have specialization in blood diseases, as well as in the tissues and organs supported by the blood cells. They are also known as experts of blood diseases of multiple symptoms.

Oncology and hematology overlap in the treatment of cancer. Doctors of these two fields are responsible in prescribing and performing bone marrow transplants, pheresis, chemotherapy and stem cell transplants. Such therapies are used in order to treat multiple myeloma, Hodgkin’s disease, lymphoma, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and other immunity diseases. Hematologists usually work in blood banks, laboratories, hospitals, medical offices and centers for cancer treatment.

The work routine of hematologists involves the primary care and patient treatment of those people with various kinds of hematological diseases; some hematologists may also be working in laboratories viewing bone marrow and blood films using microscopes, some also manages the entire hematology laboratory. Physicians of Hematology also works with hemopathologists and together they deliver the most appropriate and effective therapy. The field of Hematology is known for its distinct sub focus, which is the focus on internal medicine. Other activities of hematologists may include the treatment of blood disorders like and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and hemophilia, they can also cover the treatment of hematological malignacies namely leukemia and lymphoma, they can also specialize on hemoglobinopathis treatment, they can also focus on working with the blood bank and in blood transfusion and in stem cell transplantation.

Hemotherapy is associated with Hematology being one of the treatments to cure blood diseases. It is delivered to the body by means of blood or other derivatives of it which is transferred through the process of transfusion. Transfusion can take place in many ways such as blood total transfusion, plasma application; blood partial transfusion and hemetia concentrate application.

The process of Hemotherapy involves the transferring of the blood products or the blood itself into the patient’s circulatory system to another patient’s circulatory system. For most situations, the process is life saving, especially in cases like blood loss or blood lost after surgery. Hemotherapy can also treat anemia, sickle cell disease or what is commonly known as hemophilia, which may call for several sessions of treatment.

The treatment also comes in with some side effects for the patient upon reception. The patient may experience hives, fever, pain, shortness of breath, rapid heart rate as well as low pressure of the blood. The overall reaction is quite frightening, but it is indeed not life threatening.

Study Hemodialysis Technician

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Study Hepatology and Gene Therapy

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The branch of medicine which incorporates the study and the management of respective diseases of the gallbladder, liver, pancreas and biliary tree is known as Hepatology. It came from the Greek word “hepar” or “hepato” meaning liver. It has gastroenterology as its sub-discipline. Doctors specializing in the field of Hepatology are known as hepatologists.

Diseases and the complications which are in relation to alcohol and viral hepatitis are the primary reason for looking for professional advice. A big fraction of the world’s population has been diagnosed with Hepatitis B in their lifetime. Even though many have healed and recovered from viral infections, an approximate of 350 million is still constant carriers. 80% of liver cancer cases are rooted to hepatitis B or hepatitis C. In terms of mortality, Hepatitis C falls in second to smoking as cause of liver cancer. With the onset spread of strict screening and vaccination prior to blood transfusion is expected to lower the infection rates in the future. In most of the countries, there are high records of alcohol intake and at the same time the number of people diagnosed with cirrhosis together with other disease related complications is greatly increasing.

Hepatology takes in Gene Therapy as a cure for liver diseases. Gene therapy is a tentative procedure which makes use of genes for the treatment and prevention of diseases. In the near future, this procedure may enable the doctors to conduct treatment to a disorder by means of gene insertion to the cells of the patients instead of oral drug medication or surgery. Researchers are now testing out various ways of delivering Gene Therapy. One way is to use a healthy copy of the gene to replace a mutated gene which causes the disease. Second way is to inactivate or to knock out the mutated gene which is improperly functioning and the third is to introduce a new gene to the body which will help to fight the disease.

Prior to actual treatment of a genetic disease can be performed to a patient, there should be a precise diagnosis of the genetic defect. From this point is where biotechnology will also have a great impact in the future. The research of genetic engineering has produced a very powerful mechanism for pointing out particular diseases accurately and rapidly. The probes or the short pieces of DNA can be intended to fuse purposely to particular DNA pieces. The approach depends on the underlying fact that complimentary DNA pieces will stick together. These pieces of DNA are very specific and are potentially sensitive compared to other diagnostics procedures and in the future, it should be possible enough to determine defective genes amongst the normal ones, this is indeed a very vital advancement in the field of medicine.

Even though Gene Therapy is known as a promising option treatment for various types of viral infections and cancers, the procedure still remains risky and is still under observation that will be effective and safe, currently; it is considered an option for treating diseases with no known cures.

Study Herbal Medicine

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Herbal Medicine is considered to be the oldest system of medicine known to man. It is also termed as Botanical Medicine, Herbalism, and Herbology. Despite advances in modern or conventional medicine, it is still widely used worldwide. In fact, many of today’s widely known conventional medicines (up to 25%) originated from active ingredients from plants. Aspirin, for instance, comes from bark of willow trees. Foxglove plant, on the other hand, is an active ingredient of digoxin, a conventional medicine used in treating heart failure. Drug laboratories and pharmaceutical companies produce conventional medicines from combination of active plan ingredient and chemical compounds. As opposed to that, Herbal Medicine is the type of medicine that is 100% from plants or plan extracts.

A medical herbalist is a highly trained practitioner of principles, philosophies, and practices of Herbal Medicine. They have a mission of exploring possibilities of curing illness or promoting wellness through complex elements found in plants. They prescribe and dispense Herbal Medicine in a manner following certain guidelines and protocols. They also provide patients with advice regarding proper diet and nutrition, especially if it has anything to do with the prescribed herbal medicine. They serve as catalyst of advances and credible source of information about herbal medicines. Just like in traditional medicine, medical herbalists follow certain ethical codes in practicing this field, including confidentiality and professionalism. In the United States, there is currently no state registration for medical herbalist (consequently, no statutory regulations available), but the training of these practitioners takes three years of in-depth research and study. In absence of registration or license, a patient may look for medical herbalist who is a member of National Institute of Medical Herbalists.

There is a wide range of herbal medicines that are recognized for its benefits. Ginger is seen to cure vomiting and dizziness; there are claims that lemon balm and sage help people with Alzheimer’s disease; and seed extract of horse chestnut is believed to treat venous insufficiency. These are just some of the many examples. Herbal medicines that are prescribed by highly qualified practitioners are safe and effective, although the level of efficacy is generally difficult to establish in the case of Herbal Medicine.

Due to its popularity, herbal medicines are now commercially produced by pharmaceutical industries in various forms – capsules, ointments, creams, tinctures, tablets, and teas or fruit juices; and these are made available in drugstores and supermarkets for easier access of patronizing public. Aside from claims of its effectiveness, the popularity of herbal medicine may be accounted to people’s notion of it being safe since it is all-natural. This, however, is a misconception. Not all natural products are innately safe. Plants also contain chemical compounds which may or may not be found effective in treating certain ailments. Moreover, wrong prescription of herbal medicine can lead to detrimental effect, such as serious organ damage or even death. Just like conventional medicines, therefore, pharmaceutical companies that produce herbal medicines for public consumption are required to conduct research and series of necessary tests to conclude safety (if not necessarily effectiveness) of herbal medicines.

Study Herbology & Phytotherapy

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Study Histology and Pathological Anatomy

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Histology and pathological anatomy are two medical studies that, though defined as separate fields, are often studied alongside one another. Histology entails the microscopic examination of cells, in order to determine their specific traits and biological makeup. Anatomical pathology, however, uses microscopic cellular examination (along with large tissue, naked-eye examinations) in order to correctly detect or diagnose a disease.
Histology and pathological anatomy are not typically offered as a joint course, regardless of where applicants study. It is more than likely that students will need to take a double study course in the two areas. Universities, colleges, technical institutions and medical schools are the only places that offer studies in these fields, as they are both advanced medical sciences. Some of these institutions will require a double major in histology and pathological anatomy, while others will only offer one or both of these courses at a certain academic level (such as bachelor or master’s).
Online certification programs exist through certain universities, along with some public workshops. Public histology and pathological anatomy workshops, however, typically provide lectures or introductory courses on certain areas (such as the history of histology).
Skills, Qualifications, and Prerequisites for Studies in Histology and Pathological Anatomy
Universities, colleges and technical institutions will typically require a secondary school completion certificate and a passing score on a standardized aptitude test prior to acceptance. A medical school requires a previous degree in a related field, as well as a passing score on certain entrance exams. Studying histology and pathological anatomy at a master’s or doctorate level will require several years of schooling beforehand.
Online programs will either ask for a secondary school completion certificate or a certain number of college credits, alone with a passing score on an aptitude test. A public workshop may not have any prerequisites, though it is not unusual to possess the same type of requirements as online courses.
Multi-taskers flourish in this field, as do detail-oriented students, since employees are expected to effectively perform a wide variety of tests and examinations in a certain time frame. Since these fields hinge on the diagnoses of illnesses (fatal and non-fatal), candidates need to handle stress well and be able to clear their work of error. Interpersonal skills, communication skills and the ability to work well on a team are all highly beneficial characteristics in a prime candidate.
Skills and Qualifications Acquired from Studies in Histology and Pathological Anatomy
Both courses in histology and pathological anatomy will teach students how to successfully:
  • Prepare specimens for examination.
  • Identify details and functions of microscopic technology.
  • Use different types microscopic in examinations.
  • Understand history of histology/pathological anatomy.
The histological half of this course will provide skills and expertise in the following areas:
  • Characteristics of human tissues (bone, nerves, etc.).
  • Structure of human cells and tissues.
  • Characteristics and functions of human organs.
  • Human biological systems (nervous, respiratory, etc.).
  • Interdependence between cells, tissues or organs.
The pathological anatomy half of this course will provide skills in these areas as well:
  • Morphology and classification of specific disease (tumors, etc.).
  • Structural abnormalities in cells.
  • Effects of various diseases on healthy cells.
  • Diagnosis process using biopsy tissue.
  • Diagnosis process using autopsy tissue.
  • Diagnosis process using surgical tissue.
Careers for Studies in Histology and Pathological Anatomy
Those who study histology and pathological anatomy together are ideal candidates for work in research labs and medical facilities. They mainly work as technicians to identify and diagnose a patient’s disease(s). Sometimes they work to help develop treatments or cures, prepare surgical tissue, manage research projects or return to school as professors.

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Study Human Health Studies

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Human health science or biomedical science is a study dealing with either research of the food that we eat and/or health-related research on how humans and other animals function, then use the knowledge earned in curing and preventing diseases. It is the prevention, treatment and management of an illness. It is also the maintenance of the mental and physical well-being of a person.

Biomedical scientists are scientists that are educated in the field of biological research, most especially in the context of medicine. Their role is the advancement of disease treatment, vaccines, helpful equipment development and techniques in disease treatment. They tend to focus more on elaborate medical science research rather than treatment techniques and daily medicine maintenance as they are more patient-oriented. They can specialize in many various aspects of this field, like: Geneticist (studies traits of humans and animals), Pharmacologist (studies effects of drugs on biological systems), Immunologist (studies the immune system), Histopathologist (studies how disease affects tissues), Virologist (studies viruses and viral diseases) and so much more. Their principle motivation quote may be stated as: "to increase the body of scientific knowledge on topics related to medicine."

The history of human health science is said to be as old as the human race. We have always been in deep need of elaborate research in curing illness, injury and various health-related issues such as childbirth. Nowadays, with modern technology and hard work, the accuracy in curing and preventing is continuously improving. While the other cultures and different tribes still pursue their own belief and tradition in curing with herbs and rituals, mostly without any scientific research backing it up.

The increase in longevity of human life over in the past century is much more so likely because of the discoveries in the medical field for applied science in human health. Among those major discoveries are vaccines for measles and polio, insulin for diabetes, medication for high blood pressure, improved treatment for AIDS and many more.

Human health science study is more broad and is specialized in the United Kingdom. In fact, almost every university in UK offers this course and finding jobs after graduation is easier.

Here are some of the universities and colleges with human health science as a course: University of Glasgow - Faculty of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Hull- Department of Biological Sciences and Aston University - School of Engineering and Applied Science in UK and Biomedical Sciences - Charles Sturt University in Australia.

Biomedical scientists are hired or employed by federal and state governments, consultant of firms that are related to chemical and pharmaceutical business and others work in laboratories where they execute test and experiments. There are a lot of institutions put up mainly for the human health science advancement and study worldwide. It focuses on the main and/or upcoming problems our society deals with (such as N1H1 flu, mad cow disease, SARS, etc.).

The average salary of a research scientist in the United States is $86,393. While in the United Kingdom, salary ranges from £20,000 to £60,000 (depends on work experience, field and education).

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Are you a student considering pursuing a degree in the field of human nutrition and dietetics?  Do you require a bit more information about the dietetics field before making your final decision?  If so, the following information may prove quite useful.
The field of human nutrition and dietetics can be defined as the integration and application of principles derived from several disciplines, including nutrition, biochemistry, physiology, food science, management, food service, and the behavioral and social sciences, which aims to achieve and optimize human health. Dietetic professionals translate the scientific evidence regarding human nutrition and use that information to help shape the food intake or choices of the public.

Dietetic professionals work with individuals and groups of all ages to assess nutritional health and provide recommendations and therapies to assist individuals, groups, and populations in achieving a diet based on scientific evidence. The diet is generally a variety of foods, but may also include supplements and tube or parental feedings. Nutrient needs vary based on age, genetics, body composition, health status, and lifestyle. Dietetic professionals specialize in different aspects of care: They serve as translators of nutrition science to the public, as specialists in business and industry, as advocates to change food policy, as managers of food operations, as educators and researchers, and as clinicians in many different settings.

Human Nutrition and Dietetics Education

The majority of nutritionists and dietetics professionals study to become registered dietitians.   Graduates of these programs go on to various careers, with job titles that include, but are not limited to dietitian, nutritionist, medical nutrition therapist, food service director, and public health or community nutritionist.   A degree in this field signifies that the individual has completed an academic education leading to at least a Bachelor of Science degree in human nutrition and dietetics, with coursework in nutrition, social sciences, biological sciences, and food science.  Participants of these degree programs must also complete a six-month course of practical/clinical experience, conducted under the supervision of the program faculty; and take and pass a national credentialing examination.

A two-year credential as a dietetic technician involves the same three-prong approach of education, experience, and examination.  Graduates of these programs function clinically under the supervision of a Registered Dietician, and often manage food service operations. The dietetic technician has a more limited scientific education, but has similar management skills. The accreditation of entry-level dietetics programs is done by the Commission on Accreditation for Dietetic Education, and the credentialing is under the Commission on Dietetic Registration.
Why Study Human Nutrition and Dietetics

Graduates with a degree in human nutrition and dietetics are in high demand, largely because the early twenty-first century is witnessing a focus on enhancing well-being and physical strength and stamina through nutrition. The dietetics profession promotes a total-diet approach to nutrition, with balance, variety, and moderation key to successful nutrition health. The newest aspects of dietetic and nutrition counseling include functional foods (that is, foods that are modified to provide a health benefit beyond the food's traditional nutrients) to enhance health, the use of dietary supplements, and the integration of alternative products such as botanicals.

Dietetic practitioners also assist individuals in determining if products are beneficial to them, whether research has been too limited to be determinative, or if the products they are consuming may in fact be detrimental to their health. Opportunities for research on the value of these products in promoting health abound, and those with a degree in the field are regularly sought to conduct this type of research. With technological advances in data collection and storage, dietiicans are able to better analyze dietary intakes, helping people gain a better understanding of the role of nutrition in health and disease.

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Students interested in the complicated, biological machinery of the human body will find human physiology a perfect fit. This study focuses on the ways that various systems in the human body function, repair and communicate with one another at a cellular level. In its most general sense, human physiology aims to describe exactly how a healthy body functions. Its two main areas of focus are in athletics and biological research.
There  are a variety of instructional avenues available for human physiology studies. Universities, colleges, technical institutions and medical schools all offer courses in human physiology, though it may sometimes be offered under a different degree title (such as health sciences). These institutions will offer degrees at an associate, bachelor, master or PhD level, which can require 3 to 10 years of schooling. These institutions also offer online courses (usually for an associate or bachelor degree). This study path often includes internship, lab requirements and training programs along with coursework.
Educational learning centers and certain medical institutes will sometimes offer classes in human physiology. These may be downloaded course packets, public lectures or hands-on teaching. Online courses are offered for free from certain education networks and institutions. Downloadable or store-sold programs are also available for purchase in some countries.
Skills, Qualifications, and Prerequisites for Studies in Human Physiology
To study human physiology at a higher education institution, students must meet the institution’s admission requirements. This usually involves earning a secondary school completion certificate and passing a standardized test. To study for a master’s or doctorate, candidates must already hold at least a bachelor’s in an identical or related field.
Online, downloadable or purchased human physiology courses may not have any prerequisites, though they will sometimes require a fee. Some classes are only offered to employees already working in a medical or athletic field. Organizations that offer public classes, often ask for no prerequisites.
Dedicated, motivated, and high intelligence candidates (especially in science and math) are ideal for this study. Students should be able to learn, interpret and analyze a large cache of scientific information. Good communication, concentration and research skills are a plus.
It is very important that candidates for this study do not grow queasy from internal human parts; not only is this the main focus of study, but the courses almost always include cadaver examinations.
Skills and Qualifications Acquired from Studies in Human Physiology
Human physiology includes several other disciplinary areas, including anatomy and histology. A course of study in human physiology is guaranteed to provide at least basic skills and knowledge in the following areas:
  • Nutrition and its relation to life factors (exercise, etc.).
  • Human anatomy and histology.
  • Human biology and biological systems (endocrine, nervous, skeletal, etc.)
  • Exercise types, programs, benefits and downfalls.
  • Medical science terms and language.
  • Types of diseases, defects and abnormalities in bodily systems.
  • Biomechanics.
  • Human kinetics, balance and adaptations.
  • Human biological system integration, interdependence and communication.
Careers for Studies in Human Physiology
Human physiology typically grooms students for work in two areas: athletics and research. Those who choose to focus in athletics become sports coaches, health experts, personal trainers or others kind of exercise consultants – either working for a company or as self-employed individuals. Others may choose careers as disease researchers for government agencies, labs and other medical facilities. Physical therapists, hospital clinicians, marketing reporters, professors, technicians and trial coordinators can all study human physiology. With further study and training in other fields, these students can also work as dentists, chiropractors, nurses or another medical profession.

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Study Immunology

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Perhaps, one of the greatest inventions ever made by man is the vaccine. A vaccine is a preparation, usually made of living microorganisms that helps bolster the immune system to a specific disease. Chicken pox, polio, meningitis, measles, mumps and other diseases that have been plaguing man for centuries are now readily arrested by injecting the human body with small doses of the same pathogens causing these diseases. To be immune from, let’s say from chicken pox, the vaccine for chicken pox would contain also a small amount of the agent that’s causing chicken pox. This way, the immune system of the body can react to the pathogens and would remember the pathogen’s genetics signature so the next time this particular pathogen enters the body again in the future antigens have already been created by the host body thereby readily squashing these disease causing agents making one immune.

Creating vaccines to combat dreaded diseases remains the primary goal the field of Immunology aims to achieve. The field of Immunology is perhaps one of the branches of science that has saved lives by the millions. However, as much as researches in Immunology have discovered a lot of breakthroughs, but still, there are a lot of diseases that remain to have no known cure. Diseases like cancer, AIDS, lupus, among others continue to give immunologists reason to drink enormous amounts of caffeine laced drinks and extended laboratory time just to find an answer to these diseases.

Year on year, statistics show consistently that cancer remains a leading contributor on the figures of mortality rates almost anywhere in the world. Curing cancer would certainly be, not only a momentous day for the discoverer but to all humankind.

Immunology, of course, is not all about vaccines. Of course, vaccine was “immunology” back then since Edward Jenner’s first inoculation of the small pox virus in 1796. Modern Immunology now has gone beyond identifying pathogens and introducing them to the body to help antibodies remember them. Immunology now have come up with other techniques like reverse genetics, currently being applied in the development of the avian flu virus, attenuated technique, a technique used that introduces viruses to the body but without the viruses’ virulent qualities, the subunit technique, where only parts of a microorganism are introduced and from there the immune system can create a reaction, and lots of other techniques perhaps only real immunologists would only understand what they mean.

The path to become an expert in the field of Immunology is, of course, not an easy one as it is a highly specialized course. Intricate knowledge of course in the physiology of the host bodies (humans and animals) and the pathogens (the viruses, bacteria and their different strains) which in itself is an overload of information already is essential and is only the first step. After knowing the battleground, it is also imperative to know the different interactions of each pathogen to the host bodies and what particular techniques to employ when these interactions happen. Becoming an immunologist is truly in itself a big feat to accomplish; should anyone decide to become one, for sure big feats are waiting to be achieved.

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The Center for Disease Control, the leading government agency in charge of promoting health and controlling the spread of communicable diseases in the US usually has a team of toxicologist in its payroll. Basically, a Toxicologist studies symptoms, mechanisms, treatments and detection of poison or toxins particularly in people. Toxicology is a branch of immunology that deals mainly with toxins and poisons. A number of diseases are actually caused by the toxins microorganisms emit rather than the action of the microorganism itself on its host body. In fact, some toxins whose toxicity levels have been reduced are used as vaccines but are better known as toxoids. Perhaps, the term toxoid might not be familiar to most of us but the anti-tetanus shot would probably ring a bell.

Toxicologists are not only useful to the Center for Disease Control and hospitals in general but in commercial enterprises too. Toxicology is perhaps one of those medical professionals that are not limited to a hospital or a teaching life. Cosmetics companies usually have a resident toxicologist to make sure the cosmetic products they sell do not contain toxins that would cause skin irritation to the buying public. Pharmaceutical companies would also need the services of a Toxicologist. Every year a single pharmaceutical company launches one or more drugs on the market. As a safety precaution, all new drugs need to undergo toxicity tests to avoid expensive lawsuits that may result from adverse reactions due to toxins. Perhaps the greatest need of toxicologists would be from food-based companies. Remember the great peanut butter scare in 2007 in the US? The Peter Pan and Great Value peanut butter brands, both manufactured by a single company were forced to recall their products from grocery shelves due to salmonella concerns. Moreover, they had to pay lost wages and hospitalization bills of those who got affected from consuming the aforementioned peanut butter brands. Obviously, the toxicologist of ConAgra Foods, Inc. overlooked something and the result was an epidemic spanning over 39 states.

Typically, a Toxicologist’s function is to isolate, identify and quantify toxic substances on biological matters like animals and plants. A Toxicologist would also be busy doing laboratory and field experiments as it is primarily a medical research profession. Analyzing and interpreting statistical data along with some scientific literature research would be a task needed to be carried out once in a while. Documentation of research findings is a must for any practicing scientist so whatever case or research needs to be written down for future references and as well as for personal records. It is also in their job description to develop workable models to predict long term effects of chemicals/toxins within a given environment. One of the most important tasks of a Toxicologist would be to advise safe handling of toxic substances. And lastly, acts as a liaison officer with regulatory bodies in compliance with national and international regulations.

As with any other fields of specialization, before becoming a Toxicologist, a general medicine diploma is a pre-requisite. Only those with an MD are qualified to enroll in immunology courses and then make sure to indicate to have toxicology as major.

AIDS Researcher

For decades now, immunologist are working around the clock, burning the midnight oil as they say to find a cure for the dreaded disease popularly known as Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS. Ever since AIDS inflicted man in the 80s, the disease remains uncheck. However, it was established that whatever it is that’s causing this dreadful malady is known to attack the immune system leaving the patient defenseless against disease-causing agents thereafter. Even a simple flu virus would be fatally damaging to those afflicted by AIDS. The bad news does not stop there, that there are still no known antigen for HIV, the virus causing AIDS,
Every year new cases of AIDS and HIV positive patients are reported and rising to the rate of alarming proportions. In fact, it has been officially declared that AIDS is now a pandemic as around 30 million people worldwide have contracted HIV/AIDS.

With alarm bells ringing, humanitarian foundations, governments, big companies and philanthropists have either collectively collaborated or individually granted funds to universities and different research institutes to come up with an answer to the riddle of the century that is HIV-AIDS. Naturally, these research institutes would recruit highly specialized medical scientists to research a cure for AIDS. To qualify as an AIDS researcher, one has to be an immunologist, a pathologist, a microbiologist, an epidemiologist or a mix of any of the above. The best bet to solve the riddle, of course, would be an immunologist since AIDS is an immune system disease and the immune system is their field of specialization.

Basically, an AIDS researcher would need both HIV positive and AIDS patients to draw blood samples and tissue samples from. These samples would be then subjected to just about any known test imaginable, they would be put through cyclotrons, electron microscopes and just about any lab-testing apparatus. More or less, the Researcher should have knowledge in using modern laboratory equipments as they would be spending most of their time inside laboratories. The AIDS Researcher would also be busy extracting active ingredients from plants and animals that they would suspect that would neutralize the virulence of HIV. Like for example, ginseng, which has been used by Koreans way back for potency and vigor, can be extracted down to its active ingredient. Once the active ingredient has been isolated, the Researcher would then expose the HIV virus to this ginseng concoction and see if the virus would be killed. Apart from plant and animal extract preparations, AIDS Researchers should also be on the lookout for very healthy individuals who have very healthy immune systems.

Apart from these menial tasks (blood test, tissue sampling and all laboratory stuff), the real work of course is still hypothesis testing. As any science research all findings needs to be put into a scientific paper. All the findings, the procedures taken, the tests involved and most importantly, the conclusions reached must all be there. Good or bad the findings may be, it is important to publish whatever findings there may be as other researchers would be interested in the methodology and arguments presented.

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Study Internal Medicine

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The medical specialty that is concerned with the diagnosis, management and non-surgical treatment of unfamiliar or serious disease conditions is called Internal Medicine. What makes Internal Medicine different from the other types of medical specialties is that it gives greater emphasis on the human body’s internal structures. In North America, medical specialists in the said field are called “internist” while in Commonwealth nations, they are often called physicians. An internist’s work is grounded in the hospital setting since most of their patients are seriously ill thus requiring complex investigations.

Unlike before when internists were not sub-specialized encompassing all complex non-surgical problems, internists in the modern urban setting are now sub-specialists that is to say, their medical practice to certain problems are limited to a particular organ system or area of medical knowledge. An example of which are gastroenterologists and nephrologists who specialize respectively in diseases of the gut and the kidneys. Because internal medicine is only a subspecialty, internists have a lengthy clinical and scientific setting. They also have the special expertise in the usage of prescription medications or other medical therapies unlike surgery. Internists do not merely treat the conditions of a certain organ system; instead they are trained to care for the patients as whole individuals.

Among the responsibilities of internists are patient education on the usage of preventive medications, men and women’s health, substance-related abuse, mental health, and efficient management of eye, ears, skin, nervous system and reproductive organ problems. In the United States, most adults view internists as their main medical practitioners.

A medical internist’s training and career path greatly vary from country to country. The first step in becoming an internist is to gain entry into the primary or entry level education which includes medical education programs such as tertiary-level courses embarked at a medical school in a certain university. Medical programs that require undergraduate education lasts for four to five years. Therefore, a medical internist gains fundamental medical education for basically eight years depending on the state jurisdiction and university. After the completion of the entry-level training, a fresh medical graduate practitioner is compulsory to undertake a period of supervised practice before the granting of a licensure or registration taking about two years. After which, a medical practitioner is required to undergo a specialist training in internal medicine or on the selected sub-specialty. This period is known as the residency training in North America or the registrars in Commonwealth nations.

