Studies & Degrees in Humanities
Choose the degree program you would like to study:Ancient History Ancient Mediterranean Civilizations Ancient Philosophy Ancient Religion Applied Ethics Applied Philosophy Applied Social Studies Applied Sociology Archaeology of the Greek World Archival Science Art History Asian-Pacific Studies Biblical Theology Bilingual Humanities Bioethics Black Sea Cultural Studies Catholic Theology Celtic Studies Central and Eastern European Studies Classical Archeology Classical Civilization and Hellenic Studies Classical Medieval and Renaissance Studies Comparative Literature Comparative Religion & Philosophy Cultural Art History Cultural Management Drama/Theatre History Economic History Ethics Ethnic Studies Eurasian Studies Greek and Roman Civilization History History & Culture History and Civilization History of Dress History of Ideas History of Spain History of the 20th Century Humanities Iberian Studies Ibero-American Studies Indian history Interdisciplinary Studies International Relations International Studies Liberal Arts Liberal Studies Metaphysics Modern History Native American Studies Near Eastern Studies Ontology Oriental studies Personal Development Philosophy Philosophy of Religion Prehistorical Studies Protestant Theology Religious Studies Sociology of Literature Soviet and Post-Soviet Studies Spanish for foreigners Study Abroad Programs Systematic Theology Theology World History
Study Ancient History
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The study of Ancient History is not only for the purpose of satisfying one’s curiosity of the past; it is also an important process in learning the past to understand the present. For students who are taking or will be taking Ancient History, you will find the course interesting and rather enjoyable especially when looking for evidences about the past peoples and how, with their primitive technology, they responded and solved the challenges of their times. Critical thinking and analysis are the few but probably the most important skills that a student will develop should he/she take this course.
Ancient History is studying about the past, but what exactly would students do should they take this course? An example curriculum showed three content areas which are the focus of the curriculum framework:
Historical thinking and methodology is one content area. Students taking Ancient History should develop an understanding of historical thinking, skills and processes: mainly to inquire, analyze, and present. Students are expected to construct an historical inquiry in order to formulate their own historical narratives and accounts. They should be able to understand the ethical requirements of an historical investigation, develop inquiry skills, and be able to construct sound arguments about the past. Interpreting, analyzing, and synthesizing information based on historical inquiry is also an important activity in studying Ancient History. Finally, they should be able to communicate their findings according to purpose and audience. Communication and presentation skills are necessary, also the skills in arranging the data gathered and closing in on a sound conclusion.
Another content area is working with ancient historical narratives. Students are expected to examine a range of historical narratives to learn and understand the chronology of a time period. They are to examine the defining characteristics of certain societies, key peoples, ideas, and events that are the forces of change for that period. Students are expected learn about the elements of a society at the start of the period, forces of change for the period, and the consequences of continuity and change over the period.
Last content area is historical explanation and representation. Through evidence analysis, historical narratives, and debates, students will develop an understanding about the knowledge the past holds. Students are to examine and study the explanations and representations of past people, ideas, and events so that they can go beyond the mere explanation of historical fact; they become the actual narrator. Students will develop an understanding of the different perspectives about the past that can be reflected in the present, through shared and prevailing values, beliefs, traditions and experiences of an individual or a group. Students also learn, by studying the range of perspectives about the past, the importance of historical empathy and why there is a need for many perspectives for an historical event, why some perspectives are often challenged, reconstructed, and then further endorsed later on.
Students who study Ancient History will be well equipped with the necessary skills that will help them adapt in a changing world. Skills like research, critical thinking, analysis, communication, and presentation are very important and valuable in effectively preparing them in any career including, but not limited to: lawyer, journalist, diplomat, researcher, archaeologist, anthropologist, teacher, and many occupations in the travel and tourism industry.
Study Ancient Mediterranean Civilizations
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Study Ancient Philosophy
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Are you a graduate student who is passionate about studying the various schools of philosophical thought and the birth of civilization? Have you considered pursuing a doctorate degree in Ancient Philosophy? Whether your interests are academic in nature or merely personal, perhaps for enrichment purposes, earning a Doctor of Philosophy degree in Ancient Philosophy is a great way to enhance your career prospects and your improve your outlook on life. Here we will discuss the PhD in Ancient Philosophy in a bit more detail, including a brief description of the program and some information regarding the coursework you’re likely to encounter while participating in the program.
Doctor of Philosophy Degree in Ancient Philosophy: Course Description and Goals
The Doctor of Philosophy Degree in Ancient Philosophy is a post-graduate-level program designed for students who share both a personal and academic interest in the ancient thinkers and the schools of thought they founded. This course of study, which generally spans two to four years depending on the student and institution, features an in-depth look at the ancient philosophers and their never-ending pursuit of the “good life”—the capacity to live as well as one may as a rational and conscientious being. Students in the PhD program in Ancient Philosophy are encouraged to appreciate what it means to be a philosopher and a lover of wisdom, and are given tools for learning how to live a philosophic life that will contribute not only to their own well-being, but to the state of humanity as well.
The goals of the Doctor of Philosophy Degree in Ancient Philosophy include:
- Introducing program participants to how the major ancient thinkers addressed the question of how human beings should secure the good life and live well.
- Developing a comprehension of significant philosophical concepts—the concepts of happiness, desire, virtue, love, pleasure and good—required to complete the above-named task.
- Familiarizing students with key texts penned by some of the most notable ancient philosophers, including Plato, Aristotle, Epicurus and Epictetus.
- Developing and perfecting the reasonable and analytical skills regularly employed by the ancient thinkers.
Those who complete the PhD program in Ancient Philosophy can use their skills in a number of career areas, including the fields of education (teaching, curriculum development and administration); civil service; research; local government; charities and non-profits; journalism and publishing.
Doctor of Philosophy Degree in Ancient Philosophy: Coursework
Students enrolled in the Doctor of Philosophy Degree program in Ancient Philosophy can often work with their graduate advisor to design a program that matches their interests and capabilities. The coursework from which they can choose will involve studies in both the key philosophical concepts and the ancient philosophers themselves, with class titles that may include:
- Introduction to the Concepts of Good, Pleasure and Happiness According to the Ancient Philosophers
- Desire, Virtue and knowledge
- The Good of Others
- Introduction to Plato
- Introduction to Aristotle
- The Philosophy of Epicurus
- The Philosophy of the Stoic Epictetus
- And more…
Once students have completed all the required coursework, which in most programs totals 60 semester credits, they will need to present—and have approved—a dissertation topic and will later have to present and defend their dissertation to the Philosophy faculty.
Study Ancient Religion
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Study Applied Ethics
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Study Applied Philosophy
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Study Applied Social Studies
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Study Applied Sociology
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Study Archaeology of the Greek World
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Study Archival Science
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A degree in Archival Science is ideal for those with passion for history and its preservation. The study involves knowing the safe storage, proper making of catalogues, and retrieval of vital documents and artifacts. It includes application of techniques in making documents intact and the development of new methods in case the previous process no longer works. With the widespread advancement of technology, the study also comprise the electronic and digital ways of keeping these files.
The traditional archival science focused on the climate-controlled storage of documents. How to catalogue and access files and items including their safe handling are key components of the study. Nowadays, digital filing and building up of electronic databases added up to the study methods. Although archival science is usually associated with libraries, museums, and historical societies, the field can also be useful for anyone who is maintaining a large private collection of business documents. This course can be obtained from colleges and universities and may generally be included under the Information Science or History programs.
Some professional societies like the Society of American Archivists (SAA) are continuously seeking effort to further develop this science. Some guidelines for graduate programs were published by the SAA in 2002 with the hope of being adopted by universities offering the course. With little success in standardizing the practice, the archivists at present have diverse methods of carrying out their tasks as they come from different museums, history centers, and libraries with each having their own systems.
Other duties of archivist may also incorporate the acquisition and appraisal of new collections, arrangement of records, and provision of references for each material. The work of ethics is also very important among archivists. They are expected to be extra caring and must be ready to assist visitors in the interpretation of collections and answering of questions. In bigger institutions, the archivists may be further broken down into subspecialties such as those having roles as processing archivists or as reference archivists.
Other working opportunities for archivists may be provided by government agencies, businesses, corporations, charities, local authorities, cultural centers, hospitals, colleges and universities, and other related institutions whose database may be of value for research.
A lot of Archival Science degree holders are educators and lecturers as well. Those in the cultural organizations commonly conceptualize and plan educational and outreach programs to help users in understanding and accessing information available in their collections. At some point, media coverage, exhibits, and promotional activities may be organized by them.