There are two organizations duly recognized to issue certifications of sub-specialists within the field in the United States and these are the American Board of Internal Medicine and the American Osteopathic Board of Internal Medicine. The following subspecialties are recognized: Cardiology, Endocrinology, Gastroenterology, Hematology, Infectious Disease, Medical Oncology, Nephrology, Pulmonology, Rheumatology, Adolescent Medicine, Clinical Cardiac Electrophysiology, Critical Care Medicine, Geriatric Medicine, Interentional Cardiology, Sleep Medicine, Sports Medicine, Transplant Hepatology, Allergology and Immunology.

The average salary of internists in the United States ranges from $66,000 to $80,000 depending on the company, location, industry, experience and benefits.

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Study Kinesiology

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Kinesiology or human kinetics is the study of human movement and generally focuses on the way our body functions and the movement involved in all the activities. Nowadays, this is one of the most well known powerful therapies that involve some gentle techniques, which can be used in different kinds of situations. Learning in this subject area is truly fun since you will have to deal with a lot of health problems. You will be educated in a way that you will surely appreciate.

Kinesiology first emerged in the 1960s and was established by George Goodheart, who was an American chiropractor at that time. Primarily, he made use of muscle-testing, which was his way to evaluate the efficiency of his own treatments. At present, this entails gentle pressure in the muscles and eventually the response will have to be monitored. A student in this area should be able to discern whether a person has an energy disorder in the meridian system. It is important that he knows that the normal response of the muscle is to lock so when it turns out to be spongy, there are some problems that have to be dealt with immediately.

There are a number of branches in kinesiology including the health kinesiology, applied, educational and classical kinesiology. They may vary in some areas but they all utilize the standard muscle testing that has been initiated by its founder. Other branches include biomechanics, physiology, anatomy, ergonomics, motor learning and other disciplines. Experts view kinesiology as more than a field of study because of its great contribution when it comes to different industries worldwide.

A learner will have to focus a great deal of concentration in the understanding and studying about the dynamics that our body performs. Some subjects that are included here are health, fitness, clinical and body development. The degree of acceptance regarding this study will depend on what place you are going to take up kinesiology. For instance, if you are going to study this in North America, this will be Bachelor of Science Degree in Kinesiology or Human Kinetics. You will find here some modern information regarding the performance of human motor, rehabilitation, occupational health and safety that all rely on the vital knowledge you acquire with kinesiology.

There are many applications of this subject area that many disciplines owe their success to kinesiology. In actuality, this field of study has contributed a lot in the discovery of health and fitness for many individuals. As a student, you will be learning a lot on how you can assess the conditions of the patients physically. Over time as you become an expert in this field, you will be able to identify the potential health risks that a patient will be facing in particular places of their bodies. As a matter of fact, this plays a great role when it comes to the treatment and the rehabilitation of the disabled patients.

Years before, kinesiology was unknown and yet now, it is rapidly growing because of its effectiveness. This branch of knowledge will help you unlock doors towards great opportunities.

Job positions for Kinesiology:

Physical Therapist

What will you do now that you have graduated and obtained your Kinesiology degree? Look for a job, of course. One of the most common jobs that you will come upon is being a Physical Therapist. The best thing about this is you can start this type of business on your own. If you do not want to go through much pressure, you can apply in companies that are looking for persons with great knowledge regarding this area. As a matter of fact, the employment rate is expected to boom faster than other types of jobs. You can be employed in hospitals, rehabilitation centers and even orthopedic locations. With your broad familiarity with health problems, you will be able to acquire an ideal promotion in no time.

Physical therapists help the patients improve their muscle mobility, restore functionality, take away the pain and even prevent further physical disabilities for those who are suffering from diseases or injuries. It is also their responsibility to look after those individuals so that they will stay fit and healthy all the time. A physical therapist will have to handle patients that are accident victims as well as those individuals that are tormented by back pains, arthritis, fractures, heart diseases, head injuries and even cerebral palsy.

If you would like to become one yourself, you should have the persistence to examine the lengthy medical histories of your patients and be able to examine their strength, motion, coordination and balance regularly. You should also check their posture, respiration and their muscle performances. With all of these tested, you will be able to make plans regarding the strategy of the treatment that you will be using and the expected outcome as well.

With your knowledge in kinesiology, you will be able to discern that those patients that have been unable to move for some time along with those who lack flexibility or even endurance will need plenty of exercise. In line with this, you should be able to encourage your patients to increase their suppleness so that they will eventually be able to perform their duties well at home and in their work.

It is also your duty to document your patient’s progress as the whole treatment continues. You should not miss periodic examinations and make sure that whenever necessary, you should be able to modify the remedies that you have given your patients. As a physical therapist, you can practice in different clinics, hospitals and even private offices that have the power to provide the facilities and supplies that you need. You can also deal with patients that are in schools and homes. To be a successful therapist, you have to make sure that you are a hardworking and determined person or else you will soon give up with this demanding job. Oftentimes, you will have to stoop, crouch, stand and kneels for quite a while. Lots of times you will be facing tough work but in the end, it will be a reward for you when your patients get well.

Study Massage Therapy

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As anyone who has received a skillful professional massage can attest, massage is an extremely effective way of reducing stress and increasing overall health. Massage therapists are compassionate and caring individuals with an acute knowledge of the body and a mastery of practical methods for reducing tension. They may be in private practice, employed by facilities such as airports and train stations, or on the payroll of clinics and healthcare providers. In all cases, massage therapist learn and apply a similar set of skills. They also have the further satisfaction of being personally appreciated for the work that they do.
Personal Qualities
  • Sociability and desire to work with a diverse range of people
  • Strong, coordinated hands
  • Relaxed, calm demeanor
  • Strong desire to help others

Study Options
The number and variety of massage therapy programs in the United States alone is almost overwhelming. While they may all seem more or less the same, in fact these programs offer very different educational options for aspiring massage therapists. They may emphasize different styles of massage–Swedish, shiatsu, deep tissue, or sports massage, for example–or they may approach massage in different ways. Some programs are based on the Western medical/scientific model, which generally involves a concentration on biology, anatomy, and the science of massage techniques, while others see massage as a more artistic or even spiritual discipline. It is important to choose a school that matches your own style and approach.
You will also want to keep an eye out for markers of quality in a massage therapy program. These include job placement statistics, the level of education and work experience attained by instructors, and the availability of internships and clinic hours for students.
Career Options
Educated massage therapists can work in a wide variety of settings. Some prefer the flexibility and autonomy of private practice, which allows therapists to set their own schedule and choose their own clients but also requires them to take care of finding space, advertising, and other nuts-and-bolts aspects of the business. Working in a clinic or spa, on the other hand, affords the stability and security of a regular workplace, but of course it allows for less freedom and independence.
While a massage therapist can find work in almost any city in any country, the educational requirements in different locations may vary. In the United States, 37 of the 50 states have licensing requirements for massage therapists, and it is important to base your educational choices on the question of where you hope to work. On the other hand, many massage therapists are employed by hotel chains which set their own standards for employment; those who enjoy traveling and are excited about the possibility of living and working in a foreign country may find this an attractive option.

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Study Medical Analysis

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Medical Analysis courses aim at training personnel in analyzing medical documents, recommendations and policies. This is turning into one of the most lucrative as well as challenging career prospects. This field of study cannot be equated with training courses provided for medical transcriptions. Students of medical analysis need to have considerable knowledge of anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, laboratory medicine and medical language.

Course Structure and Eligibility

Broadly there are three types of medical analysts functioning these days.
  • Cost containment medical analyst;
  • Medical policy analyst; and
  • Medical management analyst.
Medical analysis study course structures are generally designed to give students a fair idea of all the above mentioned types. Along with physiology, anatomy and pharmacology lessons, a student is also trained about the fundamentals of medical policies, management of medical organization, etc. Another type of popular medical analysis job is conversion of dictations by medical practitioners into documents in prescribed format. Courses are available to train students in this respect also.
While medical credentials of any sort, such as nursing license is preferable for getting admission into medical analysis courses, it is not mandatory in all training institutes. However, an analyst must have good interpersonal and communication skills. Clinical research knowledge and computer knowledge are also necessary. Minimum high school education is required for admission into medical analysis studies.

Training on medical image analysis is also given in many institutes and may form a part of Medical analysis studies. These courses include studying analysis and processing of images of the human body mostly for pathological purposes.

Career Prospects

The health care industry is growing at a high rate and is expected to reach its boom phase in the coming few years. Given this condition, medical analysis as a career will receive new boost. Almost all health insurance companies pay separately for healthcare services. The whole process of policy claiming and approving involves vigorous medical analysis. Control of medical records and organizing them properly are keys to the success of the healthcare industry.

Medical analysts are in need for handling the changes brought about in healthcare institutions. These changes may involve alterations in healthcare policies, changes in healthcare legislation as well as change in managerial techniques due to technological up-gradation. Clearly, the demand for medical analysts is going to be high in the near future.  Doctors and physicians require medical analysts for organized documentation of prescriptions and recommendations which are getting more and more important day by day. At present many organizations hire medical analysts for doing home based jobs. These may be even of freelancing nature. It is because of this reason that home based jobs are better paid and more flexible.
Therefore chances of growth in scope and career prospects of medical analysts are high. Studying medical analysis will train you as a professional in the field. Along with lucrative pay packages, one gets to be associated with one of the noblest professions in the world today. Study medical analysis for building a successful career in the healthcare industry.

Study Medical Assistant

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Study Medical Bio-Chemistry

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Medical Biochemistry is a cutting-edge and fast-paced career field, one with incredible growth potential and plenty of room for advancement.  However, in order to be eligible for one of these exciting positions you will first need to satisfy the academic and practical requirements needed to succeed in the field—requirements you can fulfill by pursuing a Bachelor of Science degree in Medical Biochemistry.
The Bachelor of Science Degree in Medical Biochemistry provides students with a solid foundation in modern biochemistry, one with a specific emphasis on the ways in which the discipline relates to medicine and health issues.  By pursuing this degree, not only will students acquire the required subject knowledge needed to pursue a career in the field, but also the necessary skills that will make them stand out to potential employers in the future.
Bachelor of Science Degree in Medical Biochemistry
The Bachelor of Science Degree program in Medical Biochemistry is a four year undergraduate course of study open to all students who possess a high school diploma or its equivalent.  However, because the program requires students to have a strong background in mathematics and science, many colleges and universities will have students take and pass an entrance examination prior to being admitted to the program.
In the initial year of the program, students are offered courses that are drawn from both the medical and biological sciences, as well as general education classes in subjects such as mathematics, composition, speech and technology.  The primary goal of the first year is to have students develop and master their communication and data handling skills, both of which will help prepare them for the rest of their studies in the three years to follow.  Many institutions will even give students the opportunity to prepare and deliver a video-taped presentation, allowing the instructor and classmates to offer helpful feedback.
The second and third years of the Bachelor of Science Degree program in Medical Biochemistry consist primarily of coursework directly related to the discipline.  During this period, students will be given the opportunity to select a particular emphasis in the field, a track that could include Genetics, Microbiology and Physiology, among others subjects.  The courses in the second and third year will deal with a number of topics, including:
  • Proteins
  • Gene expression
  • Molecular cell biology
  • Molecular machines
  • Metabolism
  • Molecular medicine
  • Biomedical ethics (with an emphasis on Medical Biochemists)
  • And many more…
In the fourth and final year of the program, much of the coursework revolves around a module called Biomedical Mechanisms of Human Disease, where students learn the causes and treatment of certain biomedical illnesses, along with the ways in which these diseases can be prevented.  In addition to this module, students are permitted to select three units or sections of their choice, with options that may include:
  • Biochemistry
  • Cancer Cell and Molecular Biology
  • Proteins:  Structure, Dynamics and Engineering
  • Molecular Biology of Gene Expression
  • Understanding Disease
  • And more
The final year will also include a capstone research project, a project that accounts for a large portion of a student’s grade in the fourth year.  Students generally have three options with regard to the type of project they can undertake:  a school-based project, library-based project and lab-based project, the latter of which is encouraged by instructors and the department, as this is the type of setting in which most graduates will find work upon graduation.

Study Medical Coding

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Study Medical Microbiology

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Are you interested in a career that would allow you to study the full range of infectious organisms and help prevent human diseases, including the major microbial class of diseases?  Are you aware of the various qualifications you’ll need to find work in these types of positions, including the academic preparation that is required?  Medical microbiology is a fascinating field, in which experts have the opportunity to explore the various infectious organisms that promote both health and disease in the human body and how these infections are prevented, managed and cured.  However, specialists of this kind must undergo a rigorous course of preparation, beginning with a Bachelor of Science degree in Medical Microbiology.  To help get you started, below we will provide a broad outline of the type of coursework you can expect to encounter while pursuing a degree in Medical Microbiology, followed by a list of potential career opportunities available for qualified graduates.
Bachelor of Science in Medical Microbiology
The Bachelor of Science degree program in Medical Microbiology is designed for students who want to acquire a thorough understanding of the range, type, structure and physiology of infectious organisms—organisms that cause disease in humans, particularly those of a microbial nature.  The program is classified as an undergraduate degree, so depending on the country in which you live, the course of study will typically span three to four years in duration and include general education courses in addition to the core classes that are directed related to the discipline.
Based on the three-year European model (which is ultimately followed by a two-year Master’s degree program), the initial year of study will include an introductory module on microbiology, along with modules that cover the fundamental aspects of biochemistry, genetics and physiology.  Together, these classes provide a basic and imperative foundation for both microbiology and the disease-related aspects associated with it.  Students will also become proficient in computer applications that will be used throughout the course of the program, as well as in the chemical principles which emphasize the medically-related sciences.
In the second year of the program, core modules in microbiology constitute half or more of the program, with courses that deal with subjects such as:
  • The bacterial world
  • Eukaryotic microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Virolo gy
  • Medical microbiology
  • Pathogens, including their associated diseases, diagnosis, treatment and epidemiology, including public health measures
In addition to these microbiology modules, optional coursework is offered in biochemistry, genetics and physiology, all of which give students the opportunity to narrow down their interests in a particular field of study.
The third and final year of the Bachelor of Science Degree in Medical Microbiology will be dedicated to studies directly related to infectious organisms, and will include active research in a university or hospital laboratory. This constitutes the final research project which accounts for a significant portion of a student’s final grade.
Careers in Medical Microbiology
A Bachelor of Science degree in Medical Microbiology can pave the way to some exciting career opportunities in a variety of work environments, including
  • Research and development
  • Teaching and research
  • Sales and marketing
  • Product development
  • Quality control
  • Policy and Regulation
  • Academia (colleges and universities)
  • And more…
Professionals with knowledge in Medical Microbiology are in high demand in both private and government-based industries, performing work in sectors such as biotechnology; pharmaceuticals; management and administration; research and development; policy and enforcement; and patent law and intellectual property, all of which offer a very competitive salary and plenty of room for advancement.

Study Medical Radiography

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Study Medical Technology

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For a lot of people, when the field of medicine is mentioned the first thing that comes into their minds is that doctors are the only people that make up the medical field. Oblivious to them, doctors have numerous other personnel who act as a medical support team to these doctors whose functions are just as important into the final analysis of a patient’s condition and as well as treatment and care. One of these support teams are people who have taken up courses in Medical Technology, and are usually referred to as medical technologists.

Enrolling for this degree course would entail lots of time in a laboratory familiarizing with the different medical equipments. Medical Technology is not just about handling and operating equipments as this would also deal with lots of subjects in anatomy, clinical chemistry, microbiology, immunohematology, serology and hematology.

Anatomy, of course, will deal with the human body as a whole. This is of course a basic course in any medically-related course. Clinical chemistry would deal with the interaction of fluids and enzymes inside the body. The microbiology part would be the segment where students would be exposed to viruses, bacteria and parasites that usually can be found in the human body. Immunohematology would introduce students to the study of antigens and antibodies and their reactions. This is also commonly referred to as blood banking. Here, students will learn how to do blood typing, cross-matching blood samples and identification of antibodies.

Medical Technology personnel are usually involved in diagnosis, monitoring, caring and treatment of any conditions with the aid of medical equipments or any form healthcare-related products for the purpose of improving the quality of healthcare. Because Medical Technology has quite proved its usefulness, it has significantly reduced the number of people that stay in the hospital longer than they should, has cut recovery times as well of people in rehabilitation and has resulted into less invasive treatment through less complicated methods of detection.

Studying a Medical Technology course would mean that one will earn a degree in this branch of the medical field. Those pursuing a degree in Medicine can make this as a pre-med course. Those who would not pursue further studies and would like to make a career out of being a Medical Technologist have lots of opportunities awaiting them. Usually, medical technologists could build a career as a hospital staff, as a researcher, in sales and as an academician. Those who would become accustomed to a hospital setting are the ones who would be assisting doctors in diagnosis and treatment of patients. These are the guys who will operate the laboratory equipments that will do the blood tests and other chemical tests. They would also be the ones who would operate machines like the MRI, X-ray machines and other complicated hospital machines. The guys who are in research are the ones who would be helping in making advancements in the field of medical technology. Research in the field of medical technology would be relating to testing of machines and as well as finding out ways on how to find easier ways of doing laboratory tests. Perhaps, the most financially rewarding career option for this course is to get into sales. Selling medical equipments can really get someone rich as long as they can convince hospitals and clinics to buy medical equipments. Medical equipments usually have a monopolistic environment as the technology could only come from one source like there is only one company selling a particular product. Lastly, those who would follow the academician’s road, of course, would teach future medical technologists.

Study Medicine

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Medicine is the science and art of medicinal healing. It encompasses a wide range of health care practices developed to maintain and restore health by the prevention of disease and treatment of infirmities. In diagnosing and treating of disease and injury, contemporary medicine applies health science, biomedical research and medical technology basically through proper medication measures, surgery and therapies. Medicine is derived from the Latin word ars medicina which means the art of healing.

The Father of Modern Medicine is the Persian philosopher Avicenna. His contribution, the Canon of Medicine which was written during the Islamic Golden Age tackled the nature of contagious disease, discovered anesthetics and medicinal drugs, introduced quarantine and experimental medicine and the idea of clinical trials. Through the development of science and technology, medications were greatly relied on by medicine. Edward Jenner and Louis Pasteur discovered the importance of vaccinations.

In clinical practice, it is the physician’s responsibility to assess patients in diagnosing, treating and preventing the occurrence of disease conditions through the utilization of clinical judgment. The doctor-patient relationship starts initially with an interactive examination of the patient’s past and present medical history, medical records, followed by a medical interview and physical examination. A stethoscope and tongue depressor are the basic diagnostic medical devices that are typically used. Medical tests follow the initial examination of signs and symptoms such as blood tests, urine examinations, biopsy, or the prescription of pharmaceutical drugs or other therapies. It is important that the doctor informs the patient properly about relevant facts to enhance the trust in the doctor-patient relationship. It is in the medical records where the medical encounter is documented and filed.

As a part of the interdisciplinary team, most highly-trained health professionals besides medical practitioners are involved in the modern health care delivery. Some of the health professionals include nurses, emergency technicians and paramedics, laboratory scientists, respiratory therapists, dietitians, radiographers and the like.

Medicine has many specializations and sub-specializations. It varies from country to country depending on which specialties certain subspecialties are in. A medicine specialty is a branch of medical science. After a student completes medical school, physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific medicine specialty by completing a multiple-year residency. When medical specialists engage in a medical specialty, they are called Medical Practitioners.

Medical specialist usually receives an annual salary of $175, 011 in the United States; and $272, 000 for surgeons. The annual salary range does vary however because of commodity inflation, increasing negligent costs, steep price rise of rental and the like.

There are also different specialties offered from every country. In Australia and New Zealand, specialty training is overseen by specialty colleges such as the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons and the Royal Australasian College of Physicians. In Canada, it is the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada that oversees the specialty training. In India, it is the responsibility of the Medical Council of India to offer post-graduate training as well as the National Board of Examinations. In the United States, there are three recognized agencies which collectively oversee the physician board certification of MD and DO physicians in the 26 approved medical specialties acknowledged. The organizations are the American Board of Medical Specialties, American Medical Association, the American Osteopathic Association Bureau of Osteopathic Specialists and the American Osteopathic Association; the American Board of Physician Specialties and the American Association of Physician Specialists. These agencies and their associated national medical organizations each function at its various specialty academies, colleges and societies.

Job positions for Medicine:

Family Physician

Family Medicine became a medically distinct specialty in the US in 1969. A Family Physician possesses a Board Certificate in Family Medicine. The focus of the training is on treating the individual throughout all the stages of his or her life. Although Family Physicians can see absolutely anyone who has a medical problem, they are also experts in specific health problems. Most Family Physicians deliver newborn babies in addition to their total patient care. To become a Family Physician, an individual must first complete the undergraduate schooling, the medical schooling and an additional of three more years of specialized medical residency training in the field of family medicine. Family Physicians need to take a written examination every six, seven, nine or ten years in order to renew their board certification depending on which track they are choosing to maintain their certification. In order to take the examination, the Family Physician should have undergone three hundred hours of continuing education within the period of six years.

Between 2003 and 2009, the board certification process is being changed in family medicine and all the other American Specialty Boards to a series of tests to be conducted yearly on the different areas within the given specialty. The American Board of Family Medicine as well as other specialty boards is necessitating additional participation in continuous learning and self-assessments programs to enhance clinical knowledge, skills and expertise. The American Board of Family Medicine has created the Maintenance of Certification Program for Family Physicians which are requiring them to continuously demonstrate proficiency and efficiency in the four major areas of clinical practice namely: professionalism, self-assessment or lifelong learning, cognitive expertise and performance practice.

Adolescent medicine, geriatrics medicine, sports medicine, sleep medicine and hospice and palliative care medicine are some of the areas given the Certificates of Added Qualifications for the board-certified Family Physicians who have met the additional training and testing requirements. Fellowships are available as well in similar areas.

The paradigm of Family Medicine is bolstered by primary health care physicians who are trained in internal medicine; although they are only trained in this specific area, it is the adult patients who provide majority of the patient base of several of the practices in family medicine. There are rising contingents in the United States for physicians who are dually-trained in internal medicine as well as pediatrics, which will only take four years to complete instead of the three-year completion for each of the specialty. In urban and suburban areas, there are a significant number of family medicine practices that do not provide obstetric services such as litigation issues and provider preference anymore. A trend among Family Physicians is to adopt the practice model called the micro-practice or Ideal Medical Practice that focuses on reducing their overhead and increase technology utilization. This system allows Family Physicians to spend more on patient interactions that result in higher satisfaction ratings.

Family Medicine in Canada performs specialized work in conditions pertaining to the reproductive disorders and reproduction. Family Physicians who are working in the hospital setting are called General Practitioners. Doctors working within an acute care setting collaborate with interdisciplinary teams that are associated with a number of services and programs to address the issues related to patient care and clinical practice. It is the doctor’s role to provide a full range of primary health care services that includes obstetrical care, newborn care and inpatient palliative care and consultation.

General Practitioner

A General Practitioner is a medical practitioner who offers primary health care and specializes in family medicine. It is the responsibility of the General Practitioner to treat acute and chronic illnesses and provide preventive care measure and health education for all ages and both sexes. General Practitioners have specific skills in treating patients with multiple health issues and co morbidities.

In Brazil, a general practice is called clinica geral or clinica medica. After graduation, any physician is allowed to practice even without training, but because of the recent efforts of the government, the Brazilian Medical Association and the specialized Sociedade Brasileira such as endocrinology and cardiology are lobbying for the demand a specialist title for such practice. General Practitioners in Brazil are currently assigned in the public health sector and are mostly young, recently graduated physicians.

In Canada, similar to the United States, two meanings have been duly designated to the term General Practitioner. The Canadian specialty is equivalent to that of the English General Practitioner training programs which accounts for 40% family medicine of the residency positions for the graduating students. A medical student must first finish four years of medical school, spend two to three years in an accredited family medicine program after which they are already eligible to undergo examination for Certification in the College of Family Physicians of Canada. Most hospitals and health regions are now requiring doctors to obtain this certification. The medical practitioners are required to document ongoing learning and upgrade activities to maintain their certificates.

General Practitioners in Canada function in private practices. They are not government employees nor are they being paid by the government. However, majority of General Practitioners are remunerated through their provincial governments’ publicly-funded health insurance plans, through numerous payments mechanisms consisting of fee per service privileges, salaried positions and alternative payment plans.

In the United States, General Practitioners are holder of a license to practice the profession. Their only requirement to obtain such a practice is to be enrolled in or have completed one year of training more commonly known as the rotating internship. All licensed General Practitioners who are unable to complete a three to ten year residency are legally allowed to practice medicine in the specific state within which they have been licensed. The United States Navy has employed many of these General Practitioners who are formally known as General Medical Officers in active practice. Prior to 1970, the terms General Practitioner and Family Practice were synonymous. Now, a General Practitioner who specializes in family medicine is required to complete a residency in family medicine and must be eligible for the possession of a board certification.

In India, one has to enroll in a medical college that is recognized by the Medical Council of India and there, complete a four and a half-year course for the Bachelor of Science in Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery obtain registration, in order to become a General Practitioner.

Rotating internship requires one more additional year for the Medical Council of India to confer a permanent registration which permits the holder to practice as a General Practitioner. As early as the age of 17, an individual can qualify to attend a medical course granted that, he or she has completed a two-year-pre university course with one major subject in Biology.

Study Mental Health

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When talking about mental health, we refer to the emotional and mental well-being of people. This is why mental health professionals are health care practitioners, who offer various services that contribute to improving the individual’s mental health, or help them with the treatment of mental illness. Such specialists include psychiatrists, clinical social workers, mental health counselors, psychiatric nurses, clinical psychologists, and many other professionals.

Consequently, there are many roles that a mental health professional can play in the lives of people, who are suffering from mental health disorders. They may try to diagnose, or determine, the problem that a person is suffering from, but this often involves a long process of analysis and observation. Depending on their qualification, a mental health professional could also strive to help the person deal with the problem. Treatment can involve both medication and non-drug techniques, like art therapy for example. Still, there are cases in which no known cures exist and a person’s condition can only be managed or kept under some limits at best.  Some mental health professionals could also work with a whole group of people (i.e. families, couples) in order to help them improve their relationship or deal with family-specific problems. In some cases, the help of a number of mental health specialists from different fields is required and used.

Personal Qualities

To work in the field of mental health, you need to be exceptionally stable mentally yourself. Some other qualities include:

  • Excellent oral and written communication skills
  • Outstanding interpersonal qualities
  • Very good analytical skills
  • Ability to find and solve problems
  • Be patient, tolerant, and caring
  • Non-judgmental nature

Study Options

Mental Health Studies courses are usually offered at the graduate and postgraduate level, and have a number of prerequisite requirements. Most of them set the minimum standard by requiring a bachelor degree in health, mental health nursing, social work, health care or social care or equivalent as well as relevant work experience.  In most cases, references are also asked for – to support the provided information about the individual’s education and experience.