If you are interested to pursue a career in archival science, you must be tech-savvy to cope up with the application of encoded archival description and the demand to make the documents available online. Basic XML skills are now commonly acquired by those studying this course to improve technical proficiency. You must also work well with people and have the patience to deal with a lot of inquisitive researchers. You should be very logical and a highly organized individual to ensure you perform the sorting and listing of huge amount of files. It is expected that you are willing to learn the basic knowledge of storing and maintaining the cultural artifacts and documents. You must enjoy researching and be very knowledgeable about the collection as you are often regarded as the resource person of researchers.
If you think you would be fulfilled being an archivist, then you can check out the college and university programs, or the online courses that you would find more appropriate for you. Online courses are convenient, cost-effective, and can allow you to continue working while studying.
Study Art History
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As human nature is inclined to appreciate beauty, art has been a significant part of culture since ancestry. As a matter of fact, it dates back into pre-historic times represented by carvings discovered on caves. Art is but not limited to a single form hence branching out into many different specializations such as architecture, painting, sculpture, etc. No wonder its origin and development has been a subject of inquiry officially known as “Art History” pioneered by the Greek sculptor Xenokrates of Sicyon as early as 280 BC. As it involves diverse discipline, many other historians emerged thereafter until the mid-19th century when Heinrich Wolfflin considered as “Father of Modern Art History” came into the scene.
Creating an artwork is a gift for it is a product of a creative mind going beyond what has been illustrated. This best explains why art is a powerful expression made through symbols that trigger mental, emotional, and psychological faculties of man. In turn, it is not confined to visual arts that primarily appeals to the sense of sight for there are still many other aspects. It does not exclusively evolve into painting, architecture, and sculpture which have been much popularized. It also includes music, literature, and film that appeal directly to the spirit of man more than the senses. In consequence, this only goes to show that art history also deals with an array of art forms which are equally interesting subjects of inquisition.
Art Historians are as precious as priced artworks considering their contribution to “Humanities” as a discipline. In particular, new generation of artworks demand fresh generation of art storytellers, too. It is for the reason that artistic creations are being scrutinized within the context of its respective period. In the same way, it is also examined based on the context of the artist’s world such as iconography and symbolism. Meaning it also involves research on the background of the creator comprised of his influence and prejudices. These only comprise the subjective side of analysis while there are still many other objective facets for instance colour, dimension, line, shape, and texture. No doubt, every historian is groomed as another art genius to be able to interpret any given artwork.
Art History is offered as major and minor courses of study. Major course program include advanced courses in Ancient Art, Baroque Art, Renaissance Art, Modern Art, and Non-Western Art, etc. Minor course program may likewise include advanced level courses given that students have taken introductory courses that could suffice as pre-requisites. Either case, art making is a required course to expose students into creative painting, sculpture, and architectural design. Further studies may be undertaken such as Master of Arts in Art History, Historical and Sustainable Architecture, and Museum Studies. Doctor of Philosophy course programs are also accessible hence the Doctor of Philosophy in Art History, Art History and Archaeology, and Culture, Arts, and Media.
There are many different career opportunities for Art Historians. As a matter of fact the diverse field of work includes education, real estate, journalism, museum management, dealership, government agencies, etc. More often than not, Art Historians are concentrated on urban places which are home to universities, museums, and art galleries.
Study Asian-Pacific Studies
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Study Biblical Theology
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Of the many branches of Theology, Biblical Theology is the discipline which studies the Bible and the story that it unfolds which speaks of God’s revelation to humanity through history. It is also called the “History of Special Revelation” as it deals with the unfolding nature of revelation as history develops in the Bible. Biblical Theology aims to understand what the Bible says by giving meaning to the scriptures through the writings in the Bible as well. It has its focus on the Old Testament to create an understanding on how each part of the Bible leads towards the fulfilment in the life of Christ as the Messiah.
Biblical Theology is all about giving meaning to the scriptures through the other scriptures in the Bible itself. In this light, for one to discover and understand what a particular scripture tries to explain, one must know where the text points towards or back to. At that, the aim is to understand the Biblical text against its background. Meaning, it should be realized that the Bible is in itself a historical progression, and that each part of the Bible is important and significant as each is essential in understanding the Bible as a whole. The study of Biblical Theology sees the Bible as a history book, which is a book that can be understood through time. Thus, it shows how the Bible is so diverse that each part of it can be understood using its own terms.
There are parts of the Bible where when one seeks to understand the deeper and true meaning of the text, he/she must only look for certain passages in the Bible itself, only in other books, which are related to the particular text and explains it thoroughly. Biblical Theology proves that God slowly reveals himself through history, through the Biblical texts, through the interrelated scriptures that unveil his words and deeds for and to His people. How God presents and reveals Himself throughout the Bible is the focus of the study of Biblical Theology, decoding each text according to related texts as well.
Biblical Theology also includes Covenant Theology, Ritual Theology, and Literary Theology. This study aims to answer questions such as “How much does a person know about God?”, “To what extent were God’s plans revealed, such as Jesus’ becoming the Messiah?”, and “How has Israel responded to God up to this point?”
For religious degrees such as Biblical Theology, there are usually 2 career choices where one can end up choosing: the parochial path or those who become Clergymen, or the academic path, or those who become teachers in the school setting. Biblical Theology majors usually end up being members of the Clergy, either a Preacher or a Pastor, a religious/spiritual leader, at that. Others prefer to be members of the academe to teach Theology as college professors and/or lecturers, or as teachers of religion in basic education levels. Some are called Biblical Theologians or those who research about topics related to the study of Biblical Theology.
Study Bilingual Humanities
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The field of bilingual humanities can be broken down into two basic components. Humanities, like the social sciences, are a broad general study focusing on aspects of language, literature, art, religion or any other culturally centered studies. Bilingual humanities focus on these aspects in different language environments, and often in regards to different cultural aspects that accompany the language. Therefore, bilingual humanities are a course of study focused on cultural learning in a bilingual environment.
Colleges and universities offer excellent courses in humanity studies, ranging from an associate, bachelor, master or doctorate degree level. Humanities are culturally focused fields of study, and education can also be attained through some internships, public services or workshops. The bilingual aspect of study may be previously attained individually, developed through a college course or acquired using a study program, tutor or other language-learning method.
Due to the specific nature of bilingual humanities, many colleges will not offer majors with this title. More often, students pursue a humanities degree (either general or in a specific humanities area, such as art or language) with an accompanying second-language major study. An example of a bilingual humanities study would be: a student majoring in Spanish Literature with a minor or fluency in Spanish.
Skills, Qualifications, and Prerequisites for Studies in Bilingual Humanities
Universities and colleges will possess admission requirements that interested candidates must adhere to – such as earning a secondary school completion certificate or passing a standardized test. Service opportunities and workshops will not usually require any prerequisites, but will also only educate in very specific humanities areas (and not necessarily with a bilingual focus).
Fluency in a second language or multiple languages is ideal, though not required, as this can be studied in addition to humanities studies. A significant desire to understand human practice, condition, history and culture is essential. Candidates should be able to communicate clearly, while interpreting and understanding a variety of historical and cultural material.
Skills and Qualifications Acquired from Studies in Bilingual Humanities
Since humanities itself is a broad field of study, the acquired skills in bilingual humanities is just as broad. A general humanities course with a bilingual component will likely give students skills in the following areas:
- Fluency in a second language (Spanish, Chinese, etc.)
- Second language cannon literature (French literature, etc.)
- Western, European and/or eastern art and history.
- Western, European and/or eastern culture.
- Western, European and/or eastern politics.
- Basic philosophy studies.
- Basic communication studies.
- Foreign translation.
- Critical thinking, expression and creativity.
Careers for Studies in Bilingual Humanities
Bilingual humanists can pursue a variety of degrees based on their preferred area of study, and since the study is very broad, can work in a multitude of environments. Government departments, production companies, international industries, independent organizations of educational facilities all hire bilingual humanity graduates.
These students may become cross-cultural communicators, consultants, interpreters or translators for various companies facing language barriers. Historians, artists, museum curators, business supervisors, political advisors and even lawyers have studied bilingual humanities. It is usually found, however, that many graduates in this field pursue careers as teachers in primary, secondary, and post-secondary education.
Choose where you would like to study Bioethics:IndiaItalySpainThe United States
Bioethics is a branch of Philosophy which is primarily concerned with the questions of moral issues in a medical setting. Bioethics in itself is a specialized field that branches from Ethics in Philosophy, which is the study of how humans act and react in a situation that requires a careful consideration of moral principles. As a discipline of the social sciences, Bioethics is quite a new one, having been established in the academe in the 1970s, when professional philosophers began to offer classes in several universities discussing ethics in relation to the biological sciences and health care in particular.
Students of Bioethics would need to familiarize themselves with the basic concepts of medicine, gaining a better understanding on human health and diseases and what causes these illnesses. This would help them grasp the moral issues concerning decisions that have to be made by the doctors and other medical practitioners about their patients and the diseases they are treating.
Aside from this, historical knowledge is also important when trying to understand medical cases like epidemics in order for the students of Bioethics to be able to analyze epidemics and plagues from the past and see how they can be related to epidemics emerging nowadays.
Bioethics also deals with the possible conflicts that may arise from decisions made by medical practitioners in their effort to protect the health of the public while upholding human rights. This would include issues concerning quarantine and the preventive measures that must be done against communicable diseases.
Perhaps one of the most controversial issues that have risen among philosophers specializing in Bioethics would be the medical advances that are happening in the field of genetic studies. This would include topics like genetic screening, genetic engineering and even gene therapy. All three are arguably important to all medical practitioners’ work in curing and preventing diseases, but there are also moral issues involved that would have to be considered seriously concerning the value of human life and artificial ways of saving it. Some other controversial issues students would be facing are those questions concerning abortion, euthanasia and even artificial fertilizations.
Within the discipline of Bioethics, there are also some specializations. An example would be Neuroethics, which has to do with the questions of ethics regarding the treatment medical practitioners might prescribe for neurological illness.
Of course, it is normal for hospitals nowadays to have a Bioethics expert to give advice on the best course of action regarding a terminally ill patient as well as allocating medical help and supplies in the case of limited resources. On the other hand, students who do not wish to work in a medical environment can also teach in colleges and universities as well as become bioethical consultants for medical and educational publications.
Study Black Sea Cultural Studies
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Study Catholic Theology
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Study Celtic Studies
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Study Central and Eastern European Studies
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Study Classical Archeology
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Study Classical Civilization and Hellenic Studies
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Study Classical Medieval and Renaissance Studies
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Classical Medieval and Renaissance Studies are centered on discovering and examining the origins of the modern world. The course involves a multi-disciplinary method that examines the metamorphosis of ancient thinking patterns to more modern ones. The course will also include studying architecture and art from periods between roughly 700 B.C. to A.D. 1600. There will also be an insightful and comprehensive study of the languages and cultures predominant during this period.
A course like this usually involves an intersection three dimensions namely the cultural, the intellectual as well as the historical highlights of the period. This is what makes the course truly exciting and unique. The extent of each of these aspects widely depends on where you choose to do your course from. However, the fundamentals of these courses are usually the same.
The course content of these courses varies according to the college and individual choice. Some of the most common subjects studied include Medieval and Renaissance civilization, literature, Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Literature, Literature before 1700, Western Europe Culture and Literature from 5th to 15th Century, Art histories, Medieval Philosophy, Medieval Church History, Arabic Culture and Philosophy and so on.
Required Attributes and Qualification
- If you are going for the undergraduate course, you must have opted for History in junior college.
- Similarly, if you are going for a Masters degree, it always helps if you have a BA degree or diploma in history, cultural studies or linguistics.
- The course basically requires an aptitude and passion for history, cultural studies. So passion for different cultures and languages is a must.
- Different universities have varying standards for selection which may include an entrance test, a personal interview, group discussions etc.
- Again, there are also a few universities that require a minimum amount of work experience before you can enroll for the course.
Most universities offer Bachelor of Arts (BA) in Classical Medieval and Renaissance Studies. These courses could be Honors degrees, four year courses or even Double Honors. Again, if you want to minor in Classical Medieval and Renaissance Studies, there are many colleges that will offer this option as well. If you are looking to take it to the next level, you can go for research studies in Classical Medieval and Renaissance Studies as well. Most of these courses last for 24 months.
Career opportunities with Classical Medieval and Renaissance Studies are varied and broad. Since the course involves an intimate and detailed study of human nature and social constructs across various ages, it can be put to use in various professions. Government organization, industry, business etc. are all open to students with this kind of qualification. In fact, an arts degree of this nature opens to the door to a career politics, journalism, academics, museum interpretation, religious studies, archival work and diplomatic services.
The best thing about these courses is that many universities give students the freedom to customize their course and study various subjects such as anthropology, art, archeology, drama art history etc. with their course in Classical Medieval and Renaissance Studies.
Study Comparative Literature
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Study Comparative Religion & Philosophy
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Are you interested in studying the various religious doctrines, practices and schools of thought in countries throughout the Western and Eastern world? Have you considered pursuing a degree in Comparative Religion and Philosophy, a graduate-level program now offered by hundreds of colleges and universities around the globe? The programs in Comparative Religion and Philosophy, which are offered at both the Master’s degree and PhD level, provide a unique educational opportunity for graduate students, one that allows them to investigate the realties and consequences of a personal commitment to spirituality and spiritual practices in the East and the West. To help you become more familiar with this program and what it entails, below we will provide a brief description of both the Master’s and PhD programs in Comparative Religion and Philosophy, including the programs’ objectives, course content and the requirements for admission into each.
Graduate Programs in Comparative Religion and Philosophy
The Master’s degree program in Comparative Religion and Philosophy provides the foundation courses in religion, integral spirituality and philosophy, which will ultimately help prepare students for the PhD program in the same discipline. Similarly, the PhD program in Comparative Religion and Philosophy provides a wide range of opportunities for spiritual practices, in which students will do research into and compare Eastern and Western worldviews, philosophies and religions, including mainstream and indigenous spiritual practices. Both courses of study will additionally delve into the various philosophical inquiries into mainstream, materialistic views of the nature of reality and human existence.
The Master of Arts program in Comparative Religion and Philosophy typically takes two years to complete, while the PhD studies in the discipline can span between 3 and 5 years depending on the student and institution.
Objectives of the Master’s Degree and PhD program in Comparative Religion and Philosophy
The Master of Arts curriculum in Comparative Religion and Philosophy is designed to provide:
- Opportunities for comparative and historical research on Eastern and Western philosophies and religions.
- A deep and comprehensive examination of the religions and philosophies believed to have had major influence on the course of human history.
- Guided spiritual practices.
- Providing learned instruction in Eastern and Western religions and philosophies.
- Promoting scholarly research in the disciplines of spirituality and philosophy.
- Providing opportunities for elective course credits based on student interest.
- Enhancing students’ personal experience with integral spirituality.
- Helping students to become more sensitive with regard to varied views of reality and human existence.
- Encouraging personal spiritual experiences.
The curriculum of the Master of Arts and PhD programs in Comparative Religion and Philosophy includes both core classes and electives. The exact titles for these classes may vary from institution to institution, but they may include:
- Foundations in Integral Studies
- Studies in Consciousness
- Research Methodology for Religious Studies
- Study of Eastern Religions & Spirituality
- Study of Western Religions & Spirituality
- Shamanism and Indigenous Religions
- Meditation Buddhism
- Islam n
- Taois m
- And more…
Admission Requirements for Graduate Programs in Comparative Religion and Philosophy
Students wishing to pursue a Master’s degree in Comparative Religion and Philosophy must possess at least Bachelor degree in Religious Studies, Philosophy or other related field, with a grade point average of 3.0 or above in all core coursework. PhD candidates must first complete the Master of Arts degree in Comparative Religion and Philosophy prior to being considered for program admittance.
Study Cultural Art History
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Have you recently earned a graduate degree in Art History or a related field and are now searching for a program in which to focus your doctoral studies? Are you interested in the relationship between culture and art that has existed throughout history and the elements of multiculturalism that these artistic works represent? If so, you may want to consider pursuing a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degree in Cultural Art History. To help you become more acquainted with this degree track, below we will provide some of the key information about the PhD program in Cultural Art History, including a brief course description and a sample of some of the coursework that is typically required for students participating in this program.
Doctor of Philosophy Degree in Cultural Art History: Course Description
The Doctor of Philosophy degree in Cultural Art History is a post-graduate-level program that is now being offered by a handful of colleges and universities throughout the world. For full-time students, the program typically spans three to five years in duration, which includes the required coursework and the time it will take for students to develop and present their dissertation to the program faculty.