A master’s or a postgraduate degree in mental health usually involves various areas of specialization, examples of which are Art Therapy, Psychotherapy, Family Therapy, Community Mental Health, and similar. The teaching staff responsible for your degree is of uppermost importance when it comes to mental health – therefore, be sure to check that the faculty in your chosen institution are highly experienced practitioners and/or researchers. You should expect to receive training in a variety of evidence based interventions as well as to be taught the theoretical principles that underpin them.

Career Options

There are a great number of settings, where mental health professionals could find employment in a developed society. These include asylums, penitentiaries, and community health centers. When a mental health professional works in a facility such as a hospital or community health center, he or she may deal with a range of problems such as depression, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder. She may also deal with a wide range of patients.

On the other hand, there are some mental health professionals, who prefer to specialize. They may do this by only concentrating on certain disorders, or they may choose to do this by restricting their services to certain type of patients. For example, a child psychologist does not usually attend to the needs of adults.

Study Microbiology

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Microbiology is the study of microscopic organisms, examples of which are bacteria, viruses, protozoa, algae and fungi. Aspects of biology, environmental science and chemistry are all part of such a degree program, which is truly diverse in nature. Some examples of what is to be studied in Microbiology are how microbes develop, what they are made of, and even how they ‘communicate’ with each other.

Studying microbiology would give you a greater depth in understanding the environment in which we all live by making you realize that we are surrounded by miniature organisms, influencing our life in various ways. As a microbiologist, one is able to fully understand the functions of some everyday ingredients, such as yoghurt and yeast. You may have heard that there are good bacteria in yoghurt, but do you know what exactly it does? Examining the microorganisms in yeast on the other hand provides useful knowledge of how to bake bread. Other fermented drinks and foods like beer, wine and cheese are also developed through the help of microbiology. Research in microbiology also involves study of plants, helping prevent pests, weeds, and animal diseases. Last but not least, the study of microbiology helps to develop a great number of products, such as antibiotics, detergents or cosmetics that either help us fight diseases, or enhance the effect of some positive micro-organisms. Microbiologists could even help and advice the government on public health policies.

Personal Qualities

To study microbiology, you must most certainly have an interest in sciences. As microbiology is still evolving as a science, and around 99% of microbes existing on Earth are not yet studied, a yearning for knowledge and an experimental nature would definitely fit such a degree program. Curiosity, combined with a great willingness to learn and examine small details, are all personal qualities that would enhance your experience on a microbiology degree program. To plan ahead, a student may wish to concentrate on math and sciences in high school.

Other qualities that are most likely to be required also include:

- Ability to carry out a great deal of research, explaining outcomes in a clear and concise manner

- Analytical and logical thought to perform analysis

- Good communication skills – both oral and written

- Statistical awareness, combined with a desire for preciseness

- Problem solving skills; creative thinking

- Accuracy

- Ability to work in a team

Study Options

Basic undergraduate degrees in Microbiology are offered by many universities. If there is a specific area of interest that the student wishes to pursue (i.e. virology), they should look for a university that carries out research in this particular area. Usually, coursework requirements are very high, and potential science students should be aware of that.

However, an undergraduate degree is not sufficient for most microbiologists. Usually, they undertake graduate work, concentrating on an area of interest, which also combines research opportunities. For a graduate course, requirements are strict again – the student needs to provide transcripts, recommendation letters, scores, etc.

Post-graduate work is also very common in the field of microbiology, giving an opportunity to further explore emerging areas and focus on research even working with individuals, who are cutting edge in this field.

Career Options

As mentioned earlier, many employers would require a postgraduate qualification, but if you wish not to acquire one, various options are available in industry, pharmaceuticals, or the health service. Overall, career paths in the following areas are available for microbiologists:

- Medicine and Health – development of vaccines and methods to detect and fight diseases; improving and developing diagnostic tools.

- Drug Industry – this is the largest industry for microbiologists

- Agriculture

- Forensic science – examination of fingerprints and other samples in criminal investigations

- A preparation for medical, dental or vet school

- Traditional lab and research environment

Job roles include Immunologist, Parasitologist, Biotechnologist, Forensic Specialist, Environmental Scientist, Technical Sales, Quality Assurance Technologist, Science writer, Teacher.

Types of Employers are both Private and Non-profit Organizations: Biotechnology Firms, Chemical Manufacturing Firms, Crime Labs, Private Schools, Research Institutes, Hospitals, Computer companies, Energy companies, etc.

Positions can also be found in Government agencies, such as the Military, Centers for Disease Control, Drug Enforcement Agencies, Public Health Services, etc.

Study Microsurgery

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Study Midwifery

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Midwifery is an associated profession in health care wherein which providers deliver prenatal care to the expecting mothers; they also attend to the actual birth giving of the infant, and hand-in-hand they provide postpartum care to both to the infants and mothers. A practitioner of in the field of Midwifery is professionally known as a midwife, it is a term used to refer to both men and women. In the United States of America, the nurse-midwives are nurse practitioners or advance practice nurses. Aside from providing care to mothers in association with their pregnancy period and child birth, they, as well deliver primary care to all women, known as well-woman care which involves annual and gynecological exams, menopause care and family planning. Midwives have important tasks in health education and counseling and education. Their work scopes antenatal education as well as parenthood preparation and can extend further to women’s childcare and reproductive or sexual health. The area of Midwifery boosts the quality of care for pregnant women as well as their families by means of encouraging the midwives to discover and expand their skills, attitudes and knowledge.

Midwives are independent practitioners who work as specialists for low-risk pregnancy cases, actual child deliveries, and during the post pregnancy stage. They commonly make every effort to help out women to have healthy pregnancy period and experience of natural birth delivery. Midwives have undergone training to distinguish and contract with digressions from the customs. In contrast, obstetricians are specialists in the area of illness which are related to in surgery and childbearing. The two specializations can be opposite, however frequently are peculiar for the reason that obstetricians are trained to manage labor whereas midwives are trained not to interfere if not needed.

Midwives pass on women to the obstetricians when a pregnant woman needs care further than the area of expertise of the midwives. In many influences midwifery professionals work collectively in order to deliver care to women giving birth. Meanwhile for others, only the midwife is present to give care. Midwives are educated and trained to manage definite situations which are assessed as abnormal, which includes posterior position, breech births, and the use of non-invasive approaches.

Midwives on a regular basis have been admitted to the midwifery educational program which is appropriately recognized and accepted in the location and has completed successfully the prescribed and approved course of midwifery studies and has obtained the necessary qualifications to be legally licensed and registered for midwifery practice. The series of educational program may be in a form of apprenticeship, or enrollment in a formal program of a university or can be a combination of both. Midwives may practice in any kind of setting which include the clinics, health units, community, hospitals and in the home.

The training of midwifery training is known as one of the most competitive and challenging courses along with other subjects. Most of the midwives have undergone vocational training programs for a period of 32 months; all in all, midwives can potentially cover a total of 5 years of training period.

Study Morbid Anatomy

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Are you considering a degree in medicine but have yet to decide on a medical specialty in which to focus your studies?  Are you interested in studying the causes of disease, making critical diagnoses on patients, living and deceased?  If you answered yes, you may be the perfect candidate for a degree in Morbid Anatomy.  Morbid Anatomy, which is also called Anatomical Pathology or Anatomic Pathology in western nations, is a highly interesting and rewarding field of medicine that enables doctors to study and discover the various causes of disease through the examination of organs and tissues.  To help you become more acquainted with this field of study, below we have compiled some important facts regarding the M.D. degree program in Morbid Anatomy, including a few details about the course, the typical eligibility requirements for entry into the program and the skills and procedures students will learn while pursuing this degree.
M.D. Degree in Morbid Anatomy:  Course Details and Education Requirements
The M.D. Degree in Morbid Anatomy is an advanced specialty program that is offered by most major medical schools throughout the world.  It is designed for students who have a strong background and interest in the study and diagnosis of disease based on the gross, microscopic, chemical, immunologic and molecular examination of organs, tissues and, in the case of autopsies, whole bodies.  Holders of this degree are eligible to work in hospitals, morgues and medical research laboratories, helping practicing doctors pinpoint the nature and cause of a given disease, which ultimately enables those doctors to make a correct diagnosis and prescribe an effective treatment plan.  Morbid Anatomists can also take positions as Coroners and Medical Examiners, performing autopsies and helping law enforcement pinpoint a cause and time of death based on a variety of scientific factors.
To qualify for the M.D. program in Morbid Anatomy students must possess at least a four-year degree (most earn a Master’s degrees) in a discipline that qualifies as a pre-medical course of study.  These fields may include biology, microbiology, anatomy, chemistry and biochemistry, among others.  Students will also be screened based on their past academic performance and will need to sit for an interview with the program faculty prior to being considered for admission.
M.D. Degree in Morbid Anatomy:  What You Will Learn
Students participating in the M.D. program in Morbid Anatomy will learn about and master a number of different skills and procedures that are essential for success in this discipline.  Some of these include:
  • Gross Examination.  Gross examination is a procedure in which diseased tissue is examined with the naked eye—a key skill when examining large tissue fragments.
  • Histopathology.  Histopathology, a technique used often in cancer identification, is the microscopic study of stained tissue using histological techniques.
  • Cytopathology.  This field focuses on the microscopic examination of disease at the cellular level.
  • In Situ Hybridization.  Often called “FISH,” this specialty helps doctors identify DNA and RNA molecules using a fluorescent dye.
Of course, this is just a small sample of what students will learn while earning their M.D. degree in Morbid Anatomy.  Other techniques include Immunohistochemistry, the use of antibodies to detect the presence, abundance and localization of specific proteins; and Electron Microscopy, the examination of tissue samples using an electron microscope, a device that exponentially increases magnification.

Study Natural Health Science

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Study Natural Medicine

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Natural Medicine is also referred to as Naturopathy, or Naturopathic Medicine. It deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of various diseases and disorders through the therapeutic use of natural methods and materials. These could include, Herbal Medicine, Homeopathy, Hygiene, Naturopathic Manipulation, Clinical Nutrition, or ancient medical systems like those of China or India.

Natural therapists usually perform tasks like analyzing the patient's eating habits and creating personalized nutrition plans; applying organic techniques to stimulate the body’s ability for self-healing; prescribing natural medicines like herbal remedies, vitamin compounds and mineral supplements. They could also apply iris diagnostics to analyze and treat illness in various organs of the body, or manually manipulate the patient’s body to correct postural, muscular, or skeletal disorders.

Natural medicine follows some strict principles, some of which include ‘first do no harm’, ‘identify and treat the cause’ (which means not simply suppressing symptoms of the disease), ‘heal the whole person’, ‘physician as teacher’, and other similar ones, stressing on the wholesomeness of the individual and his or her connection with the surrounding world.

Personal Qualities

In order to pursue this area of study and practice, you need to be truly convinced in the healing power of nature as well as the principles that natural medicine follows. Other important qualities are as follows:

  • Patient, sympathetic, and compassionate nature

  • True desire to help people achieve good health

  • Commitment to promoting preventive medicine as a complement to conventional ways of treatment

  • Excellent communication skills

  • Flexibility and open-mindedness

  • Creativity

  • Able to deal well with skepticism and different kinds of personalities

Study Options

There are many opportunities to study natural medicine. There are a lot of specialized colleges that offer courses in natural medicine, but you should be careful to first check whether after completing such a degree you would be certified to practice in your chosen location. This is why it would be best to seek out an accredited institution that offers a good range of undergraduate, postgraduate, and diploma options to meet all of your needs.

Furthermore, because there are many branches that natural medicine covers, the college should be flexible enough to guide you towards the specialization that is going to be most suitable to you. Make sure it also provides students with a sound background in classical medicine, as this will ensure you have a well-rounded vision of how the human system works. The research activity of your chosen university is also crucial, and this is even more important if you are looking to pursue a master’s, or a doctorate degree, for example.

Career Options

Natural medicine practitioners usually have their own practice, where they work with patients on an appointment basis. You could also find employment in a specialized clinic, or become a professor at a college or university, but what is most important is that there are different fields in which you can specialize. Here they are:

Homeopath – a homeopath concentrates on the individual’s whole physical and emotional environment, rather than taking only the symptoms of the illness; then they prescribe medicines and therapeutic measures to assist the natural tendency of the body to heal itself.

Aromatherapist – psychological and physical health is promoted through the use of therapeutic plant oils and essential oils, which are either applied on the individual’s body, or inhaled

Herbalist – this is a person, who prepares natural remedies, according to each person’s health profile; these remedies are given in the form of teas, tinctures, extracts, or capsules.

There are a few other specializations, too, like Chinese medicine, or acupuncture, but the most important fact to remember is that it is a very responsible profession and one should be fully trained in order to practice it.

Study Nematology

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Study Neuro Linguistic Programming

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Study Neurobiology

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Neurobiology is a branch of scientific study that is primarily concerned with the human brain and the nervous system. This study includes the structure and function of the nervous system as well as tracing its history in the evolution of human beings. Students studying Neurobiology also need to have some knowledge concerning other fields such as biochemistry, genetics, pharmacology and physiology although neurobiology began as strictly as one of the biological sciences.

Neurobiology can also be said to lay some emphasis on studying the way nerve cells control and generate human behavior. Students who study Neurobiology would learn how nerve cells develop and differentiate their connections to each other at a molecular level. Aside from this, it is greatly concerned with knowing how the networks of the nervous system store information and make it possible for the organism to be able to remember said stored information.

Students might also study the effects of drugs and disease processes on the nervous system, which would help both the medical and psychological fields in particular in understanding abnormal or troubled nervous systems as compared to normal ones.

Studies concerning the brain and the nervous system became a formalized discipline with standardized practices only recently with the founding of the International Brain Research Organization in 1960. The European Brain and Behaviour Society and the Society for Neuroscience followed soon afterwards. It must be said, however, that people have been studying the brain and its functions as far back as the time of the ancient Egyptians.

Neurobiology began as another branch of the biological sciences, as mentioned earlier, but due to the increasing interest of the scientific community to this particular discipline, the study of Neurobiology began to encompass other disciplines like physics and psychology. Students who wish to take Neurobiology courses at colleges and universities offering this particular study would probably also be required to take philosophy and medical courses depending on the specializations they want to pursue later on in their studies.

Because of this recent inclusion of other disciplines to the study of Neurobiology, some of which studies have little or no relation to biological sciences, it became to be more popularly known as neuroscience. This subject is now known to include any scientific and systematic study of the nervous system of all types of living organisms, whether the investigation is theoretical or observed through experiments.

Experiments that neuroscientists have been performing have also expanded to include analyses of each individual nerve cell as it relates to biochemistry and genetic studies. Recently, the study of neuroscience has been greatly helped by using computational modeling, which would help theoretical neuroscientists base their studies on a model without much empirical data.

Because of the varying approaches of neuroscience to the brain and the nervous system, a student of Neurobiology may choose which specialization they want to pursue later on as a profession. A neuroscience student may decide to continue with medical or psychological practice after their studies and getting the necessary licensing.

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Study Neuroscience

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Neuroscience, the study of the brain and nervous system, is one of the most exciting fields in the natural sciences today. Deep questions about the fundamental nature of our human experience, questions which were once the sole purview of speculative philosophy, can now be addressed scientifically through emerging neuroscientific methods. For example, philosophers have long pondered the question of how we perceive the world through our senses; thanks to neuroscience, we can now answer such questions definitively. There is great excitement in the scientific community at the prospect that, in the near future, neuroscientists may be able to examine such complex phenomena as consciousness and morality from a scientific perspective.
Neuroscience also goes by the name of neurobiology. These 2 names are interchangeable, and refer to the same field. Neuroscience/neurobiology, however, should be distinguished from cognitive science. Cognitive science uses a combination of biology, behavioral science, and computer modeling to learn about cognitive processes within the brain. Neuroscience, on the other hand, focuses more narrowly on the biological structures of the nervous system, rather than on higher-order functions. Thus, cognitive science can be described as the bridge between neuroscience and psychology.
Personal Qualities
  • Fascination with the brains of humans or other animals
  • Logical mind, good problem-solving skills
  • Creativity (ability to devise hypotheses and experiments)
  • Organization
  • Apti tude at quantitative reasoning – mathematical expertise is extremely helpful but not strictly necessary
Study Options
Programs in neuroscience vary considerably from one institution to another. Neuroscientists address a broad range of issues, and different schools concentrate on different aspects of the field. For example, neuroanatomy, the study of the organization of different parts of the brain, might be the focus at one school, while neuropathology and the study of brain disease might be more emphasized at another.
Neuroscience is seldom offered as an undergraduate major, although bachelors level programs in this area are becoming increasingly common. The majority of neuroscience students, however, major in biology and then specialize in neurobiology once they get to graduate school. If you are certain that neuroscience is your field of interest, however, it is worthwhile to find a school that offers and neuroscience major.
Career Options
Individuals passionate about the brain have a number of career options available to them. These can roughly be separated into 2 categories: research and medicine. Academic neuroscientists spend their time researching the brain and teaching students about it. They are almost all required to obtain a PhD, which takes several years of training beyond college, but they tend to be better funded than academics in other disciplines. Governments and private institutions around the world have rightly prioritized neuroscience as one of the most important areas of research to support.
Students of neuroscience may also pursue careers in medicine, applying their knowledge of the brain in the effort to help people who suffer from neurological disorders. While neurosurgeons are perhaps the most famous of those who work in neuro-medical fields, there are numerous other jobs available within this category that requires significantly less schooling. For example, someone who majored in neuroscience as an undergraduate and chose not to go to graduate or medical school could work in advocacy. His or her understanding of the brain and its pathologies would be of enormous value to an advocacy group working to promote the rights of the mentally ill.

Study Nursing

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Nursing is both a science and an art. Nursing knowledge and the procedural aspects of skills is the scientific part while the foundation of a caring and positive relationship with the client as well as the client’s family through the application of knowledge, skills and attitudes in nursing is the art. It is a healthcare profession that is inclined on goal- and detail-oriented care of humans as an individual, a group such as the basic unit of society- the family, community or locality in accomplishing, preserving and improving the optimal well-being and purpose of life. It is the duty of the nurse to assess, plan, implement and evaluate the care of patients/clients individually independent and apart from any medical staff such as doctors; and gives fundamental triage care to aid in severe cases of trauma and surgery.

A nurse has many roles. He or she can be a researcher, a practitioner, an administrator, and a teacher; a nurse can also work in different settings such as in the home of clients, in a community, in hospitals, in nursing homes, in long-term care facilities, clinics, in industrial companies, as a clinical instructor in the classroom as well as in hotel and restaurant establishments just to name a few. It is in the scope of nursing to provide optimum care for humans in all stages of life and in all states of well-being whether normal or abnormal.

Before the existence of a nursing foundation, nursing-like services were being offered by nuns and the military. These roots are still very evident in how we address modern nursing today, for example in Britain the Senior Nurses are still called “sisters”. Florence Nightingale was the founder of nursing. She was responsible for the significant development in the recognition of nursing during the time of war, known as the Crimean War. It was her duty to better the conditions of the wounded soldiers. She was known as the Lady with the Lamp. It was on October 21, 1854 when she and 38 other volunteer nurses were sent to foresee the health conditions of the wounded soldiers at the main camp of Britain. She noticed the grave condition of the place with overworked medical staffs, shortages of medication supplies, neglect of the hygiene of patients and the spread of a mass infection which increased even in their aid. Nightingale observed that the lack of ventilation and the poor condition of the sewage system were two of the main contributors of the illness. She ordered the windows to be opened to allow enough ventilation and the sewage system to be flushed. Improvements were immediately observed in the health of the soldiers as well as in the sanitation of the camp. These were all accounted for in the book “Notes on Nursing”.

The country to first conform to nursing nationally was New Zealand through the adoption of the Nurses’ Registration Act on September 12, 1901. The first registered nurse was Ellen Dougherty. The Nursing Licensure Law was passed in the year 1903 by the state of North Carolina.

It is the target of nursing to maintain and improve the standards and competencies worldwide. The professional study of nursing involves extensive study of the theories and the practices as well as the training of skills in the various clinical and community areas nationwide and worldwide. A nurse needs to hold one or more credentials to work in the nursing profession depending on their chosen scope and type of practice and education. LPNs or Licensed Practical Nurse also known as Licensed Vocational Nurse, Registered Practical Nurse, Enrolled Nurse or State Enrolled Nurse is working under Registered Nurses. Registered Nurses are responsible in providing scientific, psychological, and hi-tech skills and knowledge in the care of individuals and their families in the health care settings.

Job positions for Nursing:

Registered Nurse

A health professional responsible for the implementation of the nursing practice through the application of the nursing process in coordination with other healthcare professionals is called a Registered Nurse. The job of a Registered Nurse is to become an advocate of the patient in the promotion of their recovery and health maintenance. The nursing process is comprised of the assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation and evaluation also known as ADPIE. The training of a Registered Nurse is more intensive compared to the Licensed Practical Nurses.

In this world of economic crisis, the demand for nurses is still prevalent in areas such as the United Kingdom and the United State of America. For a Registered Nurse to lawfully practice in the United Kingdom, he or she needs to possess a valid registration with the Nursing and Midwifery Council. The title “registered nurse” is only bestowed to those who hold the said registration as stated in the Nurses, Midwives and Health Visitors Act of 1997. In order to hold a valid registration, one is required to complete a degree or program which is widely offered in universities in the various specialties such as adult nursing, pediatric nursing, mental health nursing and psychiatric nursing. This leads to an academic recognition as well as a professional registration as a First Level Registered Nurse. As a student, time is allotted to 50% of learning in the university and the other 50% in practice in the hospital and community settings. The first year of these courses is known as the Common Foundation Program which includes the basic understanding and practice and the rest of the program is according to the chosen branch of the student.

The post-registration phase requires nurses to enhance their knowledge and skills through a 35-hour education at the end of the third year. Nurses can also enroll in trainings such as cannulations, venipunctures, Intravenous Drug Therapies, Male Catheterizations and Advanced Life Support among others. Nurses who possess a diploma study part-time in order to upgrade their qualifications into a degree. In England, it is more profitable to study in a specialist field because diploma student get complete compensation during the initial phase of their training. Nurses often need training above the bachelor’s degree level in order to become specialist nurses such as Masters Degrees or PhDs.

There are four major categories of nurses in the UK: the First Level Nurses, The Second Level Nurses, the Specialist Nurses, and the Managers.

The First Level Nurses are the major group of nurses in the UK. Beforehand, they were known as Registered General Nurses, Registered Sick Children’s Nurses, Registered Mental Nurses and/or Registered Nurse Learning Disabilities.

Second Level Nurses, although not anymore supplied are still officially permitted to practice as a nurse in the United Kingdom. Second Level Nurses at this time are either retired or have taken advanced courses to pursue a profession as a first level nurse.

The third category is the Specialist Nurses. There is a huge variety of specialist nurses being employed right now. They have undergone extra education and training as well as many years of experience. Specialist Nurses are divided into several major groups:

Nurse Practitioners: these practitioners are responsible for carrying out care at a higher practice rank.

Specialist Community Public Health Nurses: this group includes the district nurses, health visitors, school nurses and occupational health nurses.

Clinical Nurse Specialists: these nurses are the teachers of the staff nurses who are under their department, they are leaders who provide clinical and relevant information as well as advanced nursing skills.

Nurse consultants: this division is more or less similar to that of a clinical nurse specialist but slightly more advanced. They are in charged with educating and training of their department’s staff with the addition of active study and publication activities.

Lecturer-practitioners – they work twice or thrice in a week at both the NHS and universities. Their job in the university is to teach and prepare pre-registration nurses, and oftentimes train special courses for post-registrations nurses and post-degree critical nursing.

Lecturers: they work in the universities on a full-time basis, doing research and at the same time teaching.

The fourth major category is the Managers. These practitioners have chosen to join the NHS management in the advent of filling positions in the senior management structure.

Public Health Nurse

A special form of nursing that joins nursing and the principles of public health are called Public Health Nursing. Public health nursing seeks to improve the health of the population as a whole instead of focusing on merely an individual or the family. This is called a type of Community Health Nursing.

It was during the year 1859 in England where the roots of Public Health Nursing can be traced. Also known as the founder of nursing, Florence Nightingale together with her assistant volunteer nurses, braved the Crimean War to solve the existing problem of the wounded soldiers in the British camp. Each of the volunteer nurses was assigned in a particular geographic area and their task was to oversee the health of the people living in the vicinity. This is why public nursing today is devoting is services to a particular community.

The role of a Public Health Nurse is to prevent primarily diseases, illnesses, injuries, disability and any type of untimely death such as in newborns or fetuses. Public Health nurses functions in a team composed of other health professionals such as doctors or physicians, health specialists of the environment, dieticians or nutritionists, health educators or teachers, epidemiologist and others. All the members of this group work together with their assigned area’s officials as well as residents to come up with the best solutions to the existing health problems and at the same time educating them with preventing measures to avoid any type of disease or illness that is common to such area. Altogether they plan for the betterment of their locality.

Public Health Nurse also assists in improving the health status of individuals and families. This is done in the form of structured health teachings that focus primarily on proper healthy lifestyle changes in various settings such as the home, the office and the community. They also advise individuals to avoid health practices that are known to be dangerous to health such as smoking, drinking alcohol, improper dieting, sedentary lifestyles, and unsafe practices sexually and driving under the influence of drugs or alcohol.

The communities as well as the environment are acknowledged by Public Health Nurses as the major spots that contribute to how people decide on how to live which greatly affects the choices in lifestyle. Thus, public health nursing is spending a considerable portion in making sure that the community is maintaining a healthy way of living. Some of the activities that are commonly happening in any type of community are tackling the issues on decreasing the selling of tobacco smoke to under-aged teenagers, the fluoridation of potable water, eradicating the hazards in the workplace, immunization of children, reducing the occurrences of drowning.

PHNs can also be found in schools and in the workplace. PHNs who assist workers while on duty are called Occupational Health Nurses. General Practice Nurses are those who work in the local government offices. The community interventions of the public health nurses in department health settings are not well-defined and their job is primarily located in the home and clinic. Their primary role is focused on the concerns of illnesses of both mother and child. They also do follow-up health visits on rare and dangerous cases such as lead poisoning and SIDS or sudden infant death syndrome. Funding for public health nursing is based on the fragmented budget of the local government from states and federal sources for particular problems.

Study Nursing Assistant

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Nursing assistants are care workers, who work in various institutions, such as hospitals, clinics, nursing homes, etc., and assist the nursing staff by providing care for patients. This is a healthcare profession, involving responsibilities like feeding patients, emptying bedpans, changing diapers or beds, or helping patients bathe/go to the toilet. A nursing assistant would also be trained to measure pulse, check blood pressure and breathing.

On top of that, as a nursing assistant you would be responsible to check the patient’s condition regularly, report it to the nursing staff, and in cases when the patient is hospitalized for a long period of time, you may take care of rehabilitation and making sure the patient is moved on a regular basis. Therefore, the job can also require some heavy lifting when patients need to be helped with getting up and walking. Finally, nursing assistants may be trained to help patients with prescribed physical therapy exercises, work with patients on a home setting, or work with patients, who are in coma.

Personal Qualities

If you posses a good-hearted, patient nature, you would perfectly correspond to the profession of a Nursing Assistant.  Emotional stability is another quality that is important for all healthcare workers of this type in order to be able to carry out their profession. They should also be aware that long term relationships are formed with many patients, which requires good communication skills and open-mindedness. Other qualities include:

  • Commitment
  • Physical strength
  • Team player
  • Not repulsed by tasks like bathing, cleaning patients, etc.

Study Options

Employers of this field mainly require a high school diploma, or the equivalent. Preparation for a Nursing Assistant job can definitely start from high school, by taking subjects like biology, psychology, health psychology, algebra, computer skills, and also courses in dental/medical assisting.

Overall, options for study are very wide. Training is offered in high schools, community colleges, vocational schools, and even employers. On the job training can include areas such as body mechanics, nutrition, anatomy and physiology, cognitive impairments and mental health issues, infection control, personal care skills, and records-keeping. These courses normally take six to eight weeks, finishing with an exam and provide certification of a nursing assistant. There are even opportunities to take a home nursing assistant course.

Career options

Career options of Nursing Assistants are very good, as a great number of the population on Earth is getting of a higher age, which would mean more healthcare workers would be needed to meet the new demands on rehabilitation and long term care. For this reason, major employers are expected to be nursing homes and long term care facilities. Employers would also include state hospitals, private clinics, or any other institutions, offering healthcare services. To wrap it up, you would be a valuable member of a healthcare team, working closely with patients who need your assistance.

Study Nutrition and Health

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Nutrition and health degrees deal with the relationship between food consumption and health, and how making the right food choices can lead to improved health and well-being.

Nutrition and health specialists can work in a variety of settings – universities, elementary schools, private clinics, inpatient and outpatient hospitals. They consult individuals and groups on how to organize and improve their diet and eating habits in order to heal a certain disease or even eating disorder. Nutrition and Health specialists are often engaged in dealing with people suffering from bulimia, anorexia, and other similar diseases. By becoming such a professional, you would also be able to educate the public on the benefits and effects of supplemental vitamins, minerals, and other dietary aids. Last but not least, if you decide to follow such a career, you could have the opportunity to work in a laboratory research setting, observing the effects of nutrition on both healthy and unhealthy people; or, work in a classroom, educating others in the same profession.

Personal Qualities

Good interpersonal skills are required, as you would constantly need to communicate with people in order to gain a thorough understanding of their eating habits and lifestyle. Gathering this crucial information would allow you to do your job properly. Here is a fuller list of qualities:

  • Excellent communication and listening skills; ability to pass information to people in a clear and understandable manner
  • Good problem-solving skills
  • High level of emotional intelligence
  • Good persuasive qualities
  • Flexible and adaptive nature
  • Patience

Study Options

There are universities that offer bachelor’s degrees in health and nutrition, or dietetics, and you would need such a degree in order to practice this profession. When choosing the right institution for you, it would be a good idea to check whether they have modern specialized laboratories, as this is vital for a degree in health and nutrition. It is an advantage if they have a food lab with tasting booths and microbiology labs. Furthermore, it is essential to choose a program that is fully accredited and would allow you to follow a career in the region you wish to live afterwards.

The degree would be even more suitable if offering the opportunity for an internship and if the university has good relationships with local institutions and clinics, combined with the ability to invite guest lecturers and specialists from this field.

Career options

As discussed earlier, a nutrition and health specialist can work in a great number of settings, and you can definitely choose the age range of your clients. For example, there is very high demand for this profession within homes and institutions for elderly people, where a good balance of healthy eating and living can greatly improve the life of aging people. On the other hand, you can also specialize in educating little children on how to build good habits, allowing them to boost their concentration and speed of learning. You can also decide to participate in specific research, for example examining the effect of nutrition and diets on a disease (i.e. polycystic ovary syndrome). Finally, you can become an educator, conduct your own research in a field of your own interest, or embark on a private practice. You can also research some of the following job titles: clinical nutrition manager, fitness and nutrition specialist, dietitian, pediatric nutrition representative, and many others.

Nutrition, the study of how our bodies process food and what we ought to eat in order to stay healthy, is a popular option among people who are interested in the body and want to be involved in helping people keep healthy, but who do not want to go all the way to medical school. For many people, nutrition is also simply more interesting than medicine. Eating is something we all do on a daily basis – it’s natural for us to be interested in finding out how it works and how we can do it better.
Personal Qualities
  • Desire to help others and advise them on life choices
  • Fascination with the human body and its natural processes
  • Analytic, problem-solving mind
  • Enjoyment of the sciences, especially chemistry and biology
Study Options

A course of study in nutrition will be fairly prescribed from the start. It will involve several courses in human anatomy and biology, as well as plenty of chemistry and general food studies courses. It also frequently includes courses in the cultural and social factors that go into food consumption. It is possible to specialize in certain specific aspects of nutrition such as geriatric nutrition (nutrition for the elderly) or veterinary nutrition, but this is quite uncommon at the undergraduate level. If you do plan to specialize, it makes sense to wait until graduate school, and may not be necessary even then.
Career Options

There are essentially two kinds of careers for nutritionists: applied nutrition and research. The majority of people with degrees in nutrition choose the applied path, which prepares them to work as private nutritionists, consulting individuals on their eating choices and helping them to make informed decisions about what they put into their bodies. The other possibility is to go into laboratory research in nutrition and advance the frontiers of human knowledge on the subject. A third option which combines elements of the other two is to become a nutrition consultant for a food company or catering service.

Study Nutrition and Metabolism

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Studies in nutrition and metabolism mainly seek to understand the way in which the human body breaks down, assimilates and disposes nutrients and other materials. It is concerned with the examination and treatment of both metabolic normalities and abnormalities, as well as dietary research, eating disorders and the medical implications of nutrition and metabolism.
A common place to find a course of study in nutrition and metabolism is at a college, university or technical school, where the course can either be offered as a single major or as part of a broader science major. Many studies in nutrition and metabolism, for example, fall under majors such as exercise science. Nutrition and metabolism can be studied at a bachelor’s or master’s degree level. Universities that specialize in medical or nutritional research are ideal for students wishing to stay up-to-date on nutritional knowledge and technology.
Some secondary schools also offer basic courses in nutrition and metabolism. Health and service institutions, organizations and research facilities will sometimes offer publicly accessible workshops for a variety of ages. Some of these workshops, however, are only applicable to those already registered in the organization or working in a medical field. Online educational tools are available, both in basic courses and associate degree programs.
Skills, Qualifications, and Prerequisites for Studies in Nutrition and Metabolism
To study this course at a university, college or technical institution, a candidate must meet the admission requirements outlined by the higher education institution. This usually includes earning a secondary school completion certificate and achieving a passing score on an aptitude test or entrance exam. Workshops vary in their requirements for entry and may be accessible to the public or to current employees, company candidates or experts from certain fields.
Nutrition and metabolism requires a significant amount of research and candidates should be able to read and interpret large amounts of text. A solid background in the basic sciences – such as chemistry, biology and human anatomy – highly benefits students in this field. Well developed interpersonal and communication skills also aid in a student’s success, as much of their work will require interaction with patients and clients.
Other qualities and skills helpful in nutrition and metabolism studies include:
  • Background in a sport or exercise program.
  • Good memorization rate.
Skills and Qualifications Acquired from Studies in Nutrition and Metabolism
Students in this field of study have the option of specializing in a certain nutritional or metabolic area, including eating disorders, obesity, exercise science, nutritional therapy, clinical nutrition and even marketing. A course of study in nutrition and metabolism alone with usually develop skills and knowledge in the following areas:
  • Biochemistry.
  • Physiology.
  • Nutritional elements of food (vitamins, minerals, etc.).
  • Absorption and excretion of nutrients.
  • Metabolic pathways (digestive, etc.).
  • Diseases or other factors affecting metabolism.
  • Macro and micronutrient metabolism systems.
  • Public health issues.
  • Exercise methods/benefits.
Careers for Studies in Nutrition and Metabolism
Students who pursue a course in nutrition and metabolism are prime candidates for health services and therapy work. Many become dieticians, personal coaches or dietary consultants – fields of work that can be practiced independently or for a company-run dieting program. Health and service organizations Laboratories and government programs will also employ these students for nutritional or medical research. By pairing nutrition and metabolism studies with other medical courses, students can also become doctors, pediatricians or nurses.

Study Obstetrics & Gyanaecology

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Obstetrics and Gynecology, often called OB/GYN, is a medical and surgical specialty that deals with the female reproductive organ. When people hear the word OB/GYN, the first thing that comes to mind is that this is a specialty dealing with pregnant woman, but that is not the case. Obstetrics and Gynecology deals with the clinical condition of the female reproductive system and also provides care to both the pregnant and non-pregnant women. It is safe to say that OB/GYN deals with women’s health in general.

This medical specialty, Obstetrics and Gynecology, has not always been view as a single field of study. Each one took their own separate historical paths. Obstetrics, the medical specialty for pregnant women, has always been the territory of female midwives. But by the 17th century, it became common practice for the royal family and the aristocrats to have a physician deliver the baby at birth and this practice spreads throughout the middle class family. Gynecology on the other hand existed during the times of the ancient Greek which deals with the diseases of the female genitalia. Around the early 18th century, simple surgical operations were being performed on the ovary and the uterus. Even though they were making such progress at that time, it was not an easy road for the pioneering physicians. They have to overcome several taboo issues in the society like exposure of the female genitalia during examination. Then the discovery of anesthesia and antiseptic used in surgical procedure happened. These two great advances enable the physicians to overcome social taboo issues of female genitalia exposure during examination. The union of these two specialties began late in the 18th century mainly due to the overlapping natural concerns and has continued to do so until today.

The road to becoming a licensed obstetrician and gynecologist is both challenging and rewarding. Challenging because depending on where you live, it generally takes twelve years to become a practitioner in this field. First you need to graduate from college. It will be beneficial to take pre-med course like maybe biology, chemistry or microbiology. Then enroll and attend medical school for another four years and then residency for another four years specializing in the field of Gynecology. Taking a board certification exam is also necessary to be able to practice in the field of obstetrics and gynecology on your own.

Aside from having that rare pleasure of helping a woman gives birth, an obstetrician and gynecologist also will handle life-threatening situation. Twelve years or so of study is necessary to be efficient in this career but having the right attitude helps a lot too. Having the ability to work and make decisions under pressure, mental and physical stamina, can communicate well, and of course, capable to handle stress are just few of the attitudes needed to be successful and have a rewarding career in OB/GYN. Working in field of Obstetrics and Gynecology is really very satisfying. Witnessing the miracle of life everyday and helping to make it happen is a wonderful experience.

Study Occupational Therapy

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Occupational therapy is a versatile mode of physical therapy that uses everyday tasks and movements to help people regain their physical strength and comfort following an injury. Unlike general physical therapy, which targets large muscle groups and focuses on abilities such as walking, occupational therapy is generally geared toward the recovery of more fine motor skills. For example, an office worker who fell and broke her wrist might need to see an occupational therapist in order to heal the fracture so that she could type again. Occupational therapists help give people renewed independence and comfort, and can mitigate the negative effects of long-term disability.
Personal Qualities
  • A desire to help others through bodily healing
  • Patience, friendliness, and a calm demeanor
  • Ability to complete several years of schooling beyond the college level

Study Options
In the United States and most developed countries, a master's degree or higher is required in order to become a licensed occupational therapist. While bachelor's and associate's degrees in the field are available, these are usually seen as prerequisites for the master's degree, rather than standalone or terminal degrees. There are some jobs available for those who hold an associate's degree or bachelor's degree but not a master's degree–these are typically subordinate positions such as a therapist's aide. They tend to be considerably less lucrative than working as a licensed occupational therapist.
If you want to save time (and possibly tuition costs as well), look for a combined bachelors/masters program. These programs, which typically takes 5 years to complete, have become increasingly more common in recent years. They not only save time by streamlining the curriculum, typically shaving a year off of the full time to get both degrees, but they also save you the stress and hassle of applying for graduate school. Students who are accepted into five-year combined programs can go straight from college into graduate school without having to spend time on applications and entrance exams.
Career Options
The field of occupational therapy is extremely career-specific. If your dream is to work as a licensed occupational therapist, then a degree in this area is essential. If, however, you are unsure what your ultimate career plans will be, is a better idea to get a more general and broadly applicable degree in, for example, biology or premedical studies.
Licensed occupational therapists have lucrative, high earning careers, and may work in a variety of settings. The majority work in clinics or hospitals, where patients are referred to then by the doctors and nurses. Others may opt for the freedom of working in private practice, which provides more autonomy but requires a greater investment of time.

Study Odontopediatrics

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Study Oncology

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The field of study which focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of cancer is Oncology. Oncology came from the Greek word which means “bulk” or “mass” which refers to tumors. The doctors who specialize in the study of Oncology are known as oncologists.

The primary role of oncologists is to deliver explanation on cancer diagnosis as well as explaining the processes and stages of the disease. They facilitate the discussion regarding the options for treatment and they recommend what is the best option for cancer treatment giving high regard in ensuring quality of life and optimal care. They also take responsibility in heading the coordination of overall care for the patients starting from counseling, physiotherapy, analgesic care and to management of pain and symptoms. The most essential part of the oncologist’s role is to follow up the patients who have been successfully treated. Early cancer diagnosis in terms of recurrence is the key to effective survival and prolonging life.

The field of Oncology involves a wide scope of study. In view of the fact that cancer can transpire in almost all the entire body systems, a number of doctors opt to take specialization in particular branches of this field, namely blood diseases or cancer of the bone. There are also doctors specializing on chemotherapy treatments, on the other hand there are doctors whose specialization is on radiation therapy. Majority of the doctors who are in the field of Oncology are connected to residencies and internships which main focus is cancer treatment, which is usually connoted as a branch of therapy, oncologists usually serve for a period of four years ahead of their normal period of residency.

Oncology’s main focus is cancer research which scopes the causes and possible treatment. It is also an open field for diverse opportunities in research. Up to date, oncologists are steadfastly looking for ways in order to treat all cancer of humans.

As years passed by, the field of Oncology has gone a long way from the time when the early surgeons are able to only remove tumors with the most primordial ways. The field rose onward toward advancement and even 25 years ago, with the vast improvements in terms of diagnosis, treatment and cancer prevention, the field has evolved significantly. Doctors all agree that early cancer detection as well as prevention can be an effective means of dealing with cancer; Oncology also involves this aspect of medicine. Early cancer detection includes exams such as mammograms for breast cancer and pap smear for cervical cancer diagnosis. The field of Oncology has also experienced a lot of failures but at the same time it has also shown remarkable successful endeavors in the fight against cancer.

Oncology is divided to different areas of specializations, namely gynecological oncology which covers the diagnosis and cancer treatments for the reproductive organs of females. Another area is medical oncology which uses the medical chemotherapy for all cancer types. There is also pediatric oncology which focuses on the diagnosis and cancer treatments of children. Radiation oncology on the other hand is all about the use of radiation treatment of cancer and lastly is surgical oncology which involves surgeries which includes tumor removal and biopsies.

Study Oncology Pharmaceutical

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Study Opthalmology

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Ophthalmology is a professional medical field in which specialists diagnose and treat a variety of eye diseases.  They are also responsible for prescribing medication and may often perform eye surgery when the situation dictates it.  As a result, a medical degree and a residency is an absolute requirement to perform such work—a course of study that can often span six years or more following the presentation of an undergraduate degree.  However, students who wish to become ophthalmologists in the future can pursue a variety of science-related pre-medical bachelor degrees right now, degrees that will help them prepare and qualify for admission into medical school.  Additionally, students who wish to pursue careers in the ophthalmology field as technicians, assisting ophthalmologists with eye testing and the collection of data, may want to pursue a bachelor degree as an ophthalmology technician, although career positions in this field are very scarce due to ongoing competition.  For the purpose of this brief article, below we will concentrate on pre-medical bachelor degrees, including some of the disciplines students can pursue and the course content that often comprises these fields of study.
Bachelor Degrees Leading to a Career in Ophthalmology
Ophthalmology is a fairly broad field that combines science, medicine and surgery; a field in which ophthalmologists diagnose and treat eye disease in both children and adults.  Sub-specialties in this discipline can include cataract and refractive surgery, ocular immunology, ophthalmic plastic surgery and pathology, and neuro-ophthalmology, among others.
Students who wish to gain admission to medical school in preparation for a career in ophthalmology must first earn a bachelor degree or higher in a pre-medical related field—a field that may include anatomy and physiology, biochemistry, biology, pharmacology, pathology or another science-intensive discipline—subjects which often represent the initial year of medical school training. 
Bachelor of Science degrees leading to careers in ophthalmology generally span four years in duration and are open to all students who have earned a high school diploma or its equivalent.  To be successful in these programs, however, most institutions recommend that students have a strong background in science and mathematics, with above average grades in these subjects at the secondary school level.
The coursework for these pre-medical degrees will vary slightly depending on the specific discipline, but initially all students will need to complete courses in the physical and natural sciences, mathematics, language, composition and the humanities as prerequisites for their particular program of study.  Once accepted into the pre-medical bachelor degree program, students can expect to encounter coursework in subjects such as:
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Biology
  • Physics
  • Calculus
  • And more…
Students who successfully complete the pre-medical bachelor degree program of their choice will still have a long road ahead of them, but at minimum they will have attained a solid foundation on which to continue their studies at the medical school level. 
As mentioned above, in order to become a licensed ophthalmologist, graduates will need to earn a medical degree with a concentration in ophthalmology and complete a residency working in a hospital or other medical setting.  Additionally, to stay abreast of new techniques and procedures and to maintain board certification, continuing education is also required by practicing doctors.
At the end of this very long academic road, students will have gained the knowledge and skills to work as ophthalmologists in hospitals and clinics.  For their efforts, they can expect higher than average compensation that is commensurate with their knowledge and experience.

Study Optics

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Optics, the science of light, was once primarily concerned with the creation of microscopes, telescopes, eyeglasses, and similar devices; in our technology-driven age, however, the range of options for people interested in optics has exploded with diversity. Lasers alone make up an integral part of devices ranging from cell phones and satellites to grocery store barcode scanners, and lasers are only one small part of the field of optics. Optics experts may be scientists or engineers, and may work in any number of different industries.
Light is not only centrally important to many cutting-edge technologies–is also one of the most interesting and mysterious scientific subjects. For centuries, physicists have been fascinated and confounded by the bizarre properties of this seemingly mundane phenomenon. Because light can behave both as a wave and as a particle, and because it is by far the fastest thing in the known universe, the study of optics has the potential to lead to enormous breakthroughs in physics. Thus, people who dream of being at the vanguard of scientific advancement sometimes find that optics is the best option for them.
Personal Qualities
  • Attention to detail and methodical way of looking at things
  • Problem-solving skills
  • Enjoyment of math and the sciences, especially physics
  • Patience and ability to work on a single problem for long stretches of time
  • Love of magnifying glasses, laser shows, or other light-based gadgetry is a plus
Study Options

There are numerous study options for people interested in optics, but the most basic way to organize optics programs is to separate them into applied and theoretical optics. Theoretical optics is the “pure” science – modeling, research, and experimentation are the key aspects of a course of study in this area. It is good for people who prefer to think about problems in the abstract without worrying about mundane details. Applied optics is the opposite – it is concerned primarily with real-world applications, and abstract theorizing is only used as a training exercise or a way of gaining background knowledge. Naturally, these two types of programs appeal to very different kinds of students and tend to lead to very different careers.
Career Options
Just as programs in optics can be separated into applied and theoretical branches, careers in this area can be separated along the same lines. Experts in theoretical optics usually work in laboratories, universities, and other academic settings. They usually teach and do research, and they almost all have advanced degrees such as PhD’s. Careers in applied optics, on the other hand, usually do not require quite as much schooling (although the most lucrative jobs sometimes do). People who choose this path typically work in the private sector, although the details of their jobs vary widely. The good news about careers in optics is that the numbers are good: consumer electronics are becoming increasingly reliant on optics, and thus optics experts are increasingly in demand. Their ability to integrate lasers, lenses, and other light-based technology into the latest high-tech devices makes them an indispensable part of the growing tech and telecommunications industries.

Study Optometry

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Optometry is a medical profession that generally deals with the eyes and vision. Like other professions related to health care, the certification and practice of Optometry is regulated in most countries. Optometrists and organizations that have to do with the practice of optometry usually work hand in hand with government agencies’ and the medical community in general in order to provide people with eye and vision care.

Optometry comes from the Greek words ‘optos’ and ‘metria’ which means ‘eye or vision measurement’. The practice itself would have to do with the eyes and the parts close to the eye. Optometry deals with vision disorders as well as diseases. Vision disorders would include myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism. These disorders can usually be corrected by using eyeglasses, contact lenses or more recently, eye surgery like LASIK and PRK. Contact lenses are quite a recent development in optometry, too, having been first used in the 1940s.

Diseases, on the other hand, would include glaucoma and cataracts.

These can be treated with pills and in some cases, surgery. Optometry can be divided into different branches to best deal with such vision problems, and most known would be ophthalmology, which is the branch of eye care that deals primarily with eye surgery. Orthoptics, on the other hand, is a specialization of ophthalmology that deals with the strabismus. There is also a non-strabismus vision therapy called behavioural optometry being practiced in the recent years, but this area of the discipline is generally not practiced by ophthalmologists.

Optometrists are also sometimes called ‘glass fitters’ because some of the practitioners of this profession are primarily concerned with the making of eye glasses that would correct vision disorders among patients. Lately, laser treatments are also getting to be popular in treating vision disorders. This type of eye surgery would be practiced only by licensed ophthalmologists using laser machines that have been approved of by the medical associations involved. People who have undergone eye surgeries like LASIK and PRK are generally satisfied with the results of the operations. Successful surgeries would give the patient best corrected vision after a minimum time of recovery depending on the kind of surgery that has been done. Nowadays, patients who have undergone both LASIK and PRK would be able to see well enough to drive home after the operation itself.

The course requirements for the eventual practice of optometry differ from country to country. Some countries would require several years of related undergraduate courses before students of Optometry can take licensure exams that would allow them to practice eye care in said country. On the other hand, some countries require the student of Optometry to study as an apprentice to a practicing optometrist in order to have hands-on experience regarding the field before they can begin with their own practice. There are of course standardized educational guidelines that are maintained in some parts of the world that would ensure that the discipline and practice are upheld and do not differ drastically in different countries.

Study Oral Biology

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Study Oral Implantology

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Study Oral Medicine

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Oral medicine is a specialized field closely related to dentistry studies. It works to diagnose and treat oral disease and infections using pharmaceuticals. Many oral medicine studies focus on the ongoing treatment of chronic oral diseases, such as cancer. It is not related to the surgical aspect of dentistry, since its treatments revolve around medication.
The only places to study oral medicine are in a medical school or more specific school of dentistry, and it can often be a subset of a dentistry degree. To become a specialist in oral medicine, it is almost always necessary to achieve a bachelor’s degree in medicine first. Oral medicine programs are typically offered only at a graduate level in a master’s program. These courses also require a residency or internship at the conclusion of the course. Remember, this is a medical study, which means only higher education institutions will provide adequate training.
Skills, Qualifications, and Prerequisites for Studies in Oral Medicine
Almost all Oral medicine programs available for students exist in higher educational institutions at the master’s level. This means that candidates must first gain admission to an accredited college or university, usually by completing secondary school and passing an entrance exam or aptitude test. Students must then achieve a bachelor’s degree in a field related to oral medicine (this can be anything from a biology degree to dental hygiene, but it must be applicable to this eventual study).
Candidates for a course in oral medicine should be dedicated to the study. It can take as many as 8 years to achieve a full education in oral medicine, so students should be sure of their interest here – and at the least, in the general dentistry field. They should also have a high intelligence and aptitude for science and medicine, and pay close attention to detail (especially during diagnosis and prescription).
Communication and interpersonal skills are key for an oral medicine specialist. Not only do they work closely with clinical patients, but they also provide ongoing care to people with chronic disease. They should be able to establish a good rapport and ongoing relationship with patients.
Skills and Qualifications Acquired from Studies in Oral Medicine
Students will acquire a multitude of skills on their way to oral medicine studies, especially depending on their bachelor degree. Oral medicine itself will provide individuals with essential skills in the following areas:
  • Basic dental hygiene and care.
  • Stomatology and medical dentistry technology.
  • Anatomical development and structure of the mouth, teeth, gums, tongue and bones of the face.
  • Types of oral diseases and infections, both chronic and temporary.
  • Symptoms and diagnosis techniques of oral diseases and infections.
  • Types, uses, effects and doses of oral medications.
  • Research methods for pharmaceutical companies.
  • Fundamental aspects of patient care.
  • Human psychology (especially in sick patients).
Sometimes, this study will be paired with studies in maxillofacial education, which relates to the bones of the human face.
Careers for Studies in Oral Medicine
Many students of oral medicine move on to become oral medicine specialists, which negotiate the tricky region between general dentistry and medicinal treatment. They work in clinics, and private practices to provide oral care to patients or aid in medicinal research for oral pharmaceuticals and diseases. These careers can be obtained in government or private research facilities, clinics, private practices or pharmaceutical companies. Sometimes, these individuals return to school as professors in the medical field.

Study Oral Pathology

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The study of oral pathology is closely related, though not identical, to dentistry studies. The field requires much the same course of study as a dental professional. However, oral pathologists specialize much more in serious or chronic mouth diseases, as opposed to general dentistry. This includes the study of such oral diseases as cancer, infections, sores and other afflictions.
Since oral pathology is a specialized medical study, the only credible places to receive education are in universities, colleges and medical schools. A study in oral pathology may sometimes be offered as a companion course to a dentistry program, though this is not common. Otherwise, oral pathology is typically offered only in a graduate school program, due to its specialized content. This means an applicant must complete an undergraduate course in a related field (usually pathology or pre-med) before undergoing a study solely in oral pathology. A hospital internship or residency is also required before completion of this study.
Oral pathology may also be delivered as a degree in oral and maxillofacial pathology. Maxillofacial is slightly different from oral pathology, in that it refers specifically to the upper jaw region and other important bones (such as cheek bones) of the face. It is important to note that oral pathology often goes hand-in-hand with this study.
Skills, Qualifications, and Prerequisites for Studies in Oral Pathology
Due to the fact that nearly all oral pathology training programs will only be available through graduate education, students must complete a bachelor’s degree in a related field first. An oral pathologist can achieve a degree in any related medical field, so long as they can apply to an approved medical school or other graduate program. This usually means not only attaining the undergraduate degree, but also passing a pre-med exam.
Students should have a very high aptitude for the sciences, as this is the majority of their field of study. Dedication is key, as the study requires up to ten years of study. Students should be able to think critically and analyze a variety of elements in a decisive and scientific manner. Since oral pathologists will be working intimately with patients, great interpersonal and communication skills will give these applicants a huge advantage.
Skills and Qualifications Acquired from Studies in Oral Pathology
While oral pathology may include studies in dentistry and maxillofacial areas, a usual basic course in oral pathology will provide expertise in the following areas:
  • Basic human pathology (or disease diagnosis).
  • Surgical pathology and histopathology.
  • Biotechnology and biomedical tools related to oral medicine.
  • Human biological systems (cardiovascular, nervous, etc.).
  • Structure and functions of the human mouth, tongue, gums and teeth.
  • Types of oral diseases, infections and cancers.
  • Symptoms of oral disease and infections.
  • Methods of diagnosis for oral diseases and infections.
  • Methods of treatment for oral diseases and infections.
  • Relevant medicines/ prescriptions, along with their uses and doses for oral diseases.
Careers for Studies in Oral Pathology
Oral Pathology is a very specialized field, so typically graduates of these courses can expect to work as oral pathologists, either for hospitals, clinics, private practices or individually. They may also work as dentists depending on their related training. Sometimes, these graduates work in research and development, helping to identify, diagnose, classify and implement experimental procedures for oral diseases.