The PhD in Cultural Art History is designed for students who want to explore the culture significance of art and how the art realm is able to transcend the boundaries of time, culture, place, religion, politics and economics. Students will study the cultural, creative and historical characteristics that exist in artwork and learn about their importance from a multidisciplinary and multicultural perspective.
Although the PhD degree in Cultural Art History is intentionally designed for those who want to pursue a career in the Art History field, the analytical, critical, research and writing skills students will develop while participating in the program may very well appeal to employers across a broad range of industries, and may qualify students to work in fields such as publishing and journalism; education; the law; art galleries; and museums, among others.
Doctor of Philosophy in Cultural Art History: Coursework
As it is with most PhD level programs, the exact coursework for the Cultural Art History degree is fairly flexible, enabling students to create their own unique program with the help of their counselor or mentor. Students will generally choose from a list of approved modules and opt for classes that are directly or indirectly tied to their dissertation topic. Certain modules, however, are compulsory and must be taken by all students before commencing with their individualized program. Below is a brief sample of the mandatory courses, as well as the optional modules from which students can choose:
Compulsory Modules for the PhD in Cultural Art History
- Library Methodology
- Conducting Research in Art History
- Critical Writing in Art History
- Theory and Interpretation of Artistic Works
- Art History and the Business Associated with It
- Museum Practices and Procedures
Elective Modules for the PhD in Cultural Art History
- Foundations of Cultural Art History
- Cultural History of Art I and II
- The History of Architecture
- History of Photography
- Foundations of Roman and Etruscan Art
- Foundations of Early Christian and Byzantine Art
- Foundation of Arts in the Islamic World
- Foundations of Arts in the Buddhist World
- And many more…
As you can see, the elective modules focus on the different types of art (sculpture, paintings, architecture, photography) from different periods (Roman, Early Christian, etc.), allowing students to concentrate and narrow their efforts and gear them toward a particular dissertation topic.
Study Cultural Management
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Study Drama/Theatre History
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Are you a fan of Drama and the Theater, particularly the origins and history of this artistic form—a history that dates back to ancient times? Have you considered pursuing an advanced degree in Drama and Theater history, a course of study now offered by a select number of colleges and universities throughout the world? If so, you may be the perfect candidate for the Master of Arts degree in Drama and Theater History. Although the field of Art History has long been a staple at institutions of higher learning, the degree path focused on Drama and Theater History is fairly new, although equally enriching as its “Art History” predecessor. To help you become a bit more familiar with this burgeoning degree field, below we have provided a brief synopsis of the Master of Arts degree in Drama and Theater History, including a detailed course description, an outline of some of the course content involved with the program and the typical requirements and credentials students must possess to qualify for eligibility.
Master of Arts Degree in Drama and Theater History
The Master of Arts degree in Drama and Theater History is a graduate-level program that typically spans eighteen months to two years in duration depending on the institution. Through the coursework in the program students are introduced to a variety of theatre histories and historical methodologies, ranging from Classic drama to Elizabethan and Jacobean theatre to performance in Victorian and Edwardian Britain and from dramatic text to theatrical apparatus. Looking at key developments in theatre historiography, students will consider issues such as the materiality of the stage; history and heritage; writing national theatre histories; as well as the theatrical cultures of the past. At many universities, a significant part of the program is delivered by professional archivists and curators, so as to ensure students engage with a wide variety of histories and practices attached to the study of theatre.
Master of Arts Degree in Drama and Theater History: Coursework
Like most graduate-level programs, the Master of Arts Degree program in Drama and Theater History features both core and elective coursework, the latter of which allows students to pursue certain subjects and fields of study that are of particular interest to them. Through this coursework, students will be introduced to new approaches for examining and challenging different practices of theatre historiography, and will experiment with ways of analyzing the past in order to gain new critical perspectives on theatre history. Some of the specific course titles in the program include:
- Research Methodology and the Theater
- Debating Dramaturgy
- Reading and Interpreting Theatrical Performances
- Theater Archive Placement
- Issues in Victorian and Edwardian Theater
- Elizabethan and Jacobean Drama
- Woman and Drama in the Renaissance Period
- And more…
To qualify for admission into the Master of Arts Degree program in Drama and Theater History, students must, at minimum, possess a bachelor degree in the same or related field, with a 2.5 grade point average or better in all undergraduate coursework. Some institutions may also require students to submit two to three letters of recommendation and/or sit for a personal interview with program faculty prior to being considered for program admission.
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Do you have a strong interest in the fields of personal and professional ethics? Do you enjoy studies that combine subjects such as philosophy, logic and critical thinking, subjects whose origin date back to the Ancient Greeks and before? If so, you may be a perfect candidate for the Bachelor of Arts degree program in Ethics. To give you a better idea about what this degree path covers and what you’ll learn as a participant, below we have provided a synopsis of the Bachelor of Arts degree in Ethics, including a brief overview, a sample of some of the courses and their description and the typical eligibility requirements for admission into the program.
Bachelor of Arts Degree in Ethics: Course Overview
The Bachelor of Arts degree in Ethics is a full-time undergraduate course of study offered through the philosophy departments at major colleges and universities throughout the world. The program, which generally spans four to five years in duration depending on the institution, is designed for students who want to learn the principles of ethics and moral philosophy and how they are applied professionally across any number of employment sectors. Coursework in the program teaches students how to systemize, defend and recommend concepts of right and wrong behavior, and is divided into three main operational areas: meta-ethics, the theoretical meaning and reference of moral propositions and how their truth values (if any) may be determined; normative ethics, a study into the practical means of determining a moral course of action; and applied ethics, a course in how moral outcomes can be achieved in specific situations.
Bachelor of Arts Degree in Ethics: Coursework
Like all undergraduate programs, the Bachelor of Arts degree in Ethics involves both core and elective coursework, in addition to the general education requirements of the college or university. Below we will take a closer look at several of these courses and provide a brief description of each:
- Ethics. The course in Ethics features an analysis of the basic moral concepts of goodness, right, and obligation and an overview of the ways in which these concepts operate in such contexts as society, religion, and the law.
Formal Logic. The analysis and construction of arguments using strict rules which
determine valid from fallacious reasoning.
- Critical Thinking. This course looks at the informal logic of the use of language in everyday contexts. Emphasis is placed on variable factors within ordinary argument situations, such as disagreements, ambiguity, generalization, and analogy.
- Ancient Philosophy. An examination of philosophical speculation through its origins in the Greek and Roman worlds. Special emphasis is placed on the idealism of Plato and the realism of Aristotle as the systematic foundations of Western thought.
- Environmental Ethics. Environmental Ethics studies how human beings conceptualize their concern for the environment, their place in nature, and the kind of world in which people might flourish.
- Business Ethics. Business Ethics is the philosophical examination of business and business life and their relationship to the good life. The course includes an analysis of economic justice, corporate and personal responsibility, moral conflicts, human rights, and the meaning of work.
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Study Greek and Roman Civilization
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The influence of the Greek and Roman civilizations to the modern school of thought is undeniably strong. Countless generations, millenniums in fact, had passed since their existence and yet their imprint on modern philosophy, law, governance and architecture is still significant. Existing modern day law and governance, mathematical theories, principles of contemporary architecture, science, and engineering could still be traced to the glorious years of the Greek and Roman civilization that existed a few thousand of years ago. Their influences to the present times are so significant that academicians deemed it important to devote courses and areas of study on the two civilizations.
A study of the two civilizations will not be complete without dissecting the works of the great minds of those times, like Homer’s Iliad for example or the Socratic Dialogues in Plato’s The Republic. Neither will it be complete without studying the great figures in Greek and Roman history like Aristotle and his pupil Alexander the Great of Macedon, born on 356BC and before his death at an early age of 32 has created one of the largest empires this world has ever known; and of course, Rome’s Julius Caesar who is one of the empire’s most famous leader who played a critical role in transforming the Roman Republic into the Roman empire. In terms of achievement, Rome’s greatest perhaps is the empire itself. Spreading to three continents, lasting for more than two millenniums! These are just a few interesting facts about Greek and Roman civilizations, there are a lot, lot more and enumerating would take a very long time. No wonder so many people are so fascinated about the subject matter and turn their fascination into a career.
The study of Greek and Roman civilization are usually offered in schools of historical studies, or at colleges and institutes of history. Many universities around the world offer a Bachelor degree on Classical History with a major or area of specialization on Greek and Roman Civilizations. The educational program consists of modules and course work on the subject matter and encompasses the study of the two great civilizations’ philosophical doctrines, its great leaders, thinkers and other figures as well as their achievements, geographical territories occupied and conquered, laws of governance that existed, different ideologies and beliefs and the many theories and principles in the fields of science, medicine, law and mathematics. The curriculum not only delve on the past, likewise it also aims to provide insights to the students and to perhaps pave a path on how these could be applied to the present day settings. Equally important is that the lessons provide means of understanding on the civilizations’ rise and their fall.
Aspiring students of the Bachelor degree on the Greek and Roman civilizations should possess a genuine interest in the subject matter to make the entire duration of the curriculum exciting and enjoyable. Individuals who enjoyed high school subjects like Humanities, Liberal Arts, and History are most likely find the coursework and modules fun. Successful candidates who make it through the rigorous coursework could get into career options like teaching, writing and research.
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History is basically the collection and study of all past events, or the most significant of. Though a more reasonable definition of History as a field would limit its scope to broadly the acknowledged past. Historians are responsible for creating written records of such specific life events, or more technically, historiographies. These accounts also include their insights and other relevant information to help every reader get the most out of their work.
History is a field that requires much time, effort, and perseverance. Apart from the fact that one has to be really serious about the subject matter, one has to be competitive in producing literary works as well. This is why the History program works closely with a lot other literary disciplines and a significant amount of training is given to students concerning both formal and informal writing techniques. The task of historians, after all, is not only to accumulate and document facts about previous events, societies, places, and a lot of others but also to continuously discover new facts about such. This is mainly because History has a lot to do with time, and time of course, is incessant. As their subjects change with time, historians likewise have to keep up, stay up to date, or sometimes even correct, their data with as little personal influence or bias with regard to their presentation of facts.
The History study provides rigorous training to produce historians with critical eyes for evidence. Most historical accounts are obtained from different sources and very few recorded events were actually witnessed by historians themselves. This of course is not very surprising since, logically, a contemporary historian can certainly not write about things that happened centuries or even decades before he or she was even born. Historians utilize artifacts or remains of civilizations like structures and art, narratives or testimonies of living witnesses, literature, census records, burial lands, and various others considered as relevant sources of details. Moreover, there are certain factors that add to the complexity of this task, like extinct languages that still have to be deciphered.
The scope of History has widened its span immensely as time progressed, along with its closely related fields of study such as Archaeology, Anthropology, and other Social Sciences. These fields of query and investigation have constantly worked together to provide knowledge but of all the accounts, historiographies have been most useful in understanding virtually any subject. It is after all the key to know the origins of one thing in order to fully comprehend its present state and probably predict its potential future.
Graduates of the History course have looked into the academe for their careers. Most graduates of the course move on to teach in universities while others choose to go into research and publishing. There are practically limitless opportunities with a liberal arts degree, and with the extensive skills (in data collection, documentation, analysis, interpretation, and writing, only to name a few) all learned from the History program this advantage is no less than intensified.
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History and Culture program offers students, both graduate and undergraduate, a comprehensive interdisciplinary introduction to the history of world’s culture, politics, and economics, along with the world’s multifaceted historical aspects. The program extends its curriculum to other various disciplines of Arts and Humanities.
As students complete the degree, they will be developed and be equipped with in-depth understanding of the global networks, power relations, and cultural interactions that take place in the modern world as overshadowed by the recent past. Global power relations that occur in local situations will also be highlighted. With the program’s diverse topics, students will have all the opportunities to study and explore the history of contemporary European, non-European empires, Asia, Africa, Australasia, Latin America, and the Middle East.
Universities, colleges, and other academic institutions that offer History and Culture studies put in particular world history and culture since students have to be given fair education and be endowed with knowledge and skills they will need in their future career and employment.
Throughout the course, students will unravel the major turning points and course of events that have shaped the modern world. The study from the late eighteenth century up to the present will specifically be the foreground and prominent events such as world wars, the rise of the democratic ideas and philosophies, the development of understanding that historical roots of present world issues and international relations should be accentuated. Students will use theories and literary approaches to relate world issues and concerns to history, geography, politics, economics, and culture of world regions and states to gain variety of perspectives.
The course will help students not just to develop chronological and spatial thinking abilities but be immersed with historical researches that serve as evidence in formulating historical arguments. With the exquisite and resilient historical perspectives that have been developed to better make a legitimate sense of past events and culture, students will be able to have full grasp of its impact, implications, meanings, and appropriate interpretations.
History and Culture provides students with skills and expertise to relate moral and ethical principles of world views, from Greek and Roman philosophies, Judaism, Christianity, and the growth of Western political thoughts. Students will contrast and compare world revolutions as well, from the glorious England revolution, American Revolution and the French revolution as their effects continue to linger across the globe as they all influence political expectations of every nation’s self-government and individual liberty. There will be analysis and evaluation of the effects of Industrial Revolution that took place in England, Germany, France, the United States, and Japan. The course will also enlighten students understanding of global change patterns that paved the way to an era of New Imperialism in the following countries and regions: Southeast Asia, China, India, Africa, Latin America, and the Philippines.
The program is indeed a multidisciplinary field of study for students who want to further their analysis of nation building of the contemporary world, the integration of countries and region as it now face the era of technological advancements and most of all the communications revolution.
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Study History of Dress
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Study History of Ideas
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Have you recently earned your undergraduate degree, perhaps in the field of Philosophy, History, Anthropology or Sociology, and are now looking for an advanced educational program that matches your unique interests and abilities? Have you considered pursuing a Master of Arts degree in the History of Ideas—a program now offered by a select number of universities throughout the country and world? If you’re a deep thinker, someone keen on the idea of studying and analyzing Man’s ideas on creation and other important topics, the Master of Arts degree in the History of Ideas may be the ideal program for you. Here we will describe this program in a bit more detail, including a brief course description and some information regarding the coursework that typically comprises this field of study.
Master of Arts Degree in the History of Ideas: Course Description
The Master of Arts Degree in the History of Ideas is a graduate-level program that typically spans two to three years in duration. The program is in essence a diachronic study of the key ideas formulated throughout history, particularly ideas about creation, and the manner in which those ideas have interacted with one another in their journey through time.
The program is designed for students who are self-motivated and have a passion for intellectual thought and history, regardless of whether they plan to use this knowledge later in an academic setting. To participate in the M.A. program in the History of Ideas, students must possess, at minimum, a bachelor degree, preferably in philosophy, history or another one of the social or behavioral sciences, with a 2.5 grade point average in all previous coursework. Most colleges and universities will also require students to take and pass an entrance examination prior to being considered for admission, and/or present letters of recommendation from individuals with personal knowledge of the student’s academic abilities.
Students who complete the program are regularly sought for employment positions in a wide variety of industries, particularly in education, where they serve as teachers/professors at the college or university level, designing curriculum, developing coursework and engaging in theoretical and applied research. The thoughtful skills learned through the M.A. program in the History of Ideas can also appeal to employers in the fields of journalism and publishing; local government and civil service; and the non-profit/charity sectors.
Master of Arts Degree in the History of Ideas: Coursework
The coursework for the M.A. program in the History of Ideas may consist of a number of different modules depending on the institution, with topics that may include:
- Science and Faith-Based Issues
- Biblical Interpretations of Genesis and Creation
- Social Darwinism
- Political Ideas and Concepts
- Women’s Rights
- Cyclical Patterns of History
- Myths and Fables
- Literature and Ideas
- And more…
The Master of Arts degree in the History of Ideas culminates with a capstone research project or Master’s thesis. The exact topic for this culminating assignment is usually up to the student, provided that topic is first approved by the faculty.
Study History of Spain
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During the 16th and a great part of 17th century, Spain was the most powerful state in Europe, while also the most important colonial power in the world. Studying the history of the country would also involve exploring the vast empire they established in the Americas, stretching from California to Patagonia, and colonies in the western pacific. In addition, the history of Spain involves all the other peoples and nations within the Iberian Peninsula, formerly known as Hispania – Andorra, Gibraltar, Portugal, and of course Spain. Also, you would of course learn about the more recent history of the country as a member of the European Union.
Historians can do many different things, and this can involve combining research and practical knowledge to solve problems in international affairs, ethic issues, and globalization. On the other hand, studying the History of Spain can mean working in a museum, organizing historical trips and excursions, or teaching the subject to young children or adults.