Study Oral Surgery

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Are you a student who is interested in the dental field, particularly the specialty of oral surgery?  Do you plan to pursue a career in oral surgery someday, and in need of more information regarding the type of education and training you’ll require for landing a position in this field?   If so, the following information may prove very useful.  Here we will outline the typical degree track for individuals interested in pursuing a career in oral surgery, including the course details, eligibility requirements and the subject matter you’ll need to master as a participant in the program.
Oral Surgery:  Degree Path, Course Details and Eligibility Requirements
The field of oral surgery, also known as oral and maxillofacial surgery, offers qualified graduates a wealth of rewarding and often very lucrative opportunities.  However, students who wish to acquire a position in this field must first navigate a very advanced and specialized program of education and training.  The first step in this process is applying and being accepted into an accredited dental school.  In addition to the application itself, you will typically need to provide academic transcripts, copies of test scores and no less than three letters of recommendation written by people (no friends or relatives) with personal knowledge of your academic abilities and achievements.  You will also need to sit for an interview with the program faculty and admissions officers, where you will likely be given a basic outline of the program and asked several questions pertaining to your specific knowledge and abilities.
Once you have been accepted to the dental school of your choice, you will typically undergo four to five years of rigorous study and training, ultimately leading to a Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS) or Doctor of Dental Medicine (DDM).  This will be followed by an additional 4-7 years of education and training, specializing in the field of oral surgery.  While a Doctor of Medicine degree is not required to perform oral surgery, many candidates will opt to earn this degree concurrently with their specialty degree in oral surgery, as this distinction is often very helpful when applying for fellowships and residencies.  The Commission on Dental Accreditation accredits college dental programs, including degree, residency and fellowship programs. Graduates can also seek board certification administered by the American Board of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.
Oral Surgery:  Course Content and Career Outlook
The course of study required to obtain Board Certification in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery is very thorough and comprehensive, covering topics such as trauma, anesthesia, pain control, intravenous sedation and pathology, along with practicing surgical procedures.  In obtaining this certification, students will learn to treat both functional and aesthetic issues related to the mouth, jaws, face and neck.  They’ll acquire information on how to diagnose and surgically treat injuries, defects and diseases which may negatively impact these areas, and gain skills in performing dental implants, extractions and surgeries for oral tumors, cancers and cysts.
According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), employment of oral and maxillofacial surgeons was expected to increase 15% from 2012-2018.   Back in May 2010, the BLS reported there were 5,330 oral and maxillofacial surgeons employed in the United States alone, earning a median annual salary of $214,120.

Study Organizational Psychology

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Study Orthodontics

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Study Orthopaedics

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Are you seeking a career in the exciting and highly-technical field of orthopedics?  Are you aware of the various academic and practical requirements you’ll need to satisfy to land a career position in this demanding field?  Orthopedists are specialized physicians who undergo years of training learning to diagnose and treat injuries and conditions of the musculoskeletal system, a system which includes joints, bones, ligaments and tendons.  This education and training ultimately leads to licensing and certification, qualifying these professionals to work with patients who have either acute conditions, caused by some sort of trauma, or chronic additions, such as arthritis and other joint disorders.  Below we will briefly describe the various phases of education you will need to pass through in order to pursue a career in Orthopedics, both at the undergraduate and post-graduate levels.

Degrees Leading to Careers in the Orthopedic Field

Orthopedists are medical doctors who are qualified to diagnose and treat patients with any number of musculoskeletal issues.  These treatments may include non-invasive approaches, such as medication, ice and heat, or invasive procedures, such as hip and knee replacement surgeries.  This is a highly specialized and difficult field, and because it is, prospective candidates must be carefully and methodically trained. 

The education and training in the orthopedic field begins with an undergraduate or Bachelor degree.  This “pre-medical” degree is typically pursued and completed from a four-year program at an accredited college or university, and is open to all students who possess a high school diploma or its equivalent and have a strong background in mathematics and science, generally earning A-level grades in these subjects at the high school or secondary-school level. There are many different science-intensive subjects that can be studied at the undergraduate level that will lead to admission into medical school, however for those planning to enter orthopedics, the most appropriate scientific degree is one that includes labs and lectures that relate to chemistry, biology and/or physiology.

Following the successful completion of the four-year undergraduate degree, the next step for those pursuing orthopedist studies is an advanced degree from an accredited medical school.  A medical school degree typically spans four to five years, during which students can pursue one of two options: a Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) degree or Doctor of Osteopathy (D.O.) degree. A Doctor of Medicine or M.D. is trained to diagnose and treat medical problems and conditions, while a Doctor of Osteopathy or D.O. is trained much like an M.D., but also receives training in musculoskeletal manipulation.  This degree, which focuses on the muscles and bones as well as holistic and natural healing, is typically the preferred degree for those planning to become orthopedic surgeons.

Once medical school is completed, qualified graduates will typically need to spend four to five years in a residency program to become an orthopedist, the first year of which is referred to as an internship.  These residency programs can be performed at hospitals and medical centers throughout the country, during which participants receive supervision and feedback from senior physicians on the hospital staff, making rounds and gaining experience while administering and observing one-on-one patient care.

The final step in becoming a licensed orthopedist is a fellowship program, one that offers specialized training in the field of orthopedics.  During this time, students will gain experience treating a wide range of patient issues, including those needing surgical intervention.  After completing the fellowship, graduates are permitted to apply for licensing from the American Board of Orthopedic Surgery—a certification indicating that the orthopedist has fulfilled all of the requirements necessary and is competent to practice orthopedic medicine.

Study Otolaryngology (ENT)

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Are you considering pursuing an advanced career in the medical field, perhaps as a physician with a specialty in Otolaryngology?  Have you researched the various education and training requirements for this type of position, including the undergraduate and post-graduate degrees you’ll need to earn?  Otolaryngology is a very popular sub-discipline among students pursuing a medical degree.  However, because the field is so very specialized, potential practitioners will first need to undergo a considerable amount of schooling and training before earning their license to practice.  To help you become more familiar with these degree and training programs, below we will provide a brief definition of Otolaryngology, followed by an outline highlighting the usual course of study you will encounter as you pursue this very lofty and important title.
What Is Otolaryngology?
Otolaryngology is a medical specialty in which practitioners (called Otolaryngologists) diagnose, treat and help prevent disorders and illnesses of the ear, nose and throat, as well as the head and neck.  Practitioners in this specialty are also referred to as otorhinolaryngogolists (ORL), but the most commonly used term, especially among those who are not in the medical field, is Ear, Nose and Throat Doctors, or ENTs.
ENTs deal with every possible ailment or disorder in the ear, nose and throat region, ranging from tonsillitis and sinus infections to deviated septums and sleep apnea. They can even diagnose and treat tumors and cysts in the head and neck region, and are qualified to perform surgery when the situation warrants it.
Degrees and Training Leading to a Career in Otolaryngology
The first step towards a career in Otolaryngology is the undergraduate pre-medical degree.  These Bachelor of Science degree programs are offered by almost every major college and university and are generally open to all students possessing a high school diploma or its equivalent.  It is recommended, however, that the applicant have a strong background in subject areas such as science, technology and mathematics, as well as above average reading, writing and communication skills.  Many institutions will require an entrance examination prior to admission that tests for basic proficiency in these areas.
Pre-medical Bachelor of Science degrees are offered in a number of different disciplines, all of which are very science-intensive, and require students to demonstrate excellence in both the classroom and in the laboratory.  Some of these fields include biology, chemistry, biochemistry, anatomy and physiology, physics and biophysics.
Once a candidate successfully graduates with an undergraduate degree in a related field, he or she is eligible to apply for medical school.  Medical schools offer highly-sophisticated degrees for those pursuing an advanced career in one or more sub-specialties in the medical field.  Here they will acquire the general knowledge and training required of all medical doctors (MDs), as well as specific training in a discipline of their choice, or in this case Otolaryngology.

Upon completion of medical school, Otolaryngologists must begin a five year Otolaryngology residency approved by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). Training is supervised by a resident physician and focuses on the diagnoses and treatment of ear, nose, throat, head, and neck disorders. Otolaryngologists may also choose to obtain a fellowship in a sub-specialty following their five year residency. Specialties include head and neck cancer surgery, facial plastic/reconstructive surgery, surgery of the inner and middle ear, allergy, sinus surgery, sleep apnea surgery, and other surgeries related to the head.

Once all of these steps have been taken, successful students are granted a license to practice medicine and become certificated members of the medical community.

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Study Paramedicine

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Paramedicine is an extremely dynamic health profession, which encompasses a broad range of areas and skills – good knowledge of patient care, human anatomy and pathophysiology, pharmacology, crisis intervention, and communications. Paramedics are the ones who have to perform life-saving tasks quickly and precisely during an emergency situation, administer drugs, and transfer critically ill patients to the nearest hospital or clinic.

Paramedics usually support a larger emergency response and health care team, and their tasks may include the following: drive an ambulance to a site where an emergency situation has occurred; assess the patient’s condition and provide the appropriate treatment on the way to the hospital; this may include administering of various drugs, replacing fluids, and inserting tubes into veins; paramedics should also be prepared to lift patients or know how to safely move paralyzed patients. Finally, paramedicine also involves attending large sports or other events where accidents are likely to occur, or providing routine transport to patients, who require specialized treatment like chemotherapy for example.

Personal Qualities

In order to work as a paramedic you need to be extremely good at working under pressure and facing difficult or sometimes shocking life situations. Here are more qualities to consider:

  • Ability to act quickly while maintaining a clear and calm state of mind

  • Excellent level of health and fitness

  • Excellent analytical and problem solving skills

  • Good at making decisions fast

  • Excellent communication and interpersonal skills

  • Caring, tolerant, and non-judgmental nature

  • Good at following instructions and guidelines

  • Able to work both alone and as a part of a team

Study options

To become a paramedic, you definitely need some form of post-secondary education. Do not forget that your physical condition is extremely important, too. Depending on the location you wish to practice this profession, you could either do a full four-year undergraduate degree in Health Science and Paramedicine (or a related one), or undergo a two-year course in paramedics. In any case, you should look for an accredited institution, which is also going to provide plenty of work placement opportunities – gaining some experience early in your paramedics education is crucial. In this way you will be able to ensure that this is the right choice for you – as mentioned earlier, the profession is very demanding, on all physical, mental, and emotional levels.

It is worth mentioning that in certain regions of the world (and especially the United States and Canada), some form of a license is required in order to practice this profession, too. To gain a license you need to cover a number of requirements (usually one of which is to have graduated from an accredited college or university) as well as pass some complementary exams.

Career Options

Your career choices as a paramedic are basically narrowed down to hospitals, clinics, ambulance companies, the police, and fire departments. Still, there are some specializations you can research – you could be an ambulance paramedic, a nurse paramedic, a fireman paramedic, or a law enforcement officer paramedic. In any case you would be providing emergency services in various settings, and sometimes there are politicians or business people, who also require the presence of a paramedic. This could happen if they have a medical condition that may require emergency care when they are away from their primary care physicians.

Study Parapsychology

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Study Parasitology

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Parasitology is the study of parasites, which are disease causing organisms that live on other organisms. Parasites like bacteria and viruses cause various illnesses in humans, animals, as well as plants. All countries in the world spend huge amounts of money, manpower and efforts to control diseases and epidemics caused by parasites- such as malaria, AIDS, and the more recent- bird flu. It is owing to the dedicated efforts of Parasitologists that diseases like small pox and tuberculoses are now under control.
Students enrolled at Parasitology courses would get the scientific qualifications to study and research on such illnesses and contribute in discovering new ways to curb them. Students would study different types of parasites and the diseases associated with them through subjects such as:
  • Parasite Systematics: This subject focuses on the various parasite groups and their systematic labeling
  • Parasitic Zoonoses: This subject deals with the various human and animal diseases that are caused by parasites
  • Parasitological Methods: This subject teaches students the different methods to limit parasites and fight diseases
Students would be expected to specialize within a specific branch of Parasitology through elective courses. These branches include study of tropical parasites, food parasites, agricultural parasites or those that affect the livestock. The courses include class room study and discussions along with project and lab work.
Courses to Study Parasitology
The study of Parasitology is usually offered as Masters Degree courses in various universities around the world. However, where a student chooses to study would affect the diseases and parasites that are prominent in that part of the globe.  Admission into a Master’s degree in Parasitology would require the applicant to hold a Bachelor’s degree in a Biological discipline. The applicants would also need to meet any specific requirements, such as an admission test or research proposal, that the particular university may have.
Students who undertake a study in Parasitology would be equipped to work as a part of a research team with some independence. They will also be trained in identifying key questions, planning experiments, acquiring new techniques and interpreting results.
Career Opportunities
Parasitologists have various career options available to them owing to the massive effects of parasites on the world every day. Parasitologists are hired as researchers by various government and private agencies that study diseases and develop cures. Depending on the area of specialization, Parasitologists are engaged in varied studies and focus areas. For instance, a Veterinary Parasitologist would be engaged in the treatment and control of diseases affecting domestic animals. Medical Parasitologists can participate in various significant researches about the parasites causing human diseases. Latest developments have given a huge boost to job opportunities for immune-parasitologists, who create vaccines against parasites. Humans, as well as, animals are benefited by such vaccines. A career in the field of Parasitology enables the aspirant to contribute to the betterment of all living beings

Study Pathological and Citological Anatomy

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Are you interested in pursuing a career in either pathological or citological (also spelled cytological) anatomy—a position that deals with the diagnosis of diseases at the tissue and cellular level?  Have you considered pursuing a graduate degree in Pathological and Citological Anatomy, a degree now offered by many colleges and universities throughout the world?  The Master of Science degree in Pathological and Citological Anatomy is a cutting edge program that is ideal for anyone interested in the medical sciences.  To illustrate this, below we have provided a brief description of this discipline, along with the types of duties that graduates will be trained to perform upon completion of the program.
Master of Science Degree in Pathological and Citological Anatomy
The Master of Science Degree in Pathological and Citological Anatomy is a graduate level program that typically spans two to three years depending on the institution.  To be eligible for admission into this program, students must possess at least an undergraduate degree in the same or related field, such as biology, chemistry, forensic science or biochemistry.  Some institutions may also require a passing score on an entrance examination, references from past instructors and/or an interview with the faculty prior to admission.  In the United States, for example, students in some cases will be required to take the Graduate Record Examination, or GRE exam, and earn a combined score of 1000 or better.
The M.S. in Pathological and Citological Anatomy is usually divided into two distinct areas of study, each of which is given equal weight:  Anatomical Pathology and Anatomical Cytology, which is also called Cytopathology.
Anatomical Pathology is a branch of pathology that deals with the tissue diagnosis of disease.  To accomplish this, students will need a comprehensive knowledge and understanding of the pathological and clinical aspects of diseases.
The tissue on which students will learn to make a diagnosis may be biopsy material taken from a patient during an in-patient or out-patient procedure or operation, or from an autopsy, in which the tissue is examined post-mortem.  The latter is only a small, yet important component of what these professionals do, helping to establish the cause of a sudden or unexpected death, the progression of a particular disease, including the response or lack of response to treatment, or in criminal cases, helping police in solving their investigations.  On living patients, tissue diagnosis is extremely important in the detection and treatment of a wide variety of diseases and illnesses, particularly cancer, helping doctors decide the best course of treatment (radiation, chemotherapy, surgery, etc.) based on the progression of the disease.
Cytopathology is also an important component of the M.S. degree program in Pathological and Citological Anatomy, a branch of pathology that teaches students how to diagnose diseases on the cellular level.  One of the most common applications of this discipline is the well-known Pap smear, a diagnostic tool used in the detection of precancerous lesions and the prevention of cervical cancer.  It is likewise used in the investigation of thyroid lesions and diseases involving sterile body cavities, as well as many other body sites.
By earning a Master of Science degree in Pathological and Citological Anatomy students will become eligible to pursue any number of professional laboratory positions, working to help doctors and surgeons in the detection and prevention of a wide range of diseases—analysis techniques that will allow medical professionals to determine the most appropriate treatment strategy based on the finding

Study Pathology

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Are you considering a career working in the rewarding and challenging field of pathology, a field in which you’ll have the opportunity to explore the causes, consequences and potential preventative measures for certain diseases and illnesses?  Are you aware of the various education requirements and degree options for those looking to find to work in this always-fascinating and ever-growing discipline?  If not, the information provided below may prove quite useful.  Here we will provide a brief definition of pathology and what it involves, along with some of the degree path options that may qualify you for a pathology career.
About Pathology
Pathology is a captivating and intriguing field of medicine, and while it’s certainly an ideal career path for those who enjoy the challenge of educated problem-solving, it’s not necessarily for the faint at heart.  Pathologists are specialists who work with both the living and the deceased (the latter through autopsies), and are concerned with the origins, pathogenesis, and anatomical and practical consequences of disease, along with the prevention of disease and the direct and indirect effects of treatment. Pathology can involve diagnosis, treatment, observation, and understanding of the prognosis of diseases or medical condition in humans by means of morphologic, microscopic, chemical, microbiologic, or any other type of laboratory examination made on the patient or on any material obtained from the human body.  In other words, these are the specialists the medical community turns to when the immediate cause of a patient’s symptoms is unknown.
Pathology Degree
Pathologists are medical doctors, and as such, they must go through the same type of education and training as any other type of doctor or physician, albeit with a sub-specialty in the field of pathology.  This course of study and training begins with the pursuit of a four to five year undergraduate degree, in which students will specialize in some type of pre-medical scientific discipline (biology, anatomy, physiology, microbiology, etc).  This is followed by an additional four years of medical school en route to earning an advanced medical degree with an emphasis in pathology.  From there, promising doctors must complete a four to five-year residency in a hospital or other type of medical facility, working in a lab and with patients under the supervision of a senior pathologist.  It’s an extremely lengthy process, but one that is absolutely necessary to ensure that only the most qualified candidates ascend to these very important positions.
There are, however, other classes of pathology degrees designed for those who want to assist pathologists in a laboratory setting, including the Master’s of Science degree in Laboratory Science and the Master’s of Science degree in Pathologists’ Assistant.  Both of these programs, which are now offered by many colleges and universities throughout the world, span two to three years in duration, during which students will acquire the knowledge and research skills necessary to work in medical and other scientific laboratories, assisting pathologists with tasks that may include sample collection and analysis, data entry and management and other duties required by the pathologist in charge.  To qualify for these programs students must possess a Bachelor of Science degree in a science-related field and have above average research, technical and communication skills.  Graduates have the opportunity to seek immediate employment upon conclusion of the program, or use their M.S. degree as a stepping stone towards a PhD or Medical degree in pathology at some point in the future.

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Study Pediatrics

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Pediatrics is a field of medical study relating to the health of children, and like many medical professions, remains in high demand. Pediatric courses specifically teach students about the development, psychology and health of children, as well as disease treatment, surgical techniques and relevant pharmaceuticals.
To become a pediatrician, you must earn a pediatric license – a medical license that can only be obtained by attending a college or university at a medical school program. This means candidates must first complete an undergraduate course of study to obtain a bachelor’s degree. Pediatric studies usually allow for a broader range of possible undergraduate majors, but students must still fulfill all pre-med requirements. Candidates must then attend a medical school, usually after passing a standardized medical test. They will not be fully registered pediatricians until they have earned a master or doctorate degree and fulfilled a residency/internship requirement. Some universities offer online pediatric courses with residency requirements, but these may often ask for some form of medical degree before admission.
For pediatric nurses or assistants, work can begin after completing a four-year bachelor’s program, though it is advised to pursue graduate studies in a nursing school – regardless of whether or not the program offers pediatrics specifically. Pediatric nurses and assistants can also be trained using one to two year programs based in work settings.
Skills, Qualifications and Prerequisites for Studies in Pediatrics
Pediatric professionals are required to attend college, so applicants must adhere to certain admission requirements – usually a secondary school completion certificate or entrance exam. Graduates must also pass a pre-medical exam before entering a master’s or doctorate degree program. It is also important to note that a criminal background check is often administered during education or before employment in this field.
Since pediatrics revolves around childcare, a love and preference for working with children is extremely important. This characteristic needs to go hand-in-hand with professional interpersonal skills, as much of pediatric works involves communication between parents, children and other medical professionals. An innate desire to help people also resides in the most successful pediatric professionals. A quick-thinking, problem-solving mind is also highly preferred in this field, along with increased intelligence capable of retaining a large amount of medical information.
Qualifications and Skills Acquired from Studies in Pediatrics
Students may pursue further pediatric specialties in dentistry, neurology, cardiology, oncology, physical therapy and other specific medical fields depending on their desired job title. Otherwise, a study in pediatrics will usually address the following basic topics:
  • Medical and disease terminology and diagnoses.
  • Knowledge of human anatomy and bodily systems.
  • Medicine and pharmaceuticals.
  • Emergency childcare types and techniques (trauma, etc.).
  • Child growth and development.
  • Child psychology and psychosociology.
  • Treatment of childhood disease.
  • Methods of effective patient interaction.
  • Medical and lab documentation.
  • Laws, ethical policies and regulations.
  • Genetics.
Students who study pediatrics have several job opportunities in the medical field. They can become fully licensed pediatricians for hospitals, medical facilities, clinics, private practices, non-profit organizations and overseas relief work. These studies can also lead to a career as a pediatric nurse, nurse practitioner, physical therapist, dentist or assistant. These jobs will have much the same employment base as pediatricians.

Study Periodontics

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Study Periodontology

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The branch of dentistry which focuses in supporting teeth structure and conditions and diseases which affects the teeth is known as Periodontology or Periodontics. Periodontiom is the supporting tissues of the teeth which also include the alveolar bone, cementum, periodontal ligament and the gums; the word Periodontology comes from the Greek work peri which means around and odons which means tooth, if taken literally, the study means around the tooth.

Professionals of this field are known as periodontists. Their main focus circles the management of various periodontal diseases. The periodontists can also work as researches, aiming for the improvement of general understanding on different periodontal diseases in the community and to develop new treatments, as a practicing periodontists, they can also deliver patient interventions. To become periodontists, students are required to attend the dental school, then a periodontology residency followed by a minimum of 11 years of training.

Congenital malformations and periodontal diseases can lead to teeth loss as well as to the grave patient discomfort, in addition periodontal diseases has been linked to cardiovascular diseases, their connection is fuming a major concern in several communities wherein people have neglected their teeth due to their incapability to pay for dental care and their fear of visiting the dentist.

The big focus of Periodontology is prevention. By means of showing people how to take care of their teeth and how to avoid being inflicted with periodontal diseases, the specialists also hope avoid any complications. If a certain disease is difficult to prevent then early diagnosis and accurate treatment is the next approach in dealing with the periodontal diseases. Various ways of interventions may be nonsurgical or surgical techniques, these are available both for the management and treatment of the periodontal diseases such includes dental implants, scaling to remove plaque as well as plaque removal and regular tooth cleaning. If the concern is on abnormalities of the patients, surgery and other orthodontic devices are available as treatment options.

It is indeed a fact that periodontists are vital members in the world of oral healthcare, and their occupation is very valuable. Having to work with dentists, they can help out in treating and preventing most of the worst case diseases which can happen in the oral cavity. It is very significant that people will make sure that they sustain good oral hygiene in order for them to avoid in seeking out the aid of periodontists.

Periodontists generally have acquired their dental degree and then later go on to achieve and finish their Periodontology degrees. Such is taken with a further addition of schooling which can take three to four years. It is remarkable to note down that periodontists do not have typical medical degrees, except of course that the periodontist is also a certified oral surgeon. This is distinctive, on the other hand, of most dentists who do not have medical degrees. This field is a very important one in world of dentistry and it also helps out in preventing the damage to oral cavities thus lessening the chances of surgeries. Periodontists will carry on playing an ever more imperative role in the area of dentistry.

Study Pharmaceutical Quality

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Study Pharmaceutical Technology

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Those pursuing education in pharmaceutical technology will learn the basics of pharmaceutical testing and development. The course covers how pharmaceuticals are manufactured, processed and dosed in accordance with safety laws and regulations. It also covers technological equipment and engineering practices in developing pharmaceuticals.
Universities, colleges and technical institutions (including institutions designed mainly for pharmaceutical studies) will offer courses in pharmaceutical technology, though not commonly at a bachelor’s or lower level. Often, candidates will earn a related bachelor degree (such as chemical engineering) and pursue pharmaceutical technology as a master’s program.
It is possible to be trained in pharmaceutical technology through an online program, though these are sometimes offered only to already-employed personnel. There are also a few opportunities to enter a pharmaceutical study program provided by a pharmaceuticals corporation, possibly in conjunction with a partner industry.
Skills, Qualifications, and Prerequisites for Studies in Pharmaceutical Technology
Universities, colleges and technical institutions will require applicants to a pharmaceutical studies program, to hold at least a secondary school completion certificate, and pass a standardized aptitude or admission test. Since many pharmaceutical study programs are offered at a master’s level, a candidate must often obtain a bachelor’s degree before pursing this course.
Online programs vary in their prerequisites. If the program is for current employees or graduates, then a degree is required for admission. Other programs may not have any admissions requirements, though that nature of the work may require a background or criminal history check.
An aptitude for math and science is highly preferred in this field, due to the work’s technical nature and knowledge requirements. Candidates must be adept at using a range of technology and able to pay extremely close attention to detail especially regarding doses, chemicals and compounds. High ethical conduct is essential, in order to avoid the production or illegal use of dangerous drugs, especially those still in development. There are certain ethical standards individuals should easily adhere to, and any background in drug abuse or criminal activity will damage your ability to study and work in this area.
Skills and Qualifications Acquired from Studies in Pharmaceutical Technology
Many courses offered in pharmaceutical studies are in graduate programs, so most candidates will already possess a high level of chemical, medical, engineering, biological, technological and anatomical knowledge. A basic course in pharmaceutical studies alone, however, will usually provide skills and understanding in the following areas:
  • Chemistry and advanced mathematics.
  • Laws and regulations regarding the pharmaceutical production industry.
  • Laws and regulations regarding medical practices.
  • Biotechnology and nanotechnology.
  • Drug and material types, uses and properties.
  • Formulation of various pharmaceuticals.
  • Pharmaceutics on the molecular level.
  • Fluid and solid processing, separation and blending.
  • Pharmaceutical machinery operation and development.
Careers for Studies in Pharmaceutical Technology
Students that successfully complete a study in pharmaceutical technologies will most often work in a related medical field. Drug research labs, both private and government-owned, are often ideal places of work for these graduates. Some graduates may also pursue careers as quality assurance workers or supervisors in pharmaceutical development. They can also find employment in material industries such as petroleum-producing companies. They may design technological equipment, maintain laboratory equipment, implement safety measures, market new technology or act as research consultants. Few graduates may become teachers, or go on to pursue a doctorate in pharmacy.