The ideal profile of someone who wishes to study History is a person with good social awareness and an interest in human issues. Further skills to explore are:
- Good memory
- Interest in reading
- Attention and perception skills
- Excellent research skills
- Interest in exploring and searching for the meaning of things
Study options vary significantly according to your needs and goals. You can choose to concentrate on the History of Spain and earn a bachelor’s degree in the subject, or you can look for other degrees that offer this discipline. Degrees that are likely to do so can be such as Law, Literature, Economics, Social Sciences, International Relations, or related. Similarly, if you have already earned such a degree, you may seek to specialize in the History of Spain on a postgraduate level of study. This will give you a better understanding of the social values, behaviors, and background of the region, which can be applied in numerous business or political setting.
When looking for a school, it would be a good idea to check rankings and choose an institution that is strong in the fields of history and humanities. If you will be studying in an institution outside of Spain, it would be vital that it offers some form of an exchange program or internship in a Spanish-speaking country, as this will inevitably better your understanding of the subject.
As a graduate in the History of Spain, you would be qualified to work in areas like teaching in public and private centers (Secondary Education, Adult Education Centers, Continuous Education Centers, Private Academies); publishing services; literary and textual criticism; text and literary correction. Furthermore, you can be involved in the management and preservation of historical and cultural heritage, as well as deal with Information and Museum Consultancy; work in private foundations; undertake historical research, organize documentation, archives and libraries. Last but not least, you can pursue a diplomatic career and various branches of the civil service.
Study History of the 20th Century
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The degree of History of the 20th Century is one of the many contemporary and interesting programs for modern students. Exploring the timeline of the 20th century, from the 1900s to the 1990s will involve an immense research, inquiry, verification, and students will certainly encounter more learning opportunities that will reveal the most fascinating and challenging time periods in all of world history.
As students get prepared and engaged in comprehensive study of the History of the 20th Century they will become eyewitnesses as they see through what humanity has achieved in the last 100 years. Students will find it necessary to study the following highlights of 20th century:
- The collapse of then influential powers, the Russian empire, the Ottoman empire, German Empire, Austro-Hungarian empire and the rise of British empire;
- The Great Depression caused massive catastrophes to the world economy;
- The internal breakdown of the Soviet Union that results to the emergence of the United States as a world power
- The identification of the effects of all the wars that have been fought;
- On how Asian countries like China, Japan, India, and South Korea struggle to become major players in these modern times;
- The increased power and influence of the European Union continued to go strong;
- The results and impact of the technological revolution in the way people of the world live due to endless scientific discoveries and inventions like the supertankers, airliners, radio, television, computers, macrocomputers, mobile phones, and the Internet;
- The impact of the announcement of the global population of 6.1 billion and its continuous growth in the years ahead; and
- The dramatic changes in world views advocated by many scientists, philosophers, and political leaders.
The program provides a great opportunity to every student to delve into the tiny bits of relevant information of the recent past with determined and reflective attitude using interdisciplinary methodologies. Mentors and professors will cultivate students’ appreciation in history studies and teach them the socio-economic importance of all facets of the curriculum.
With the revolutionized educational system implement by many remarkable universities and colleges that offer the degree History of the 20th Century, students will have access to innovative research techniques and primary sources and materials that will equip them in pursuing more advanced studies, say for instance an MA program or PhD program.
Moreover, the historical methods and approaches used in studying the program are based on specific mainstreams—British, European, American, and Asian history of the twentieth century. Students existing knowledge about twentieth century history will be integrated with new insights. To complete the course, students will be asked to conduct their own researches and produce results that will benefit world culture and history.
Students after taking the course will have qualifications and excellent background that will help them acquire careers in public service, current affairs, mass media, information technology, and more liberal and humanities professions.
The 20th century as it reached its end still manages to make its influence linger and this is indeed a good area of study.
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More a category of disciplines than a discipline in itself, the term “humanities” refers to any academic discipline that concerns the human condition or the creations of human beings. Philosophy, art, literature, history, creative writing, music, critical theory, and cultural studies are all examples of disciplines within the humanities. It is obvious that a tremendous range of different topics may be included within the humanities, so it is unusual for people to study simply humanities, without a further area of specialization. Those who do major in humanities are usually interdisciplinary scholars who work at the intersections of different fields–for example, a humanities scholar might be interested in the ways in which literature can express philosophical ideas. This would require a course of study that included courses in both literature and philosophy, so a humanities major might be the perfect thing.
- Passionate love of reading and writing
- Analytic mind, ability to reason well
- Very strong command of the English language – broad vocabulary and ability to parse complex sentences
- Broad range of interests including history, philosophy, art, literature, and world cultures
Because of the diversity of fields of study within the humanities, the range of study options is almost limitless. English majors, art majors, foreign-language majors and many others may all be correctly described as students of the humanities. Courses of study in the humanities as such (i.e., interdisciplinary humanities rather than single disciplines within that category) are rare, but there are a few excellent examples. These programs are highly theoretical and abstract, and but they are perfect for curious and hardworking individuals with an intellectual bent.
Most people who study the humanities do not do so because they have a specific job or career path in mind. They are simply fascinated by questions and tasks in a certain field, or they are passionate about art or music. There are a few jobs, such as college professor, professional photographer, and concert pianist, that would require many years of study in the humanities, but most people who choose this field do so out of pure love. However, an education in the humanities provides many invaluable skills that will be useful in nearly any job – humanities students learn how to write well, how to participate productively in an intellectual or political debate, and how to persuade others. Moreover, they often gain personal insights and strengths that help to improve their lives in ways far deeper than any job skill.
Study Iberian Studies
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Study Ibero-American Studies
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Study Indian history
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Study Interdisciplinary Studies
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Study International Relations
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International Relations deal with the interactions of countries and communities on a political, social, economic, environmental, and other basis. An example of a question that students in International Relations could address is how the war in Iraq has affected relations between the United States and the world. As you can already guess, there is no purely white or black areas in such a degree, and a wide variety of disciplines are studied. You should be expecting to cover subjects like economics, political science, history, business, anthropology, sociology, and so on.
With such a multidisciplinary approach, the fields into which a graduate of International Relations can go are quite diverse. One of the most common professions mentioned is a diplomat, who would normally work in various embassies around the world. It should be noted, though, that this is a job very hard to secure. Regardless of the job type, however, what IR graduates usually do is explore and analyze current issues and happenings between countries, which normally involves travel and often a specialization in the relations between a couple of nations.
If you are naturally drawn to travel, to interacting with various cultures and exploring complex issues, then you already possess some of the qualities that match this degree option. These are a few others to think about:
- Genuine interest in international affairs and developments
- Excellent analytical and problem-solving skills
- Able to undertake research and draw conclusions
- Very flexible and adaptable to new situations
- Excellent organizational skills
International Relations is a very sought after degree and requirements for entry are usually quite high. Although there is the possibility to earn a BSc in International Relations, and a lot of universities offer this option, a great number of students choose to pursue it at the graduate level. Often this seems like the more logical approach, as we already mentioned that the degree is very broad-based and provides students with the opportunity to expand their knowledge and gain skills, rather than prepare for a specific profession.
When studying a degree of this type, it would be a wise idea to research for a university with a multinational feel and direction. You should also very carefully assess the resources it offers to support your study in International Relations. These include not only library facilities, but also online journals, and possible guest speakers and lecturers. The clubs and students organizations that might support your degree are worth mentioning, too, together with any other study-related travel abroad opportunities.
Career opportunities are very interesting and diverse, and include but are not limited to the following options:
Government – a significant number of people with an IR degree choose to work for the Government. To get into such a position, you will most likely need a master’s degree, but there are always exceptions. Here are a few examples of departments with job opportunities: the Department for International Development, the Department of Commerce, as well as civilians in the Defense Department.
Diplomat – this option involves various functions from advising on foreign affairs and trade issues to assisting in the implementation of aid programs.
Journalism – this can be a very exciting, but at times dangerous profession; often correspondents are needed in areas like Afghanistan, Iran, Korea, and other similar areas, where events of world interest happen.
A good variety of other professions are also open to IR graduates, from positions in multinational corporations to history teacher jobs, so the choice greatly depends on the area of specialization you will choose.
Study International Studies
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International studies or the study of International Relations examines the functioning of countries, their relation with one another, with multinational corporations and international organizations and so on. The subject deals with various issues like environment, economics, human rights, etc. and tries to explain and analyze them from different perspectives. Rather than treating these as completely separate topics, International Studies tries to look at them as inter connected components of global affairs. Study of International Relations would reveal how the countries are connected in some way or the other and how their behavior affects international politics and national policies of other countries. In a globalized world, International Studies is becoming even more important as a subject of study.
What the Course Offers
Most universities and educational institutes offer post graduate degree in International Studies or International Relations. Graduates in any social science subjects are eligible for the course. Because the subject is somewhat closely related and often considered as a branch of political studies, a Bachelors degree is ideal for anyone who is willing to pursue International Studies. However diversification from a wide variety of subjects is possible and even desirable for development of the discipline. For example, students and scholars of economics, environmental science and even law have taken courses on International Studies.
A post graduate degree course on International Relations typically involves papers on theoretical approach of different schools towards international relations, history of global politics, different forms of governmental structures, area studies involving detailed analysis of politics of specific areas, international trade and political economy, so on and so forth. Knowledge of one or more foreign languages, especially most popular languages in the world, would be of immense importance in study of International Relations. Hence, many universities offer language courses along with degree courses.
For those who want to pursue research and higher studies, chances of doing PhD are ample. Many international scholarships and fellowships are also available for study abroad programs. Think tanks and research organizations offer internship opportunities for willing students.
The interdisciplinary nature of International Studies makes the subject even more interesting. A student would naturally develop a broad outlook and will be able to analyze the situation around from many different perspectives. In depth knowledge and expertise on a particular region also adds hugely to one’s specializations. Given the nature of world politics today, experts having considerable knowledge on matters of security and strategic policy making are in high demand by not only governmental but also non-governmental organizations. A student of international studies will be easily absorbed into jobs as domestic and foreign policy makers, advisors to the government, diplomats, educationists and research personnel, journalists and news editors, and many more.
Knowing how the countries are intertwined with each other in different ways, the students of international studies would have an added advantage over many other social science students. This is precisely because they have covered in their courses parts of sociology, psychology, anthropology, economics, environmental science, defense studies, political science, history and much, much more.
Study Liberal Arts
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Liberal arts is a broad, non-specific field of study offered by many post-secondary schools. It is an overarching term that covers a variety of studies, from humanities to mathematics, communication to sociology. Its greatest goal is to educate students with general, real-world knowledge, prepare them for a variety of life experiences and develop the skills necessary for their career success. Liberal art studies include a main focus in a specific area (such as political science) along with multiple, basic courses in a wide range of subjects.
Liberal art studies are offered at many post-secondary schools, from community colleges to universities. These schools are sometimes known as liberal arts colleges, so any degree earned from the college will be considered a liberal arts degree, regardless of study focus. Technical and medical schools are not considered to provide studies in liberal arts, since they offer more specialized scientific or technical courses.
A student earning a liberal arts degree can earn an associate, bachelor, master or doctorate. It is possible for the major to be in liberal arts (which will cover a very wide range of studies). More commonly, the major is in a narrower field of study (such as art history) with required courses in many other subjects.
Liberal arts degrees are often recommended to students who are not entirely decided on their preferred choice of study. By pursuing a liberal arts degree, candidates can explore different fields of study, before coming to a more concrete conclusion about their chosen area of expertise.
Skills, Qualifications, and Prerequisites for Studies in Liberal Arts
Technically, anyone can pursue liberal arts through public workshops, self-study, tutoring or other means without any prerequisites because of the general nature of the education. However, this style of learning does not earn the individual any certification or degrees. To attend a college for a liberal arts education, it is required for candidates to hold a secondary school completion certificate and pass an aptitude exam.
The desire to learn is essential to anyone seeking a liberal arts education, as individuals are guaranteed instruction in a wide variety of areas. Creativity and high intelligence are preferred, in order to retain the wide variety of information taught through a liberal arts education. Communication skills, problem-solving skills and the ability to learn quickly are important factors to success.
Skills and Qualifications Acquired from Studies in Liberal Arts
Due to the fact that the field of liberal arts is so broad, and the focus of study highly depends on the individual, it is difficult to outline the skills earned from this study. However, students will at least acquire these skills:
General knowledge in many academic subjects, including:
- Math, sciences, communication, language, psychology, history,
- Advanced knowledge and skills in a specific subject area.
- Ability to analyze, interpret and record data in a variety of settings.
- Ability to adapt, learn and succeed in many environments.
- Use of computer and other technology.
- Excellent written, oral and interpersonal skills.
Careers for Studies in Liberal Arts
Individuals who successfully complete liberal arts studies are almost unlimited as to their career opportunities. They can work in corporations, industries, government agencies, international organization, non-profit organizations, educational institutions and dozens of other areas at a variety of employment levels. The only limitations to a liberal arts graduate’s career opportunities are the specific degree earned (such as environmental science), the level of degree (master’s, bachelor’s, etc.) and their previous work experience.
Study Liberal Studies
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“Liberal studies”, in 1990s, was the term used to encompass all the subjects that encouraged thinking and analytical skills above applications. Philosophy, communication, history, politics and other subjects that were considered fit only to land teaching and low wage jobs were, and still popularly are, clubbed under the umbrella of “liberal studies”. Today, liberal studies or liberal arts is used to refer to generic subjects like mathematics, history, philosophy, economics, languages, literature, etc. Liberal studies allow you to dapple in a wide range of subjects and help you develop employability skills, though the subjects are not always successful in landing the highest paying jobs in the market.
Qualities Required / Acquired
The educational requirements to pursue a degree in liberal studies are the same as the standards set by a university for its other arts programs. However, those inclined toward intellectual discussions, those with innate analytical skills and youngsters with a thinking mind are bound to perform better in liberal arts.
Liberal Studies Courses
The courses are structured to give you a wider base of knowledge, and you will be guided to look at life and people from different perspectives. Social, cultural, religious and political differences and their influence on populations will also be taught to you.
English literature, modern languages, history, anthropology, philosophy, economics, political science, economics are the major subjects listed by most universities in their liberal studies program. The course essentially develops a host of skills in students making them invaluable in the market.
Evaluating and critical thinking skills, pattern intelligence, numerical skills, information literacy, studying teaching methodologies and their effectiveness, learning and appreciating the various cultures that exist and are practices across the world, understanding and increasing religious tolerance, conducting researches in various sectors, data and equipment handling, judging skills, ethical and moral values and the roles they play, effective oral and written communication skills, analytical reading, creative thinking, time management, ability to meet deadlines, understand of the self and the concepts of esteem and confidence, and better interpersonal skills fueled by increased sensitivity to feelings and emotions. These are some of the skills that are acquired by a student of liberal studies.
The career of options of a student of liberal studies are popularly projected to be bleak as people mistakenly believe it the holders of degrees in applied fields like medicine, engineering and business management who get all the well paying jobs. The common misconception is that arts degree holders must make do with low paying jobs.
This could not be farther from the truth, and a study conducted in USA and Canada proved that high paying positions were occupied by those with arts degrees to their credits. Your wide frame of reference, analytical and scrutinizing mind is an invaluable asset and will help you find employment at national and international agencies, especially those dealing with international communications and relations. Political jobs, mass communication and journalism positions, human resources management, team building at corporate offices, and being a part of the teams that work on strengthening international bonds are all options open to you.
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Probably, one of the reason man has become the unequivocal masters of the Earth is because of the ability to perform complex thought processes as compared to animals who rely solely on primal instincts. Because of this unique faculty of humans, simple things like arguments, questions and reasons have led to formulation of ideas and in turn led to formulation of theories and eventually to a much broader spectrum such as science. On the forefront of arguments, questions and reasons is the field of study called Metaphysics. In a nutshell, Metaphysics can be defined as a field of study that investigates principles of reality that may be beyond any particular science to explain. As defined in the Merriam-Webster dictionary, it is a division of Philosophy concerned with the fundamental nature of reality and being that includes Ontology, Cosmology and Epistemology.
Ontology deals with the study of being and existence and the nature of their change. More or less, ontology answers questions on what entities exist or what entities can exist as well as how these entities can be grouped, subdivided and fitted within a hierarchy. Key concepts in the study of Ontology usually points to quintessential topics like Universals and Particulars, Substance and Accidents, Abstract and Concrete, Essence and Existence and Determinism and Indeterminism. As metaphysical as it is, ontological concepts are being used in software programs in artificial intelligence applications.