Study Pharmacology

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Pharmacology is a diverse and extremely active field of research that deals with medicinal substances and their effects on the bodies of living organisms. In its most typical form, it involves researching and testing potential new drugs – determining whether they are effective, what side-effects they may have, and the specific manner in which they operate within the body. There are a huge range of sub-fields within pharmacology including neuropharmacology (drugs that affect the brain), pharmacoepidemiology (the effects of drugs on large populations), toxicology (poisons and harmful substances), and many others.
Personal Qualities
  • A genuine interest in the body and its natural functions
  • Desire to help others by developing effective medications
  • Strong background in chemistry and/or biology
Study Options

Because of the massive variety of fields that exist under the heading of “pharmacology,” and because of its popularity among students, there are all sorts of options for studying this field. Although any course of study in pharmacology will most likely include some graduate school, schools in some countries offer an undergraduate degree – the Bachelor of Pharmacology -  that enable students to specialize in pharmacology early on. In other cases, a student may complete a Bachelor of Science degree with a major in chemistry or medical science, then begin studying pharmacology in graduate school. Before going into the field (especially before choosing a graduate program), it is important to pick a sub-field. Pharmacology is a complex field, and it is helpful to specialize as early as possible in a specific area rather than focusing too broadly.
Career Options

When considering a career in pharmacology, it is important to understand the difference between a pharmacist and a pharmacologist. Although there is considerable overlap, these fields are in fact distinct. In the simplest terms, a pharmacist usually works at the “patient end,” dispensing medications and discussing their use with patients; a pharmacologist, on the other hand, is usually a researcher rather than a provider. Pharmacologists are more likely to be found in laboratories, universities, and hospitals, rather than clinics and pharmacies. That said, it is also true that the boundaries are somewhat permeable, and the line between a pharmacist and a pharmacologist is not always rigid.
A degree in pharmacology can also lead to interesting careers in research administration and government. Some people with a background in pharmacology, for example, take jobs with government regulatory bodies that set policy for pharmacological research; their knowledge of the field helps them understand what regulations will be necessary and effective, but they do not actually spend their days doing research. This is a good backup option for people who complete degrees in pharmacology and then decide that they would rather not do research on a day-to-day basis.

Study Pharmacy Technician

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Study Physical Therapy

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It has been discovered that most of the physical treatments employed in modern physical therapy, as exercise and massage, were already used by early civilizations. Shortly after the field was formally established in the 19th century, Physical Therapy was found useful especially during and after the World War II.

The physical therapist is tasked to apply the scientific background gained from their years of study into procedures used to treat patients with certain disabilities (or on a more politically correct note, different abilities), ailments, or injury. These treatments are meant to help patients recover faster while ensuring, with the support of a professional, that patients still retrieve “functionality” in the correct manner. Physical therapists guarantee that the treatments they administer will accelerate the rehabilitation period for the patient, but make a mental note to lessen the remaining physical discomforts. Therapists also teach patients, as well as their families, to administer exercises for continuous and long-term patient care even outside the hospital.

Physical Therapy is commonly used interchangeably with Occupational Therapy, but the latter involves activities specifically designed techniques not only for physical health but also for mental, and for emotional. Some parts of the program are meant to aid the patient in maximizing the development and restoration of nervous and muscular coordination, and strengthening muscles within the limits of the patient's physical tolerance.

Regardless of whether the disability roots from physical handicap or mental illness, psychological rehabilitation of the patient is important. This is why students of the Physical Therapy program are also trained to focus on the use of planned, goal-oriented activities to provide successes, quantified in grades, to the patient. Such activities will be helpful in overcoming lack of self-confidence, low self-esteem, difficulty coping with stress, and in some cases, even depression.

Originally, the program was only regarded as a “past-time” for patients, owing to their extended period of stay to recuperate in the hospital. But now, it has become time for a specialized remedy program meant to shorten the patient’s period of recovery, among other functions.

Students of the Physical Therapy programs take courses in the basic sciences: those of the physical - including physics, chemistry, and mathematics; the health - counting human anatomy, physiology, kinesiology, psychology, and pathology. During the latter part of the course, the subjects are mostly under the clinical sciences, such as the principles and practice of physical therapy, clinical medicine, and surgery. Moreover, the program integrates subjects of the clinical arts, which include administration of therapeutic procedures to patients.

The physical therapist's work is based on the physician's statement of the patient's diagnosis, the objectives of the program, and the patient’s prospects, personality, as well as physical and emotional limitations. Some diagnostic tests performed by the physical therapist are manual muscle, perceptual, and sensory testing, measurement of joint range of motion, and electrical testing.

Physical Therapy also includes fundamental methods of massage, bandaging, strapping, and proper use and removal of splints and casts. The work of the physical therapist actually does not stop in the hospital unit. They are also tasked to instruct patients and their relatives in the use of prosthetic devices, such as artificial limbs, bracing devices, and techniques of exercise.

Graduates of the Physical Therapy program are commonly employed in rehabilitation centers, hospitals, special education schools, in homes for the elderly, and public health agencies. Some graduates of the program opt to be occupied in other relevant areas such as consultation, education, and research.

Job positions for Physical Therapy:

Recreational Counselor

With your knowledge regarding the wide branches of kinesiology, you will be able to find a good job in no time. One of them is being a Recreational Counselor. There is great competition when it comes to applying for this job but if you are comfortable with the idea of working around ill persons along with your great education, you will be hired immediately.

A Recreational Counselor is also known as a Therapeutic Recreation Specialist. You should be able to provide some treatment services as well as recreational activities for those who are suffering from illnesses or disabilities. You can utilize the techniques that you have learned from kinesiology such as sports, games, crafts, dance, music and a lot of movements. As a counselor, you should be able to maintain a good relationship between your clients and yourself as well as a physical and mental well-being for them. This is because you should be able to reduce their stress levels, depression and anxiety. Additionally, you should give them the chance to boost up their own confidence so that they can socialize with other people effectively.

A Recreational Counselor can work in health care clinics, hospitals and centers for rehabilitation. They are responsible for treating and helping the patients recover from their physical disorders. Most of the time, they work with psychologists, nurses, social workers, occupational and physical therapists. They are different from the recreation workers who organize various types of activities for the sole purpose of enjoyment. They provide such activities for patients so that they can be healthier and more prepared so that their condition will improve for the better. It is their goal to maintain the general health of their clients so that they will no longer suffer from further medical illnesses and permanent complications in the future.

You will have to keep track of your patient’s development using the information that you have obtained based on your observations, assessments, medical records as well as those from the other members of the staff, the family and the clients themselves. Your therapeutic interventions should be consistent with the needs and the concerns of your patients. You should be able to persuade your clients even those who have been isolated from other people to play with the others so that they will be able to alleviate their stress.

A Recreational Counselor can either be a private or community based counselor. The latter refers to someone who is able to work in parks and other departments or programs in schools. You should influence your patient into developing some specific skills so that they will be able to put aside their worries and soon enough, their health problems will be gone from them. Generally, you will be working forty hours every week and there are times when you will have to work during weekends, holidays and even on evenings. Be prepared to face clients who get irritated at once so make sure that you are indeed forbearing and tough for the job.

Study Physical-Chemical Methods of Analysis

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A study in this field targets two specific areas of expertise;
  • Firstly, the processes involved in analyzing compounds, materials and objects for their unique qualities and characteristics.
  • These chemical methods of analysis aim to completely define all properties of a substance (from light reflection to radioactivity) and determine how much of a known substance may exist in a mixture. Physical methods of analysis aim to analyze physical properties of substances, such as structure, shape, size and density. The methods often go hand-in-hand when researching new substances or defining current ones.
This study is heavily based in advanced scientific fields, so it is unlikely to find a thorough course of this study anywhere aside from an accredited university, college or technical school. Science institutes, or even institutes of chemistry, are the most ideal places to pursue this study.
It is extremely unlikely to find a study major that is specifically engineered for physical-chemical methods of analysis. Far more likely, students will need to study advanced physics and chemistry, perhaps as a double major. A generic chemistry major will usually cover most, though not all, types of analytical processes falling under this study.
Skills, Qualifications, and Prerequisites for Studies in Physical-Chemical Methods of Analysis
The study of physical-chemical analytical methods can only be fully pursued at higher education institutions, so applicants must meet the admission requirements to these schools. This usually involves at least a secondary school completion certification, as well as a passing score on a standard local, national, or institutional aptitude test.
Possible future analysts in this field should already possess a high intelligence and passion for scientific studies. Patience and dedication is required, due to the long, sometimes repetitive nature of testing and evaluating. Candidates should have the ability to work well on a research team, effective communicate skills and the ability to record data promptly, clearly and correctly.
Extreme attention to detail is essential, not only for the scientific work itself (which usually involves in-depth, detailed examinations) but in areas of personal safety. Hazardous substances are sometimes analyzed, so great care must be taken to be careful, cautious and safe.
Skills and Qualifications Acquired from Studies in Physical-Chemical Methods of Analysis
Physical and chemical methods of analysis will typically instruct students on how to perform these skills and identify the following chemical and physical features:
  • Volume, solubility and structure of materials.
  • Physical properties of matter (size, shape, etc.)
  • Process of taking and preparing samples.
  • Preparation and use of laboratory analysis equipment.
  • Chemical properties, characteristics and composition of materials.
  • Determination of chemical content (PH level, etc.).
  • Determination of chemical level in mixtures.
  • Equipment use and safety measures in chemical tests.
  • Use of spectrophotometers and other visual analytical methods.
  • Use of electrical analytic methods (polarography, etc.).
  • Use of infrared, X-ray and thermal technology.
Students will have to study advanced physics and chemistry, along with areas like biophysics and thermodynamics.
Careers for Studies in Physical-Chemical Methods of Analysis
Physical-chemical analysts are used in a wide variety of employment areas. Private manufacturing companies, international corporations and government agencies employ these analysts in the development and testing of future products (ranging from hardware to food to oil). Graduates can work in environmental concerns, testing materials for impurities; assessing damage; developing environment-friendly products, or measuring the impact of multiple factors on the environment.
Research labs in pharmaceutics, agriculture, transportation and even military technology all employ physical-chemical analysts. These analytical studies may also be paired with other courses to prepare students for careers as doctors or forensic scientists.

Study Physiotherapy

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Physical Therapy or otherwise known as Physiotherapy is a health care profession which aims to promote, preserve and return mobility and body function by means of exercise techniques, modalities and proper assessment techniques to aid the main impairments of the patients. Physical therapy is propagated by means of a treatment plan that is usually derived from special testing and diagnosis of an individual. Therapy involves all aspects of rehabilitation including psychological, social and emotional well- being therefore all necessary measures are included in one treatment plan to obtain optimum gains for the patient.

Physical therapy had its beginnings from as early as 460 B.C. when Hector and Hippocrates used hydrotherapy (water therapy) and massage to aid their patients. During World War I the first physical therapists were referred to as reconstruction aides, whose primary duty is to aid in the rehabilitation of the wounded and immobilized in the army rehabilitation camps and hospitals. Most of them were women, who were involved in physical education and underwent lessons in practical nursing, massage and muscle rehabilitation under physicians. In 1921, the American Women’s Therapeutic Association was founded by Mary McMillan, who is one of the pioneers in physical therapy and the founding president of the American physical Therapy Association. Through the years many councils of Physical therapist’s aimed to develop a program that would rear and educate rehabilitation aides into professional therapists and at present Physical therapists are known to provide excellent health care even without the referral of physicians, due to the fact that they have a deep understanding with regards to patient evaluation and physical treatment.

Special areas of practice in physical therapy include cardiopulmonary rehabilitation, which deals with the treatment of patients who have or are recovering from cardiovascular conditions or pulmonary conditions. Treatment in this field aims to increase the body’s performance and endurance to raise the patient’s health status. Orthopedic physical therapy is an area of practice that deals with the assessment, treatment and progress of patients who are suffering from musculoskeletal conditions. These include proper knowledge on special rehabilitation techniques to hasten recovery and restore function. Neurological therapy aims to improve, if not fully restore body functions of patient’s who have suffered from mild to severe stages of neurological conditions such as stroke, Parkinson’s disease, spinal cord injuries ,etc. Extensive knowledge on brain and nerve functions is needed to be able to locate areas of disability and paralysis and address them. Pediatric and Geriatric physical rehabilitation is an area of great importance since it is accompanied by all kinds of disorders and conditions accompanying a person’s age. In pediatrics, the special conditions (e.g. Cerebral Palsy) of children are addressed and focus is also placed on their level of cognition and adaptation to treatment and goal settings. For geriatric patients, conditions brought about by age and others not involving their primary disease are addressed in treatment. These may include psychological levels, emotional state and social behaviour. An understanding in the differences brought about by age is needed to properly determine what plan of approach will best suit each individual patient.

Physiotherapy is a branch of medicine that specializes with the rehabilitation of patient to reach their near-normal or normal functional capacity. It is an old branch of medicine which existed even at the time of the Ancient Greek. Before, it only involves simple massages and hydrotherapy, which is the use of water for treatment.

In the 1920s, the evolution of the profession began. The physiotherapist was then referred to as a trained assistant and was allowed to work in agencies that catered to muscle training, electrotherapy, therapeutic massages, hydrotherapy and they could only practice under the prescription of a licensed physician.

The profession has evolved since then. Physiotherapy is now part of the rehabilitation team which uses holistic approach to aid the patient in full recovery. The role of the physiotherapist changed dramatically through the years. They are allowed by law to evaluate, perform treatment, and do preventive care requiring the expertise in the field of physiotherapy. Technology has also made a tremendous contribution in the evolution of this profession. Nowadays, aside from the manual skills and techniques, physiotherapist also utilizes machines like ultrasound machine, traction machines, transcutaneous electrical stimulators and the like. Hydrotherapy also improved a lot. It now employs the use of whirpool baths for burn patients and swimming for exercises especially for patients with paralysis.

Physiotherapy as we know it today uses combination of many techniques. It usually depends on the case that the patient has. Physiotherapist uses manual manipulation techniques, superficial and deep massages, cold therapy, heat therapy, electrotherapy, different type of exercises. They also teach patients how to use assistive devices like cane, walker, and wheelchair if necessary. Use of prosthesis and orthosis are also in their line of work.

A physiotherapist can now work in a hospital setting, specifically in the Rehabilitation Department. Others chose to specialize in one area like Sports Rehabilitation and Medicine. There are careers also in caring for the elderly and children with special needs like the ones afflicted with cerebral palsy.

Usual cases that a physiotherapist handle can differ from time to time. Stroke, spinal cord injury, and traumatic brain injury are common ones. Sports injury like strain, sprain and fracture are also present. In the pediatric area, cerebral palsy would top the list.

Now, what does it take to be a physiotherapist? To evaluate a patient properly, you need to have a very good background on anatomy and physiology. An understanding of the disease process will also help a lot in determining the proper treatment approach that will help in the recovery of the patient. The physiotherapist would normally make a thorough evaluation and will identify the problems that the patient are encountering, usually limiting activities of daily living. After that, the physiotherapist would then design an appropriate treatment plan. They will also formulate short term goal and long term goal in terms of achieving base on the patient's problem list.

Knowing these basic facts, a career in physiotherapy is a rather challenging option. It is a fulfilling job guiding people towards recovery to their normal functional capacity to do the activities of daily living. Seeing a child walk for the first time or a man walk again is a great reward in itself.

Job positions for Physiotherapy:

Physiotherapy Clinical Practitioner

The most popular job to land as a physical therapist would be in a hospital, outpatient clinic or in homecare, most commonly known as clinical practice. To be able to qualify for clinical practice a therapist must have earned a diploma in physical therapy from an accredited college or university and must have passed the designated board exams. Certified physical therapy programs offer both master’s degrees and doctorates in physical therapy. Applicants need bachelor's degrees that include prerequisite courses, which are set by each graduate program and vary from one educational institution to another. Some states or regions require certifications or degrees in continuing education to be able to maintain a physical therapy license.

Physical therapists usually work in sanitary and comfortable environments because most patients are in hospitals although some therapists do have to make home visits to their patients. Physical therapists should be encouraging and supportive since some patients are permanently disabled. It is the job of the physical therapist to make sure that the patient’s functional capacities are maximized. Physical therapists also make sure that treatment plans are carried out properly by assistants or aides or make the necessary revisions in the treatment plan and goal- setting of a patient. Therapists also keep records and write reports on the progress of each patient. A day in the clinic practice for a physical therapist is actually like a routine. Patients come in and primary and follow- up assessments are done, documented and treatment plans are revised or started. The clinic has everything the therapist needs from modalities to ambulation devices and so every therapist must be well-oriented with the new technology in health care. Operation of these new machines has different parameters so therapists must also be able to memorize the materials they are working with. When it comes to patient interaction, therapists must be patient as most of the people they treat belong to the senior-aged bracket and those who need long term care. Most patients with debilitating conditions are also hard to encourage and please so the psycho-social adaptations of a therapist must be fast. For therapists with administrative work in the clinics and hospitals, it is expected that they have great ability to manage and organize the whole working team. They monitor all patients, documentations, the people who work under them, complaints and more. Most physical therapists work forty hours per week. Those who prefer flexible hours can usually find private, part-time or consulting work. For these reasons, all physical therapists are expected to be in good health and shape.

Physical therapists are well-compensated. This profession has a very good employment outlook with a salary averaging $60,180 per year (in the US). Plus, therapists can choose to accommodate patients requiring private home care which adds even greater to the salary they receive. The demand is also expected to increase since the increasing senior population requires rehabilitative care. Also, increasing number of congenital defects and conditions, motor-vehicle accidents, disabling diseases and degenerative conditions all require some form of therapy to maximize their functions, and this would add more to the need for professional physical therapists.

Physiotherapy University Professor

Several careers are available in physical therapy and one of these would be a teacher or educator in the Academe. By obtaining a Masteral degree (MSPT/MPT) or Doctor of Physical therapy (DPT), physical therapists are accredited to instruct students as professors and educators. For some countries, a license to teach is needed and also the proper license for the specific area or region as instructed. The curriculum in physical therapy is very extensive and a profoundly educated teacher is required to elaborate in detail the required subjects such as anatomy, neuroanatomy, therapeutic exercises and skills training to be able to produce highly qualified and competent future therapists. As an educator, one must be persevering in giving instructions and training the novice students. It is imperative that the educator can communicate well and be able to clearly relate all knowledge necessary for the student. In this career, knowledge base is far more considered than the practical skills of a physical therapist. It is suggested for those who would want a career involvement in curricular activities rather than being in the hospital settings.

An advantage of this career path is the time for part- time actual patient handling in private homecare or out- patient clinics, since during long breaks, educators are also enjoying some time off the classroom setting and may be able to expose themselves in actual treatments and to further hone their skills in theory or in practice. Another advantage is the average salary an educator receives apart from the actual practice in clinics. It is an advantage since almost every year, tuition fees increase and the advancement in the curriculum itself will give the educator an edge in the mean increase of annual income.

Becoming an instructor would also give the therapist an opportunity to research on the topics and new areas of study that must be introduced to the students. Part of the job would be to completely be in detail with new breakthroughs in the profession and to be able to convince students through lectures that indeed such breakthroughs are effective. Clinical evidence and sharing of personal clinical experiences are also a plus since the students would be more interested in attaining the degree when they get to hear the best stories from their superiors. It also backs up the theories and claims of most treatment and assessment procedures since patient handling experience is documented as clinical evidence and pupils would be more enthusiastic if the most basic principles taught to them are tried and tested by their own teachers.

Being a physical therapist in the academe is indeed a collaboration of hard work, experience, patience and knowledge to be able to successfully hone great future therapists for the increasing demands in allied health care.

Study Podiatry

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Caring for the feet professionally first existed in Egypt and is believed to have been a part of their ritual ever since 2400 BC. Hippocrates had even described corns and calluses and suggested that there is a need to remove those hard skins on our feet. Before in the early 1900s, podiatry has been known in the United States. There have been many institutions that were established following this discipline. Their main goal is to improve the health of the feet and ankles of all the individuals in the world. Often, those who will be studying this area should obtain a four year undergraduate degree so that they can go to an accredited medical school and take up a four year course. By definition, podiatry refers to the study, treatment and diagnosis of the common or rare diseases of the ankle, lower leg and foot.

In the United States, a podiatrist is often called a DPM or a Doctor of Podiatric Medicine. In other parts of the world including the United Kingdom, a podiatrist is also known as a chiropodist. Most of the time those who want to pursue a Podiatry degree should be able to pass the Medical College Admission Test provided by the school of their choice. Many potential students find it hard to search for a school that offers this subject area but now, they can avail of this program through the use of the Internet. As a matter of fact, there is no need to worry because if one will compare the standards of the degree of Podiatry in a school setting to the ones that are being acquired online, they are almost equal.

The American Podiatric Medical Association or APMA is the one responsible for giving accreditation to different schools in the United States. In some cases, the organization provides scholarship programs for those students that deserve this and in return they should be able to help other people become aware of the several diseases when it comes to foot and other parts of the leg. Annually, there are more than 130 students that benefit from this program.

For the third or fourth year students that are currently studying at the accredited schools, some of them will be selected and sponsored by the College Scholarship and Student Loan Committee. The chosen ones are picked based on relevant factors such as classroom performance, involvement in the podiatric community, their financial status as well as their leadership qualities.

The different areas included when you study Podiatry are Magnetic Resonance Imaging or MRI, Ultrasound Examinations that are being conducted for the ankles and the feet, EMG or Electromyography and NCV Nerve Conduction Velocity. In addition, you will also be taught on how you can perform and use those computerized scanners on the foot. You can also obtain these when you study and take up Podiatry online.

There are several approaches and disciplines associated with Podiatry and they all depend on what country you will be taking up the said degree.

Job positions for Podiatry:

Orthotic Technician

An Orthotic Technician is also referred to as a Shoe Technician, who gives the correct measurement, construction and maintenance of shoes especially those orthoses or correction aids. Most of the time, those who have been hired for the job are those who have sufficient knowledge regarding feet and ankles care. You should also like to work with wood, plastic, metal and other types of materials. It is also a requisite that you know how to effectively follow directions that are presented from a mould or even an imprint. If you think that you are qualified, you can be involved in the Orthotic technology division.

An Orthotic Technician should possess designing skills so that he or she can create the best orthotics. In most cases, they work under the supervision of orthotists when it comes to the production, creation, fabrication and even repair of the appliances that are used to support the certain parts of the body that has defects. A technician can make corsets also but they are most known for producing corrective shoes from the materials and the tools set by his or her supervisor.

An Orthotic Technician that specializes in shoes often works with healthcare professionals such as podiatrists, orthotists and prosthetists so that the patients that they are serving will remain mobile for a long time with the help of their creation. The technician will have to rely on the prescription of the orthotists that will comprise of the dimension of the shoe parts as well as the instruments that they should be using. If you want to be successful in this field, you should have precision skills, stamina, strength and of course, the patience making the orthotics. You can choose to work alone or you can ask the help of other people, whichever selection will help cause the job to be finished quickly.

It is your duty as an Orthotic Technician to design or draw sketches for the models of the casts that has been given to you by the prosthetists or the orthotists. You are also responsible for the building or assembling of the appliances according to the measurements, drawings and plaster casts assigned to you. At times, you will make the necessary adjustments in your finished product so that they can perfectly fit the needs of your clients. In addition, you should also be flexible and dexterous enough to deal with different varieties of materials including, fabrics and leathers.

You should also keep an inventory of the materials that you have used and it is also your duty to help your supervisor serve and give assistance to all of your clients. As for the working locations, you will usually exerting your effort in the laboratories or workshops and it is unavoidable that you will be standing for a long time at your workbench. You will be using different machines including grinders, buffers, sanders, lathes and even sewing machines so it is only appropriate that you have sufficient familiarity with these equipments.

Doctor of Podiatric Medicine

Searching for the right kind of job is a great challenge especially for those who have just graduated as a Podiatry major. This is because most of those who have become DPMs or Doctor of Podiatric Medicine do not retire quickly so it can be difficult for you to be hired instantly. However, if you are lucky and you have been chosen to report immediately, being a podiatrist will mean a lifetime career for you.

Being a Doctor of Podiatric Medicine or podiatrist is a tough challenge and you may easily get frustrated. You must have the patience in order to face those people who are waiting in line to get your diagnosis and treatments. A podiatrist takes care of our feet when we are having some trouble with it. He or she is a specialist that gives services concerning foot care and should have extensive training and education in the area. This is because they should be able to give analysis, recommend treatment and help prevent the disorders in foot, ankle and lower leg through the use of medical or even surgical methods.

In order to become a successful podiatrist, one should be able to go through a lot of education and schooling that will enable him or her to be a licensee. A Doctor of Podiatric Medicine should be able to make independent judgments as well as perform all of those necessary diagnostic examinations for the patients. In most cases, a podiatrist is required to carry out surgery for their clients in addition to administering medications comprising of the DEA-restricted medicines and they even order physical therapy routines.

Oftentimes, these DPMs should be able to detect serious problems regarding the health of their patients and they can easily do this if they have been equipped with all the sufficient knowledge that is required. It is undeniable that there are some disorders that remain to be unnoticed so at times, it is needed that you examine the lower extremities primarily because some of the symptoms manifest here at first. These diseases include diabetes, arthritis, kidney and even heart disorders.

A Doctor of Podiatric Medicine often works in group practices and there is an opportunity for him or her to develop a focus on a certain practice like pediatrics, sports medicine or geriatrics. Additionally, they can also serve as a hospital staff and work at care facilities for a long period of time. They can also be employed in school faculties that offer nursing and medicine education as well as in the armed forces being commissioned officers and in health departments in their areas.

As a DPM, you will be able to enjoy the luxury of having some time to spend with your family and even go out with your friends. Just make sure that when a patient needs you, you will be able to provide them with great care whenever they require. Usually, you will be working for about thirty to sixty hours every week.

Study Practical Nursing

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Practical Nursing is the practice of nursing under the supervision or direction of a registered nurse, licensed physician, or dentist. Under such supervision, a licensed practical nurse can do things like start IVs, administer medications, take samples, perform basic lab analysis, dress wounds, take vital signs, and perform basic diagnostic tasks. Besides, practical nurses can chart patient progress, provide updates on patient status to supervising nurses and doctors, and assist patients with questions and concerns. Licensed practical nurses also monitor patients under their care, and they may supervise orderlies, nursing assistants, and other members of the nursing staff, depending on where they work. With experience, a licensed practical nurse may become very skilled at a variety of nursing tasks.

Personal Qualities

Practical nurses work very closely with patients, for which reason they need to have a sincere urge to help people. Other skills and qualities include:

  • Be very stable mentally and emotionally
  • Work very well as a part of a team
  • Be extremely patient and caring
  • Have excellent communication skills
  • Be very diligent and precise
  • Be very good at following instruction
  • Be very good at reporting and analyzing various situations

Study Options

To become a practical nurse, you will usually have to complete a practical nursing education program. Such programs are available at community colleges as well as some vocational schools. Actually, even some hospitals may provide nurse education programs in which you can enroll to become a licensed practical nurse. The length of each of these programs may vary from institution to institution, but typically the course of study will involve both classroom education and clinical training. You are likely to finish your practical nursing education in a year or two. Depending on where you choose to enroll, you may complete a practical nursing education that then leads to a certificate in nursing, or a program that lasts longer (about two years), and then ends with an associate’s degree in nursing.

Finally, what you have to consider is that after you have completed a nurse education program, you will be likely to have to pass a nurse licensing exam before you can apply for a job. You may have to pay a fee and agree to a criminal background check, too.

Career Options

Employment prospects in this field are generally good, and you can work in many different kinds of environment. Some licensed practical nurses work in hospitals, providing patient care, assistance with intake, and similar services. Others may work in residential treatment facilities, nursing homes, and similar. Finally, such a certification gives you the possibility to work as an in-home care provider.

Study Pre-Forensics

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Study Pre-Physician Assistant

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Study Preventive Medicine

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Study Primary Care

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Do you dream of a career in healthcare, helping primary care physicians with their patients and working with a friendly and skilled health care team?  Have you considered pursuing a degree that would qualify you to serve as a physician’s assistant?  If so, the Associate of Science degree in Primary Care Assistance may be the perfect program for you, one that will enable you to meet these goals?  With an Associate of Science degree in Primary Care you’ll be eligible to pursue one of the thousands of career positions currently available in primary care facilities, helping doctors and patients in many different capacities.  If this sounds interesting, the following information may prove very useful.  Here we will briefly describe the Associate of Science Degree in Primary Care Assistance, including a brief course overview and some information regarding the eligibility requirements for admission into the program.
Associate of Science Degree in Primary Care Assistance:  Course Overview
The Associate of Science Degree in Primary Care Assistance is a two-year program (if attended on a full-time basis) featuring a curriculum that combines all of the traditional concepts of physician assistant training.  In the first year of the program you’ll acquire extensive knowledge about the field and gain valuable insight into the various techniques used to evaluate and treat patients.  This classroom training will be followed by a year of intense clinical training in a real-world hospital setting; training that will allow you to master what you’ve learned in the classroom component of the course.  Among the many skills and techniques you’ll learn and perfect during the course of this study program are:
  • Taking thorough patient histories
  • Physical examination procedures and techniques
  • Injection training
  • Basic laboratory techniques
  • Common diagnostic and therapeutic procedures
  • Patient counseling
  • Diagnosing and treating basic illnesses
  • Managing stable chronic diseases
  • Delivering basic preventative care
  • And more…
Following an intensive course in physical examination and treatment, you’ll be introduced through lectures and clinical experiences to topics such as general medicine, emergency medicine, pharmacology, pediatrics, geriatrics, women’s health and behavioral science. 
Students who complete the A.S. degree program will leave with a strong background in the field and plenty of clinical experience to secure a career in the primary care industry, as well as a complete understanding of the physician’s assistant role in a primary care setting.
Associate of Science Degree in Primary Care Assistance:  Eligibility Requirements for Admission
To be eligible to participate in the Associate of Science Degree program in Primary Care Assistance you will need to possess a high school diploma or its equivalent, one recognized by your particular state or region.  A strong background in the physical and natural sciences will be very advantageous, but not always required.  However, you must have a fervent interest in the medical field and enjoy working in a team-based setting to care for and help solve issues with patients.

Study Psychiatry

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Psychiatry is an intense discipline, extremely profound that only graduate of school offering the subject can understand and explain what really this bizarre study is. This branch of medicine specializing mental illnesses can psychiatric doctors diagnoses and treat the disorders. In order to accomplish treatment the doctor conducts thorough researches that understand and prevent the malady.

To become a psychiatrist, the practitioner should be a doctor of medicine with four years of postgraduate training in psychiatry. The doctor after his studies in psychiatry may have further training in psychoanalysis, child psychiatry, or other subspecialties. Whereas the psychiatrist has been doing deep researches on his patient, he has still in mind what school taught him.

The student (the studying doctor) learns in school that the domain of psychiatry is exceptionally large in scope so that specializing in this branch of the science sometimes complicates the research being done and the ongoing treatment on the patient. A confusing state or condition may affect the life of the patient, his behavior, emotions, physical activity, intuitive understanding and insight, sexuality, work, relationships with other people, and relaxation. Psychiatrists are officially recognized practitioner of medicine who takes care of people with problems of the mind.

There is a unique trail for the profession of the psychiatrist. To obtain the special subject of study in the sphere of medicine, the student must have a five-year medical degree followed by two years working in a hospital as a trainee to enhance what has been learned and acquired as a student of medicine which sometimes extend to six or up to eight years.

The student can choose any school he wants at home or abroad. Here are the top medical schools in the U.S. to study psychiatry: Harvard University, University of Pennsylvania, John Hopkins University; top Psychiatry Colleges are: Department of Psychiatry at the University of Pittsburg; Department of Psychiatry, Thomas Detre Hall of the Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Penn Behavioral Health; and Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry.

Here are some of the universities in U.K. where a student could take psychiatry course: University of Bristol; University of Liverpool; University of Sheffield; King’s College London, University of London; University of Nottingham; Aston University; University of Dundee; University of Birmingham; and other universities throughout the world.

In the United States, in the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, and many parts of the world, a student before entering the Psychiatry course must have passed the complete medical degree. After graduation, student’s training in the UK and Ireland is notably longer (8-9 years) than in the US and Canada. In the Netherlands, a student must have completed a six-year university program and received the title doctorandus in de geneeskunde (master of medicine), after which he can be certified as medical practitioner or a doctor. He then goes a 4-5 years specialization (taking up Psychiatry).

The subjects of the course of study are the following topics: Psychology; Neuropsychology; Psychotherapy; Clinical Psychopharmacology ; Phenomenology ; Diagnosis; Interview Skills; OSCE Training; Mental Health Act; Psychotic Disorders; Affective Disorders; Anxiety Disorders; Personality Disorders; Substance Misuse; Eating, Obsessive Compulsive & Puerperal Disorders; Community Care; Learning Disability; Psychiatry of Old Age; Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; Neuroanatomy; Neurochemistry; Neuropathology; Neurology; Neuroimaging; Post-traumatic stress disorder; Genetics; Forensic Psychiatry; Liaison Psychiatry; Transcultural Psychiatry; Critical Appraisal; Epidemiology and Statistics; Sociology and Qualitative Research; Essay Skills; and Research Training.

A graduate in Psychiatry can pursue his career as: a Consultant, Clinical Assistant, Hospital Staff, Specialist Registrar, Associate Specialist, Career Grade Doctor, Registrar; can work in institutions or in private practice, teacher, researcher, or administrators in colleges, hospitals, or other establishments. Psychiatry course is a rewarding endeavor for the practitioners who have the heart and compassion to unfortunates.

The history of mental disorders goes way back to the prehistoric times, ancient civilizations, middle ages, the early modern period, the enlightenment and the modern times. Evolutionary psychology proposes that the underlying genetic dispositions, psychological mechanisms and socials needs were in existence although some of the mental disorders may have developed from a mismatch between the prehistoric environments and the modern conditions. In the history of Egypt and Mesopotamia, documents describe the mental illness states in thinking and attention as well as emotional distresses in the heart or mind. In India, fictional descriptions of depression and anxiety were contained in the Hindu scriptures known as Ramayana and Mahabharata. Chinese primarily treated mental disorders with traditional Chinese Medicine by herbs, acupuncture and emotional therapy. Hebrews and Israelites on the other hand considered mental disorders are problems that existed between human and God. Middle Ages in Europe suggested that the conception of madness was a mixture of the divine, diabolical, magical and transcendental.

Because mental health is such a challenge, more and more individuals are interested in studying it. A psychiatrist is a medical physician who specializes in the field of psychiatry through the utilization of the biomedical approach and is certified to treat mental illnesses. They are all trained in diagnostic evaluation and psychotherapy. Psychiatrists can also prescribe psychiatric medications, conduct physical examinations, order and interpret laboratory test results and electroencephalograms and can also order brain imaging studies such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography scanning.

Several psychiatric practitioners specialize in particular age groups. Child and adolescent psychiatrists address the psychological problems of children and teenagers; geriatric psychiatrists work with the elderly; and those that practice psychiatry in the workplace are called organizational and occupational psychiatrists. There are also psychiatrists who work in the courtroom and report to the judge and jury for both criminal and civil court cases also known as forensic psychiatrists.

The requirements for Psychiatry vary from country to country. In the United States of America and Canada, an individual must first complete a Bachelor’s Degree. The students are free to choose any major however they are required to enroll in specific courses that are outlined in a pre-medical program. The student must then apply and attend four years of medical school to earn their M.D. or D.O and complete their medical education. The student must then practice as a psychiatric resident for four years duration in the United States and in Canada, five years. This extended schooling allows a comprehensive training that includes diagnosis, psychopharmacology, medical care issues and the latest psychotherapies. In the United States, all accredited psychiatry residencies require a proficiency in cognitive-behavioral therapies, brief psychodynamic and supportive therapies. They are also often required to complete at least a four post-graduate months of internal medicine or pediatrics and another two months for neurology on the first year. After the completion, psychiatrists are to take a written and oral board examination. It takes approximately 8 years to complete the required post-baccalaureate work in the field of Psychiatry in the United States.

Job positions for Psychiatry:


The medical specialty that is committed to making understanding of brain-behavior relationships better and to care for individuals with neurologically-based cognitive, emotional and behavioral disturbances is known as Neuropsychiatry. A medical physician with an M.D. or D.O. is qualified to practice neuropsychiatry by virtue of (1) a primary training in either psychiatry or neurology followed by a period of more or less one year of fellowship training in neuropsychiatry or behavioral neurology; and (2) a training of formal residency in both psychiatry and neurology. Neuropsychiatrists with a lot of years of extensive clinical, educational, and scientific experience in the field of neuropsychiatry can also make use of specialty designations. Among the patients that are being treated by Neuro-Psychiatrists are neurologic illness and cognitive, emotional, or behavioral problems; individuals with combined psychiatric illnesses and neurologic conditions; and individuals with atypical or refractory primary psychiatric disorders in which the concerns are all about the underlying neurological conditions that are causing the psychiatric symptoms.

To fully conceptualize what a Neuropsychiatrist is in the 21st century, one needs to center on the neurologic structure, chemistry and other dysfunctions involving the brain of the traditional psychiatric illnesses and also find within one’s scope of practice any and all behavioral manifestations from any other disease process as well. Neuro-Psychiatrists need to be aware of many diagnostic processes involving the different types of disease process. In order to remember all of them one needs to make use of the AEIOU TIPS mnemonic.

• ‘A’ mnemonic stands for the word Accidents such as closed head injuries and traumatic brain injuries. This includes psychosis, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorders, irritability, profound personality changes, aggression and dysfunctions in memory. It is the responsibility of the Neuropsychiatrist to utilize of a higher cortical function in addition to physical examination giving a greater understanding of any deficits involving the dominant as well as the non-dominant, frontal and pre-frontal regions of the brains, the cerebellum and the motor tracts. The Neuropsychiatrists needs to know the prognostic signs of the injury.

• ‘E’ is for Endocrine. Neuropsychiatrist should request for thyroid function and assay after the start or prior to the start of an anti-depressant medication prescription.

• ‘I’ is for infection such as meningitis, encephalitis, pneumonias and or urinary tract infections. HIV diseases as well as other opportunistic infections also need to be considered in this category.

• ‘O’ means oxygenation. Pulmonary dysfunctions sometimes result in problems of memory and agitation.

• ‘U’ is for uremia and other metabolic disorders. Liver disease like kidney disease causes a significant mental status change as well as changes in metabolism of medications that the patients take.

• ‘T’ stands for tumors. Neuropsychiatrists should be aware and comfortable of the CT scan readings, MRI scans that are essential for the final diagnosis and initiation of treatments.

• ‘I’ is for infarctions and strokes because these two conditions cause an almost identical idiopathic syndrome that can generally be treated by the Neuropsychiatrist.

• ‘P’ stands for Parkinsonism and other movement disorders.

• ‘S’ is for seizures.

By identifying each of the illness processes and categories, a Neuropsychiatrist needs to be able to perform not just physical examinations with an excellent degree of expertise, but must also be knowledgeable on how to evaluate the patients who are suffering from the different types of disorders. He or she must be able to know how to treat each of the disorders within the specialty appropriately or get consultations but primarily to be able to treat the behavioral manifestations.

Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist

Child and Adolescent Psychiatry is the branch of Psychiatry that specializes in the study, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of psychopathological disorders among children, adolescents and their families. This branch of Psychiatry encompasses the clinical investigation of phenomenology, biological factors, psychosocial, genetic, demographic, environmental factors, history and the reply to interventions of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders. An important predecessor to the child psychiatry specialty is the social recognition of childhood as a special phase of life with its corresponding developmental stages that starts from the neonatal period until adolescence.

The Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist utilizes the knowledge on biological, psychological and social factors in dealing with the patients. Primarily, a comprehensive diagnostic examination is done to evaluate the existing problem with emphasis to the physical, genetic, developmental, emotional, cognitive, educational, family, peers and social factors.

The diagnosis and diagnostic formulation devised by the Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist is discussed with the patient and his or her family. It is then the responsibility of the Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist to design a treatment plan which takes into consideration all the components and discusses these recommendations with the family of the child or adolescent. An integrated approach makes use of the involvement of the individual, group or family psychotherapy, medications and/or consultations with other medical physicians or professionals from different schools, juvenile courts, social agencies or other organizations of the community. It is also expected from the Child Psychiatrist to act as an advocate for the best interests of the child or adolescent. They also perform consultations in various settings such as schools, juvenile courts or social agencies.

It takes a Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist to train for four years in medical school, at least three years of approved residency in medicine, neurology, and general psychiatry with adults and two years of extra specialized training work with children, adolescents as well as their support systems in an accredited residency in children and adolescents. After successfully passing the certification examination in general psychiatry which is given by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology, Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist will be eligible to take additional certification examinations other subspecialty. ABPM examinations are not required for practice by they are an assurance that the Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist is expected to diagnose and treat all psychiatric conditions in patients of any age competently if they have these certifications.

A Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist need to be skilled in biological sciences especially in math. They also need to possess excellent communication skills for them to successfully work with patients and their significant others, learn to show empathy while still maintaining professional distance from the patients.

In the year 2004, the median compensation for Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists with less than two years of experience and practice was $ 173, 922 as reported by the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. Because of the shortages of Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist, the job outlook is extremely favorable for this area.

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Study Psychosomatic Therapy

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Study Psychotherapy

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The human brain is an amazing structure as many of us may know, but the human mind and how it works is even more amazing. It is a vast storage space for memories. It can be good or bad. It may be relevant or irrelevant. A lot of these memories especially things that happened in the past contributed to who we are now in the present. Our emotions, ability to cope up with stress, and basically, our ability to survive life is all because of the capacity of the human mind to handle complex situations.

Just like any healing arts, Psychotherapy can trace its roots to the ancient Greeks. A man named Antiphon is considered to be the originator of the art of talking to relieve mental stress which is the classic definition of Psychotherapy. It has become an important part of our culture. Every hospital has its own psychotherapy services. There are movies, documentaries, TV series and other forms of media discussing psychotherapy.

When someone thinks of Psychotherapy, the image that forms in our mind is a couch, a sofa, patient lying down and the psychotherapist writing down notes. But what really goes on behind those close doors is an intense examination by the patient and the therapist of the patient’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior. Psychotherapy is not a one way street. A verbal interchange between the patient and the therapist is necessary. Goals in changing behaviors and attitude are to be set and met. It is a therapeutic alliance between the patient and the psychotherapist.

To become a specialist in the field of Psychotherapy, the first step to take is to have a degree in Psychology. Then after that, one will have to train in the field of Psychotherapy and depending on the state you are living in, a licensure examination might be necessary.

There are different ways to deal with human problems. Various techniques can be learned in studying Psychotherapy. Psychoanalysis is one of them and was popularized by Sigmund Freud. It is a combination of therapeutic procedures like free association, interpretation, transference, and the like. Behavioral therapy is another popular form of therapy used in this field. In this specific form of therapy, it is believed that any maladaptive behaviors which were learned can be unlearned. Humanistic therapy, eclectic therapy, and logotherapy are example of other form of therapies you can learn in the field of Psychotherapy.

Being in the field of Psychotherapy can be exciting. Keep in mind though that the human mind and how it functions is not at all that simple. There are many theories as to how a person can have personality disorders, psychotic tendencies, or neurotic disorders. Some trace it to childhood. Some will say environmental factors are in play. But whatever the reason behind all of these, studying the field of Psychotherapy will sure help you discover answers.

Psychotherapy will teach you the art of helping others. Whether you want to be a counselor, a clinical social worker, marriage and family therapist or a clinical mental health counselor, what you end up doing at the end of the day is helping people. Psychotherapy grants that unique opportunity to be able to reach out to other people’s pain, understanding it and the best of all, helping them deal with it.

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Study Radiodiagnosis

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Radiodiagnosis is branch of science which is a procedure of diagnosis making use of x-rays; or, more generally, what is known as diagnostic imaging, which includes radiology, magnetic resonance and index with a diagnostic term.

The apparatus of Radiodiagnosis is made up of intensifying screens necessary for radiography and has been structured such that the screens together with its supports can be removed for the process of radioscopy.

The Radiodiagnosis apparatus as per the invention contain an exposure device, which includes a frame which is fixed to the radiodiagnosis apparatus in the portion which is exposed thereof it has also a removable drawer which supports the intensifying screens which are sliding alongside the frame.

That taken as a whole, the aim of radiodiagnosis diploma is for the participants to achieve the following course objectives:

  • Run a radio-diagnostic unit and at the same time be able to provide the most basic as well as most common diagnostic procedures.
  • Communicate well and be able to keep pace with the clinicians and radiologists on their workplaces as well as with the hospitals.
  • Have awareness on the current and most advanced modes of diagnostic imaging and its application for initial diagnosis and cure.
  • Be prepared to gain and relate the new innovative developments in radiology at whatever time available.
  • Compose a wide-ranging report on a radiological study with clinical- radiological analysis and to infer the accurate opinion or the probable discrepancy analysis.
  • Have adequate first round knowledge about the utilization of computers as well as of computer sciences in management and radiological diagnosis.

The requirements of the course for the trainees include a diploma in the degree of human medicine, a one year experience in the area of radio diagnosis and a license to practice and carry out medicine.

The curriculum of the training circles around its core knowledge: the concepts and terminologies of interventional and diagnostic radiology. Second is the usefulness and role of different interventional and diagnostic techniques applicable for all age groups. Third are the various types of compared media, drugs and regular monitoring used in everyday practice of radiology. Next are the indications, doses, the management of reactions and contraindications as well as the complications of sedation drugs and contrast media and then the basic radiographic and radiological procedures for the practice of risk management and clinical audit. Last of all the core skills that the course comprises is to demonstrate safe practice of Radiodiagnosis. As professionals they should be able to perform all scheduled radiological methods and to interpret and properly report all the core radiological techniques and procedures which have been performed in the course of their routine work.

The area of Radiodiagnosis covers the following chapters and topics: neuroradiology, chest radiology, musculoskeletal imaging, gastrointestinal image, uroradiology, head and neck, vascular and intervention imaging, cardiac imaging, paediatric imaging, women’s imaging, intensive care radiology, emergency radiology and oncologic imaging.

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Study Radiology

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Who would have thought that electromagnetic radiation would be another medical splendour? Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen just did when he made one remarkable breakthrough upon the discovery of the X-Ray on November 8, 1895. In particular, it was named as such to signify its anonymity differentiated from longer UV rays and shorter Gamma rays hence the X-ray designation although it may likewise be referred to as X-radiation or Rontgen radiation. Nonetheless, the event commenced the science of internal imaging which has been imperative in the field of medicine. Consequently, X-ray study is only one facet of the multidisciplinary nature of Radiology Studies that further encompass an array of medical radioactivity.

Radiology is particularly a medical specialty that deals with internal imaging to come up with clinical diagnosis. Basically, radiologic technologies are directed towards providing images of human anatomy inimical to determine normal functions of an individual’s physiological systems. These include a collection of imaging media such as Computed Tomography (three dimensional imaging via two-dimensional X-rays), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (detailed structure imaging via powerful magnetic and radio frequency fields), Positron Emission Tomography (three-dimensional imaging via positron-emitting radionuclide), Ultrasound (reflection signature via cyclic sound pressure), and X-Ray Radiography (two-dimensional imaging via X-ray).

In the same way, radiology is equally concerned on treatment of medical conditions. As a matter of fact, there exists interventional radiology which is described as the process of carrying out medical procedures with the aid of imaging technologies. More often than not, these clinical methods are minimally invasive utilizing needles and catheters along the process. Treatment procedures include balloon angioplasty (inflation of blocked blood vessel), chemoembolization (direct delivery of chemotherapy), cholecystostomy (gallbladder tube insertion to remove infected bile), radiofrequency ablation (localized tissue destruction), thrombolysis (blood clot dissolution), etc. Procedures commonly require physicians with expertise both on general medicine and interventional radiology as regulated practice.

Radiology is undoubtedly an interesting facet of medical science. Even physicians are obliged to undergo further studies such as the diagnostic radiology program not to mention additional courses on vascular and interventional radiology for professional practice as an interventional radiologist. In most cases though, medical imaging and interpretation is offered as part of the curriculum in Health Science studies. Furthermore, there is a particular discipline for non-physician radiologist aspirants in the academe. Accessible undergraduate course programs for this field of study may include Radiologic Science, Radiologic Technology, and Radiography. Relevant graduate studies consist of Master of Science in Imaging Science, Master of Radiology, and Doctor of Philosophy in Human Imaging. There are also associate degrees conferred to radiologic technicians under certification program such as Radiation Therapy, Medical Laboratory, and Diagnostic Medical Sonography.

Indeed, there is an extensive career niche for radiology specialists. Many different health institutions await these professionals worldwide. These include top hospitals such as in Asia (Bumrungrad Medical Centre, Matilda Hospital, and Parkway Health Care), United Kingdom (Great Ormond Street Hospital, King’s College Hospital, and Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital), and United States (Massachusetts General Hospital, John Hopkins Hospital, and Mayo Clinic). Apart from intervention radiologists for physicians, other job posts for non-physicians include radiologist, radiology technologist, radiology technician, and radiologic technologies operator.

Study Radiotherapy

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Are you a student of the sciences in search of a degree path (and ultimately a career) in which you can truly make a positive difference in the lives of the others? Have you considered pursuing a degree in Radiotherapy, a technique used in the treatment of a wide range of cancers?  Radiotherapy is a cutting-edge field with tremendous career potential for the right individual.  However, in order to be eligible to fill one of these highly-technical positions it is absolutely crucial that you first receive the proper education and training.  Fortunately, that is exactly what the Bachelor of Science degree program in Radiotherapy offers.  To illustrate this, below we will discuss some of the specifics of this popular degree program (the course content, eligibility requirements, etc.), and highlight a few of the reasons why pursuing a degree in Radiotherapy can be such a rewarding choice on a number of levels.
The Bachelor of Science Degree in Radiotherapy
The Bachelor of Science degree program in Radiotherapy is a four to five-year undergraduate course of study that is currently being offered at colleges, universities and technical institutions throughout the world.  The program is open to all students who possess a high school diploma or its equivalent, although most institutions will also require a passing score on an entrance examination prior to admission, as well as the successful completion of several prerequisite courses in subjects such as science, mathematics, technology and communications.
As a member of the B.S. program in Radiotherapy, students will acquire the necessary knowledge and skills to become competent and caring radiotherapists and therapeutic radiographers.  They will do this through a curriculum which offers an integrated approach to the discipline, one that expertly combines both academic work and clinical practice to give students all the tools they’ll need to work at the interface between cutting-edge medical technology and the cancer patient.  The coursework in the program is highly-scientific and technical, aimed at teaching students about the nature and development of cancer, as well as the role radiation plays in its management and treatment.  In addition to the profession-specific courses the program offers (classes in oncology, radiation physics, etc.) there are also a wide range of inter-professional modules in which students can hone their technical, communication and writing skills, allowing them to better serve their patients and their families.
Students who successfully complete the B.S. program in Radiotherapy not only become eligible to work in the field under the supervision of oncologists and other medical staff, they can also turn their degree and experience into a stepping stone of sorts, qualifying them to pursue advanced degrees at the graduate and post-graduate levels.
Why Study Radiotherapy?
In this day and age almost everybody knows or is close to someone who has been affected by cancer, the second-leading cause of death in America, after heart disease.  And because of its very nature, cancer can often make sufferers and those close to them feel discouraged at best and helpless at worst.  However, with a Bachelor of Science degree in Radiotherapy you can help restore some of the hope that cancer robs.  While employed in the field you’ll be at the forefront of one of the most successful cancer treatments currently practiced, working with an expert team that is dedicated to helping patients and their families cope with the effects of the disease. In addition to this wonderful benefit, a degree in Radiotherapy will also place you in high demand in the employment market, as professionals in this specialty are constantly sought to fill positions throughout the country, with some being recruited directly from the university.  Finally, the salaries for these positions are very competitive and the room for growth resulting from continuing education and experience is virtually limitless.

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Study Regenerative Cellular Therapy

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Study Rehabilitation

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Addiction is a state where something just gets out of control. Quitting from an addiction is never an easy thing to do – may it be from simple addiction to video games, addiction to gambling, cigarette addiction, unhealthy or dangerous addiction to sex, etc. What more when it comes to addiction to illegal drugs, which happen to have the ability to literally distort the person’s brain? There is no dispute about addictive illegal drugs being hazardous and totally damaging to one’s health, learning rate, attitude, and overall personality, mentality, and spirituality. Addiction creates an individual who is more inclined to having criminal attitude and lacking life goals. The use of addictive illegal drugs is rampant not only among youth in the street, but also among youth and middle-aged citizens of higher class; and this affects not just the addict himself but his family and the society, as well. This has been a perennial problem not of developing countries alone, but of the world in general.

Families of addicts will do whatever it takes to bring their loved ones in normal state after suffering from slight to severe addiction. One of the widely-known ways to do so is enrolling them in rehabilitation program. Different rehabilitation programs may have varying ways to achieve it, but the objective is clear – that is, to bring back the individual to a state where he will resent his addiction and will try to regain whatever it is that he lost because of it.

Treating addiction is not much like a linear approach. There are just lots of factors to be considered and steps that need to be strictly observed to be able to reap the intended result. Knowing the root cause of addiction is as important as ceasing the addiction itself because resorting to certain addiction is just a means to do away with the real problem. This is why rehabilitation programs are designed not just to help patients revive from the addiction itself but to address the underlying problems, as well.

Due to the increasing number of addicts everywhere (particularly drug addicts), rehabilitation programs have been in a good business position for decades now. This industry employs professional health practitioners with specialization in addiction medicine, psychiatry, nursing, and psychological counselling. Although there are general procedures, Rehabilitation requires lot of personal interaction with the patient and customization of treatment for his needs. Depending on the level of addiction and extent of damage to the patient, a patient may be enrolled in an in-patient, out-patient, short-stay, or residential treatment. Families of patients rely heavily on these professionals’ diagnosis and prescription. Often, counselling is not just for the patient but for the family, as well. Deciding to leave an addict family member to a rehabilitation center, especially in the case of residential treatments, is often more heart-breaking for the family than for the patient himself.

Rehabilitation industry is a subset of the larger healthcare industry, which aims to promote healthier society through healthier individual members. Truly, Rehabilitation is a business and a noble vocation at the same time. Rehabilitation programs are often expensive, but bringing loved ones to life is priceless.

Study Respiratory Care

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Study Restorative Dentistry

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Are you considering earning an advanced dental degree, but are still undecided about the type of dentistry in which to focus your studies?  Have you considered earning a degree in Restorative Dentistry—a field that focuses on the diagnosis and management of diseases of the teeth and their supporting structures and restoring them to their original function and appearance?  If you have, the following information may allow you to get a better understanding of this specialty and the steps you’ll need to take before earning Board Certification to practice.  Here we will provide a brief synopsis of the Restorative Dentistry program, including the typical degree path and eligibility requirements, followed by an outline of some of the coursework you’ll encounter while earning your degree and certification.
Restorative Dentistry:  Career Path and Eligibility Requirements
Working in Restorative Dentistry can be incredibly rewarding and very lucrative, but before this can take place there are several steps you will need to navigate first.  Keep in mind that most dental schools will only accept candidates who possess an undergraduate degree, and because of that, the first step towards your goal is to enter into and complete a Bachelor of Science degree in a recognized pre-dental discipline.  Science-based disciplines that qualify as “pre-dental” include biology, chemistry, biochemistry, physics and health science, among others.  These undergraduate-level degrees, which typically span four to five years in duration, are open to all students with a high school diploma or its equivalent, providing their secondary school grades show a strong aptitude in science and mathematics.
Dental school is the next step of your journey, assuming your grade point average and test scores from your undergraduate degree program are well above average.  Dental schools tend to be very selective about their candidates, and will usually require you to submit all of your academic information, as well as three to five letters of recommendation from people with a personal knowledge of your skills and ability in the academic arena.  Dental schools usually offer a four to five-year program that culminates with a practical exam, leading to one of two titles students can earn:  Degree in Dental Surgery (DDS) or Degree in Dental Medicine (DDM).  Before practicing your new-found craft, however, you will also need to seek Board Certification through the American Dental Association.
Restorative Dentistry:  Coursework Content
As mentioned briefly above, Restorative Dentistry is the study, diagnosis and integrated management of diseases of the teeth and their supporting structures and the rehabilitation of such teeth and structures to the functional and aesthetic requirements of the patient. The field encompasses several dental sub-specialties, including periodontics, prosthodontics and endodontics, and students pursuing this degree will learn how these sub-specialties interact, particularly in cases where multifaceted care is warranted.  Some of the coursework involved in Restorative Dentistry includes:
  • Oral Biology
  • Cariology
  • Research Methodology in Dentistry
  • Biostatistics and Data in Dentistry
  • Advanced Restorative Dentistry I and II
  • Seminar in Restorative Dentistry
  • Clinical Practice in Restorative Dentistry I and II
Like most advanced courses of education, a DDS or DDM degree in Restorative Dentistry will also require a graduate thesis.  The topic for this thesis must be approved by the close of the third year, and presented and defended to the faculty prior to graduation.

Study Sensory Therapy

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Study Sexology

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Study Soul Therapy

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Study Speech and Hearing

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Study Speech-Language Pathology

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Study Sports Medicine

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Sports Medicine is one field of the health sciences that deals with treatment and management of athletes. This includes training and injury prevention, addressing sports- related conditions and the overall physical conditioning of the body for participation in various types of athletic events. Modern sports medicine also aims to develop and improve the athlete’s performance during an event by modifying diet, exercise and health supplements to supply the more than average demand of an athlete’s body.

Sports Medicine has its early beginnings as far back as the 5th century in the ancient areas of Greece and Rome as a program for young athletes who were not properly conditioned and therefore suffer frequent injuries. It started as physical education, which focused on the tenets of proper training and conditioning for sports. It allowed many young athletes to properly perform exercises, control their activities and increase their overall performance. Herodicus began distinct training regimens to prevent and heal injuries and Galen also served as a doctor assigned in monitoring gladiators during the 2nd century. During this period, physicians were only concerned with injuries when they occurred and not to help in prevention. Starting in the 1968 summer Olympics Dr. J.C. Kennedy organized the first team of doctors to travel with the Canadian athletes to monitor their health and performance. This first shed light on the need for sports doctors during athletic events to maintain the overall wellness of the teams. Many sports doctors are now involved in treating and preventing injuries but also with regular check- ups and testing to make certain that athletes are at their top performing shape. Some teams view the use of a sports medicine team as an unnecessary expense, but most teams consider it crucial to have their athletes monitored. Today, the constant care provided for the athletes have dramatically decreased the number of sports injuries and improved their quality of life. Many developments are still being utilized to further improve prevention of injury and permanent damages to the body especially with intense forms of exercises and sports. Most athletic teams now travel with their own medical teams and more athletes are now cooperating and are willing to work with their sports physicians to improve their game and their health.

Sports physicians as well as the members of a sports medicine team can be involved with athletic training, or planning and monitoring of the exercise routines and nutrition of athletes for better performance. Strength and conditioning or helping the athlete determine the goals to be attained with exercise, gradual increase of strength through training and the best condition of the athlete to be able to gain top performance. Another branch is Human performance or training of the athlete to adapt to the demands of a specific sport and improve the execution of activities. Another important area is the athletic equipments, of finding the right equipment to protect and improve the performance of athletes and to develop the current equipment being utilized.

Job positions for Sports Medicine:

Sports Psychologist

Sports psychology is now becoming one of the fastest growing occupations in sports medicine. A lot of athletes are now coming to psychologists who are experienced in mentally and emotionally preparing athletes for events and competitions. This is an important aspect since mental preparedness, focus and release of anxiety is needed to be physically ready for the demands of the upcoming game. Mental conditioning is also crucial to prevent the fast onset of fatigue especially if it is psychologically induced. To define it, sports psychology is the scientific study of psychological factors that are associated with involvement in physical activity, most especially in competitive sports. These professionals or sports psychologists are trained and experienced to help athletes improve athletic performance through psychological preparedness and help them to understand how their activity affects them in all aspects throughout their life span. Sports psychology is a career for licensed psychologists who are particularly skilled in giving motivation and elevating confidence and self-esteem for athletes who are taken down by attacks of anxiety. Psychological skill training is defined as consistent practice and development of mental and psychological skills. An athletic team and all its members must also develop these skills as much as physical skills are being developed. Training and practice for these skills are now being incorporated in the regular practice to be able to achieve top performance level without anxiety during actual games. Sports psychologists plan, implement, supervise and revise these programs to better suit the needs of a team. As all teams face anxiety, pressure and meltdowns both physically and psychologically, the demand for sports psychologists is now rising and the development of new techniques and programs are being created.

Most sports psychologists are required to have a master’s or doctorate degree in psychology although some are accepted with only a bachelor’s degree but with experience. It is also required to have experience in applying psychological principles in the training of sports teams and individual athletes as well. Psychologists who would want to pursue this career should have specialized training in sports psychology, doctorate in counselling or clinical psychology, Master’s level counsellor or therapist or advanced training in exercises science and fitness. Usually there are two types of sports psychologists: academic and applied. The academic sports psychologists are involved mostly on education and research. They eventually teach in these new methods and findings in colleges and universities although some of them also assist in the psychological management and interventions for teams, athletes and their personnel. Applied sports psychologists are more involved in the active practice of their profession in sports teams, athletes and settings with physical activity. They participate in addressing the performance of a team by clinical consultations, teambuilding and workshops that are all for the mental, emotional and psychological aspects of the team.

Athletic Trainer

One good career in sports medicine is Athletic Training. In this kind of job, an individual must be ready for long periods of education, training, hands- on practice and examinations for licensing. It also requires stamina and good physical shape, much like the athletes being handled. The long working hours and travelling will have a great demand on the body because athletes are undergoing constant training and their athletic trainers must always be there to supervise them.

Athletic trainers are responsible for the management, prevention, detection, and retraining of injured athletes. In the team’s medical attendants, the athletic trainers are supervised by the licensed physician to give immediate emergency measures and follow- up care. It is also their job to suggest and utilize the right equipment suited to their team. All aspects of performance and maintenance of the team rely mostly on the athletic trainer. Athletic trainers are well educated on injury prevention, detection and treatment because of their background on anatomy, physiology and sports science. Athletic trainer’s also coordinate the current health status of their athletes to the physician, coach, their families and other team members to determine whether an injured athlete should return to training. To become a certified athletic trainer, one must be educated in the health sciences, with a detailed background on sports injuries, its common causes and its treatments. The basic foundations in sports, biomechanics and athletics is also a must know for the athletic trainer. Other subjects usually taken up are nutrition, strength training and therapeutic exercises. Athletic trainers work in coordination with physicians and rehabilitation specialists in the health care teams of secondary, collegiate, university level and professional sports teams. Athletic trainers may also have administrative roles which include holding regular meetings with other administrative officers of a school or team to deal with budgets, rules and policies and other businesses regarding the team and its performance.

The usual work schedules of athletic trainers are longer and inconsistent. This means that work schedules depend on the team’s practice days and competition days in which the athletic trainer has to be present at all times. Game days may be morning or night and weekdays or weekends. Changes are also very frequent when competitions are rescheduled. This just proves that indeed, the work of an athletic training is very physically demanding. There are also some stresses and inconvenience in their nature of work since athletic trainers not only handle the over-all health of single athlete, but most of time, for a whole team. For some, it becomes more challenging when a single athlete is given to them for special care, training and attention. Basic psychological therapy knowledge is then put into play when athletes are overcome by frustration and low self- esteem. The pressure to win is also a big factor that affects an athletic trainer’s health since it is their responsibility to keep athletes in top shape which is essential to winning. Career opportunities for athletic trainers are favourable. Annually, the profession grows by approximately 10% giving a good career outlook.

Study Surgery

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Surgical studies require intensive years of education and training, and are a life-long pursuit. Surgical staff is in constant, high demand for the medical community. A course in surgery teaches students how to open, enter, examine, repair or remove tissue from the human body.
The only way to become an officially licensed surgeon is to attend a college or university program. Sometimes these courses will be funded by government or military programs, in which case the funder will later employ the surgeon.  It is typical for most surgeons to first obtain an undergraduate bachelor’s degree in a related field of study, such as biology, chemistry or other science. Afterwards, attendance to medical school for a master’s or (most often) a doctorate degree is required across the world, and is the only way to become a truly licensed surgeon. Before attending medical school, surgeons almost always need to pass certain standardized medical tests, such as the MCAT or AIPMT. Many programs will also require candidates to fulfill a surgical internship or residency at a hospital, clinic or other health care facility.
Any degrees obtained online or from other non-academic sources are not legally valid for a surgical license.
Skills, Qualifications and Prerequisites for Studies in Surgery
Students seeking to enter the surgical field should be dedicated to a surgical career. The road to being a surgeon can take an average of 10 years and should not be undertaken by anyone unsure about the career. Also remember that this course of study should only be attempted by those with high intelligence and a quick learning rate, as the education required is extensive.
Since surgeons often work in high-stress conditions, it is also essential that they possess the character to work under continuous pressure, work long hours and effectively handle critical situations. A surgeon should know how to anticipate and react to problems, forming quick, well-informed judgments in high-stress scenarios. It also benefits to have excellent communication and interpersonal skills, as surgical employment requires daily patient interaction and the ability to function effectively on a surgical team.
Physically, a surgeon is constantly working with their hands, so acute hand and finger dexterity is essential. Excellent eyesight and attention to detail is especially important due to the sometimes life-and-death nature of the work.  
Qualifications and Skills Acquired from Studies in Surgery
Surgeons often choose to specialize in specific medical areas, which means they may place less focus on certain areas of study or add other medical, health science, chemistry or biology courses to their program. Regardless of their specified surgical areas, all students in this area of study will cover the following key topics:
  • Knowledge of human anatomy.
  • Knowledge of bodily systems (endocrine, cardiovascular, etc.)
  • Surgical techniques and instruments.
  • X-ray and other medical technology.
  • Trauma treatments in various anatomical locations.
  • Treatment of shock and airway blockage.
  • Treatment of basic-to-serious injuries (burns, frostbit, etc.)
  • Essential medical terms and diagnoses.
  • Extensive biology and chemistry.
  • Lab technology and lab documentation.
  • Legal and ethical policies and laws.
  • Pharmaceuticals and other drugs.
Surgical studies groom candidates to work for hospitals, medical clinics, free clinics or private practices. Surgeons may also work for overseas programs, the military, non-profit organizations or as medical relief during natural disasters. Surgeons work in the specific areas of neurosurgery, cardiovascular, orthopedics, pediatrics, ENT, colorectal, ophthalmology, abdominal disease, gynecology, urology, plastic surgery and various other medical fields.

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Study Therapeutics

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The area of medical science which deals with the breakthrough and appliance of medications for various diseases is known as therapeutics, it involves the different ways of care and treatment in order to fight diseases and ease the injuries and pains.

The tools of Therapeutics comprise of surgery, drugs, radiation therapy, psychiatry, diet, and mechanical devices. The process of treatment may be active, in curing a certain disease, such requires no auxiliary treatment upon the recovery of the patient, the treatment can also be for a long term period, or for healing a wound; indicative, to alleviate symptoms till the body’s immune system heals; Therapeutics is also supportive, in keeping the functions of the body going till the full elimination of the disease, it is also a soothing approach, in order to lessen the discomfort felt by the patients who has no chances for full recoveries. It always includes prevention as well, typically tertiary. The measures of Therapeutics can be selected, pooled, and modified based on the precise analysis to suit the patient. Such measures are holistic medicine, chemotherapy, nuclear medicine, hydrotherapy, rehabilitation, physical medicine, respiratory therapy and psychotherapy.

The course of Therapeutics aims to provide the general practitioners with a realistic knowledge on Therapeutics which is very significant and applicable for their everyday practices. The course will also help the participants gain familiarization with the latest relevant and evidence based a guidelines in various areas of Therapeutics. For the duration of the course, the participants will then build up their own personal approaches and assess and enhance the quality of the care delivered in one specific area of the field. The course normally takes one year to finish by means of e-learning combined with workshops.

The objectives of Therapeutics course for the students are the following:

  • Recognize the options and targets as well as medications for the illness conditions.
  • Identify various drugs or drug groups, they should also be able to list down the alternative drugs and drug groups if needed.
  • Discuss all the drug mechanism actions.
  • Describe the aspects which are clinically important in drug disposition.
  • Describe different treatment schedules like the routes, intervals and doses and the precise plans of monitoring and furthermore.

  • Articulate the information on important drug interactions, patient populations which are at risk and the side effect profiles.

Practitioners of Therapeutics deliver a distinctive variety of service deliverance in terms of treatment, recreation participation and leisure education. In the course of assessment, decision making which is action-orientated in nature will be based on mutual understanding, information, trust, participation to meet the predetermined objectives and cooperation. The purpose of their service is to sustain, enhance and convey the most convenient and comfortable way of lifestyle alongside the treatment process.

As Therapeutic practitioner, they feel that they ought to be held responsible for the community for the professional conduct and quality of services they deliver. Such end is delivered through the founding of a specialized body which assures that the practitioners acquire the satisfactory skills, knowledge, skills and necessary resources by means of continues education and research.

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Study Traumatological Surgery

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Traumatological surgery, or trauma surgery as it is better known, is a discipline that is an integral part of providing proper medical attention to severely injured patients. Trauma critical care is a branch that deals with making critical decisions on the medical treatment to be given to badly injured patients, and a trauma surgeon will often find himself taking major decisions that could determine the life span of a patient.

Qualifications Required / Acquired

An aspiring trauma surgeon must be made of steel – weak hearted can’t digest the sight and thoughts of grievously injured patients. Trauma critical care is not for you if you can’t handle making heavy weight decisions that could affect the life of a patient. A trauma surgeon must also be proficient in theoretical and practical knowledge, and must be well versed with a wide range of medical sub-sets.

Courses for Trauma Surgery

Trauma surgery courses are provided at their best in United States of America and United Kingdom. Most universities in developing and under-developed nations do not offer trauma surgery as a course as the course calls for sophisticated equipment that weigh down on funds, or because the health care system is not well managed to provide employment opportunities to the students of this discipline, resulting in a lack of interested students.

In USA and UK, trauma surgery is among the options of specialization that are offered to be chosen by students pursuing their Doctor of Medicine degree. Apart from the general medicine program, you must complete a one-year trauma surgery program or a two-year combined fellowship program where you will have ample hands-on experience.

Trauma surgery fellowship is a course that provides you with the clinical and administrative skills that enable you to handle the worst patients rolled in to the emergency wards of hospitals. You will also be trained to develop the leadership skills required to handle trauma cases, lead nursing teams and take balanced decisions.

Surgical critical care fellowships include trauma surgery in their list, apart from dealing with advanced burns, pediatrics and organ transplantation.

In UK, Definitive Surgical Trauma Skills (DSTC) developed by Royal College of Surgeons of England, Royal Defence Medical College and Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences is the widely accepted course that is taken up by trauma surgeon aspirants.

Career Options

A trauma surgeon in developed countries will find the best job opportunities as the elite specialization is not treated with the same respect all over the world. Trauma surgeons are in demand to facilitate the health care systems to provide better treatment to severely injured patients. In USA, you will need to acquire license and certification to be able to practice, in accordance with the terms of whichever state you choose to work in. Passing the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) and having 1 – 3 years of residency to your credit are the most popular requirements to be met to be a trauma surgeon. American Board of Surgery (ABS) is another department that you need to communicate with.

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Study Tuberculosis & Respiratory Disease

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It has been said often the old advice “When you go out, bring a handkerchief with you.” But if you can’t, better push inside your pocket, or tuck in your purse or bag disposable surgical mask for use against contagious airborne disease. It is tuberculosis and other respiratory diseases that is the first in the list of killers of mankind.

As soon as we step down from our homes, smoke, smug, and dust fervently welcome us. Embedded in all these innocent looking elements are toxic and virulent bacteria and viruses of all kinds. Dust particles contain excreta of dust mite which is very tiny to be able to enter the body through inhaling. This initiates allergic respiratory reaction which causes asthma, influenza, colds, and even generates the onset of pneumonia.

Students or non-students, onsite workers or office employees are possible victims of respiratory disease and even tuberculosis, which in 2007 there were 13.7 million chronic cases, 9.3 million further cases, and 1.8 million deaths occurring mostly in poorer countries and having less advanced industries especially Africa, Latin America and Asia. Medical students learn in school that tuberculosis begins to spread when a person with the diseases coughs and sneezes. Those around or near him contract the disease unwarily.

The Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute of the University of Delhi is one school that offers courses such as Tuberculosis & Respiratory Diseases and Diploma in Tuberculosis & Chest Diseases. The school also provides programs in different specialties that relate to chest diseases, and the advancement of the up-to-the-minute diagnostic technology. The Lala Ram Swarup Institute of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases offer a three-year graduate course on Respiratory Medicine; the Rostov State Medical University with nearly 400 foreign students annually who receive the degree of science offer other degree courses and programs such as Medicine, Surgery, Clinical and Psychosocial Epidemiology, etc.

Other schools where a student could take up the course on Tuberculosis & Respiratory Disease: University of Delhi, Bukovinian State Medical University, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Sichuan University in China, Barts and the London School of Medicine, and Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. Syllabus is: Theoretical Knowledge, Clinical Skills, Practical Skills, Management of Medical Emergencies, and Preparation of a dissertation. Subjects from the first year to the last year are: Applied Basic sciences to pulmonary medicine; Paper I-Tuberculosis (Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary); Paper II-Non tuberculosis Respiratory diseases; and Paper III-Recent advances in respiratory medicine. After finishing the course, the graduate is conferred the degree and Diploma in Tuberculosis and Chest Diseases, or the Diploma in Tuberculosis & Respiratory Diseases.

The student of Tuberculosis & Respiratory Disease learns that when a person with a fallen immune system receives the bacteria, the microorganism could enter the respiratory system and can even spread to other organs. People with lowered immune system are those who have AIDS or HIV, elders, and those that have other diseases. Tuberculosis bacteria spreads from the infected lungs to the kidneys, spine, to the Meninges (tissue that covers the brain), the female reproductive organs (mother can transmit the disease to the unborn child), and other organs of the body. The spreading bacteria if uncontained and untreated are fatal and could lead to death.

Students learn the symptoms of tuberculosis. These are loss of weight and appetite; fever, and sweating at night; coughing that lasts three or more weeks (breathing or coughing is painful and shortness of breath); faintness of muscle; feeling exhausted and worn out; swollen neck (infection of the lymph nodes); prickly and stinging in the hands and or feet. Tuberculosis does not omit young or old, does not select race or gender, or level of income. Tuberculosis causes death to people who 1. are working or living with other people that have tuberculosis; 2. people who are not given medical care; 3. people from countries where tuberculosis is widespread; 4. people with no homes; 5. people (old and ailing) who live in caring homes and receiving up keeping and medical treatment; 6. people who drink too much alcohol, and use intravenous injections; 7. people who are immune deficient; 8. health givers who are often in close dealings with residents that have a high degree of exposure to the disease; 8. the aged.

Tuberculosis, as the medical students know, may have been a closer kin to other respiratory disease such as pneumonia (next respiratory killer to TB) and lung cancer (welcoming recipients are heavy cigarettes smokers, and workers in hazard-polluted environment) with very slight disparity. Like tuberculosis, asthma and other diseases of the respiratory system need long-term medical treatment, whereas colds, influenza (highly contagious disease of the lungs), and allergies, although have no cure, typically do not pose danger to life.

In the course of the study, there are medicines for tuberculosis such as antibiotics, but these medicines do not cure diseases caused by viruses. Cold virus does not succumb to antibiotics and even to vaccine. As to date, no vaccine has been developed as safeguard against colds. Doctor’s attention and medication are necessary when there is onset of tuberculosis and other respiratory disease.

After graduation, job placement is not difficult to seek. He can get job from different private and government clinical centers, hospitals, and schools.

Graduates of the course can pursue career in laboratory hospitals or clinics as diagnostic or laboratory technicians.

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Veterinary Medicine is the science of applying medical, therapeutic, and diagnostic principles to animals – may it be domestic, wildlife, exotic, or production animals. Humans take care of animals for companionship, like in the case of domestic animals, such as dogs, cats, etc.; for entrepreneurship, like in the case of production or livestock animals, such as cattle, horses, hogs, etc.; or for mere welfare of animals, like in the case of government and non-government animal welfare groups who take care of endangered animal species.

The field of Veterinary Medicine offers various specializations in treating animals, including Zoologic Medicine (focusing on healthcare of zoo and wildlife), Psychology, Dermatology, Internal Medicine, Oncology, Neurology, Surgery, Cardiology, and a lot more. Licensed veterinarians are getting employment from large commercial farms as resident doctors to monitor and improve the health of livestock. Securing animal health in livestock industry is as critical to humans as it is to animals themselves. Hundreds of people are employed by these farms to maintain the operations. Presence of air-borne diseases in its animals could potentially put the health of its employees at risk, especially in the case of diseases that are also transmittable to humans. Buying substandard meat products is also a risk if livestock animals are not taken care of. Private veterinary clinics, on the other hand, never run out of patients from individuals or families who maintain regular check-up of their ‘loved ones.’ Just like human healthcare, it helps to have a doctor who regularly checks on animals and knows its health history for easier diagnostic procedure as the need arises. Research industries (pharmaceutical and agricultural research, for instance) are also a good venue for practitioners in this field, where they get to contribute to the advancement of animal health.

The demand for veterinarians is driven by more and more private individuals who opt to have companionship through pet animals and by livestock industry that is also getting bigger to support the needed supply of human population. Private pet owners are more than willing to purchase health insurance plans for their pets, and this allows for the patronization of advanced animal healthcare from private veterinary clinics. Do you think dental care, such as root canals, is exclusive to humans? Think again. The advancement in the field of Veterinary Medicine has paved the way for sophisticated healthcare for animals, such as insulin injections, cataract extraction, pacemakers, root canals, surgical procedures, etc. Veterinarians who prefer metropolitan over rural lifestyle go for private veterinary clinics, where they handle pet companion and domestic animal cases. On the other hand, resident veterinarians in livestock farms are situated outside the metropolitan area, since livestock farms are situated in rural areas.

They say infants are the most difficult to treat among human age groups. Why? Because they cannot speak their minds through words that adults understand. They just cry, and you’ll know something is wrong. Can you imagine how much more difficult it is when it comes to treating animals? They definitely cannot speak the human language! This makes Veterinary Medicine challenging and interesting at the same time. Practitioners of this field are expected to possess great height of interest in science, just like practitioners in any other field of medicine. In addition, they must have genuine love of animals and concern to their welfare.

There is a stiff competition not just in employment but even in admittance in veterinary schools. In the United States, for instance, there are less than 30 accredited veterinary medicine schools.

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Study Woman and Child Health

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Woman and Child care is a specialized field within medicine, focusing on the different aspects of women’s health, pregnancy, labor, and various aspects of children’s health and upbringing. A professional in this field is most likely to take care of a woman throughout her pregnancy, providing health care services and support in the form of gynecological check-ups, ultrasound examinations, blood examinations, as well as providing advice or arranging consultations with diet and exercise counselors, pediatricians, lactation consultants, and so on. Professionals in the woman and child care field also ensure a safe delivery of the baby, providing post delivery care and pediatric health care. Furthermore, if you decide to go into this area of medicine you would be equipped to deal with breast cancer consultations, diagnosis and treatment. The field covers other woman-specific issues like menopause care, ovarian cancer, and other gynecological problems and solutions, too.

Personal Qualities

To go into this field, you would need to have an aptitude for medicine and other related degrees. A caring and patient nature is suitable for a professional in this field, and here are some other skills you might explore:

  • Commitment to education and hard work

  • Self confidence

  • Excellent communication skills

  • High level of emotional intelligence

  • Enjoy working with people

  • Highly motivated and self-disciplined individual

Study Options

Because this is a broad field in which you can undertake a variety of job roles, your study choices entirely depend on what exactly you wish to work. In any case, if you are looking to become a gynecologist, a pediatrician, a nurse, or a midwife you should pursue some form of medical education. You should keep in mind that such a discipline is highly demanding, and it would require sound preparation in biology and chemistry early in high school. Usually, after you have completed a couple of years of general education in the field, you would be able to specialize and continue with a postgraduate degree. The other name for a person, dealing with child and women care is an obstetrician – obstetricians normally work together with gynecologists and are responsible to take care both for the woman and the baby. This profession also requires sound medical education and postgraduate training, as well as certification in surgery.

With regard to all these, you would have to carefully research the medical institution you wish to study at and make sure that it will equip you with the knowledge and practical skills that are required for this profession. In order to become a good and reliable specialist, you need years of practice and experience, for which reason a specialized hospital with a good reputation of the undergraduate and postgraduate programs it offers would be your best choice.

Career Options

Career options in the woman and child care field are very diverse. You could be working within a specialized department in a general hospital, in a specialized medical center, or in a private clinic. Again, your career development would highly depend on what type of profession or specialization you have chosen – you could be a midwife – in this case you would typically work closely with the obstetrician who oversees the pregnancy, you would need to be available in the event of any complications, such as the need for a Cesarean section, and carry out physical examinations of both the mother and the baby. We have already discussed gynecologists, and another specialization is a pediatrician – this is a doctor, who specializes in the care of children. Again, there are many branches that cover children’s heath, and you could either be a general practitioner, or specialize in diseases like asthma and allergies, mental problems, or inborn disabilities. In any case, the profession opens up a large number of opportunities, one of which is to have your own practice or clinic.

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