Cosmology, on the other hand, is the branch of Metaphysics that study the universe as a whole, and with it, where man fit in it. Of course, the phrase “study the universe” would be in philosophical terms so as not to be mistaken with Astrophysics where gravity, planets, galaxies and other physical space objects that may come into mind. Although, modern-time theories like the Theory of Relativity by Albert Einstein and the Big Bang Theory among other theories about the universe and space and time continuum, which usually are riddled with mathematical jargons, numerical constants and coefficients, but still these modern scientists could not deny that their theories all took root from Metaphysics. Before the math and science entered the picture in any theory be it explaining the universe or the theory of man’s origin, they all would still start from a philosophical point of view. Essentially, Cosmology would tackle esoteric occultism, science and religion as all these fields, in one way or another, want to answer the same question: What is the origin of the universe?
The third branch of Metaphysics is called Epistemology which specifically is concerned with the nature, scope and limitation of knowledge. Basically, Epistemology would address questions like: “What is knowledge?” “How knowledge is acquired?” “What do people know?” and “How do people know what they know?” From this branch of Metaphysics sprung forth concepts like Empiricism, Rationalism and Constructivism. Since Epistemology deals mainly with knowledge, a lot of practical applications currently benefit from this branch of metaphysics and among them are: courtroom proceedings, where proof of guilt or innocence needs to be determined, artificial intelligence (together with ontology), economists, cultural anthropologists, product testers, psychologists and even medical practitioners especially when diagnosing diseases.
Indeed, Metaphysics is a broad and vague subject matter but when the concepts are fully understood, it could literally change mass consciousness as exemplified by Aristotle, Aristarchus (author of the Heliocentric Universe Model), Albert Einstein, Isaac Newton and other great philosophers and scientists.
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Study Native American Studies
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Study Near Eastern Studies
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The Near East or Middle East (these terms are generally used interchangeably, although “Near East” is considered somewhat dated) is a vast and culturally diverse swath of land that stretches from the high deserts of Morocco to the sweeping plains of Central Asia. Programs in Middle East studies examine the history, languages, cultures, geography, and current events in this fascinating region. The majority focus on the modern era, using history as a backdrop, but others take historical time periods as the main object of investigation. The Near East and Middle East have been the location of seminal events in world history for thousands of years, notably the rise of agriculture, the birth of 3 of the world's major religions, and the myriad conflicts that shape the geopolitical circumstances of the modern age.
Almost any program in this field will require a significant amount of language study, and this can be the most important and often the most challenging aspect of the program. The languages of the Middle East, particularly Arabic, are notoriously difficult to learn, but they open up an exciting world of culture and education. In addition to language courses, most Middle East studies majors will take at least one semester to study abroad in one or more of the countries in the region. This experience provides a language immersion experience and insight into foreign cultures that simply cannot be acquired in any other way.
- Open-mindedness and respect for other cultures and religions
- Language skills (and the patience and diligence to improve them)
- Basic knowledge of current events and world history
- Desire to travel widely and learn about diverse ways of life
While most undergraduate programs in Middle East studies are generalist degrees–meaning they cover all topics more or less equally–some degree of specialization is usually possible at the graduate level. This may either involve a concentration in a particular country or group of countries or a thematic focus such as economics, politics, or religion. Students of Middle East studies will also need to make a choice about which language they want to focus on. The most popular option is Arabic, which is widely spoken throughout the Middle East, but there are other options such as Turkish and Persian that can provide a unique window on events in the Middle East.
Most programs in Middle East studies do not focus on one particular career. Rather, they provide a general understanding of the region and familiarity with its languages that can be applicable in many kinds of work. This is particularly true in the global labor market of today, in which language skills are extremely useful. Among graduates of Middle East studies programs, popular career options include diplomacy, business and commerce, and the nonprofit sector.
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Study Oriental studies
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Study Personal Development
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The term Philosophy is actually derived from the Greek word philosophia, which literally means “love of wisdom.” The science of inquiry, there are two main types of Philosophy, namely analytic philosophy, which is concerned mainly with logical approaches and synthetic philosophy, which involves merging concepts into a single system.
The Philosophy Program consists of several areas of thought, including the arts, the sciences, and religion. Philosophy used to be inseparable from, at other times even confused with, the natural sciences. This is easily evident from the fact that the earliest “scientists” were also philosophers themselves, as Plato, Newton, and Phytagoras, among innumerable others.
The roots of Philosophy trace far back to ancient Greece, where Schools of Thought were first to emerge. The pioneer of which was the Ionian School, where it was earliest established that natural phenomena could be explained with scientific basis, as opposed to merely the traditional mythological beliefs of the Greeks. The Pythagorean School further supported this scientific approach of study, although Pythagoreanism, as it became known, mainly used a fusion of supernatural and the mathematical ideas to explain nature and its wonders. From then on, countless other crowds of Philosophers sprouted, as the Stoics, and the Sophists, to name a few.
The Philosophy program broadens the range of opportunities for students. Some graduates of the Philosophy Program choose to engage in the subject further or pursue graduate studies in related fields as economics, education, or religion, among others.
Religion has been closely linked with Philosophy since the olden times. Neoplatonism, the fusion of Platonic and Pythagorean ideas, for one, is particularly linked with Jewish, Christian, and Muslim religious studies. Another illustration would be, Augustinian Philosophy, where Platonic philosophy was yet again combined with the Christian spirituality. Both examples sought to explain the concept of a God, all knowing, all-powerful, and beyond human understanding, and other ideas as predestination, and reasons behind the evils of the world.
Apart from the academe, graduates of the Philosophy program may also opt to go into law or the medical field. The Philosophy program is most commonly taken as a “pre-law” because the skills learned in the entirety of the course serve well for law school. These skills include taking in “heavy” reading material, formulating critical evaluations, and making ones way through arguments using logical approaches.
Some graduates of the program choose to venture into administrative positions both in the public and private sector. There are a lot of options, like whether to go into research, social work, or actual civil service, to name a few areas. Still others merge their philosophical knowledge with creativity and writing skills to deliver to an audience, as in journalism.
Graduates of the Philosophy program are trained to think and think decisively, for that matter. The opportunities with a liberal arts degree are practically limitless, for as Socrates put it, there is no greater knowledge than the awareness of the need for more knowledge. Anywhere in the world, thinkers will always be, more than welcome, needed.
Study Philosophy of Religion
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We know Philosophy as “the love of wisdom.” Philosophers are those who never run out of questions about practically anything in this world and in life. For this reason, Philosophy is regarded as one of the best pre-Law courses because it prepares the students on how to be probing in the quest for truth. Everything has to be a justification of existence, a reason for being. Philosophers are deep thinkers and often great speakers. They know how to drive to a point (rather than saying they know how to manipulate people).
Metaphysics is one branch of Philosophy that deals with questions of existence, and this makes Metaphysics and Philosophy of Religion somehow related to each other. Philosophy of Religion is far from Theology, which is the established discipline or study of God – under the premise that God exists.
Philosophy of Religion is one of the most thrilling of its branches. It is the field of study that seeks answers and meaning about beliefs that revolve around religious concepts. This is where the following questions would ring a bell:
1. What does the word “God” mean?
2. Is there a God?
3. If there is God, how does he look like?
4. If there is God, what is the extent of his power?
5. Is everything a destiny? If so, what is free-will?
6. If there is God, is He ever-forgiving? How can he be just if that is true?
7. What is a miracle?
Arguing about the existence of God is perennial in this field of study. But as old as this topic sounds, arguments evolve. Question after question after question is how philosophical discussions go. It is in the nature of this course to have ever-evolving points in view of making a stand and challenging what other people’s position about the topic may be. In Philosophy of Religion, debate is far more difficult because it centralizes on religion – a literally intangible concept. One can hardly provide a proof that can be quantified.
Atheism or the lack of belief in the existence of God (i.e., the opposite of theism, which is the belief of God or Supreme Being) is often the aftermath of not being convinced with the answers in the above-mentioned questions about the existence of God. There is no unilateral way of looking at both Theism and Atheism – they are neither positive nor negative. It all depends on how the person perceives and lives being one. Nevertheless, the way we live our lives has a lot to do with us being either Theist of an Atheist. Being a Theist is further divided into sub-beliefs; thus, the formation of different religions. Our philosophy of religion, therefore, serves as backbone of how we believe in general. This supports the view of philosophy of religion as something relevant to practical concerns more than just seeing it as all abstract theory. There is no dispute how religion (or “belief”, for those who do not have a particular religion) tends to mold our values and to define how we act as humans – as a person and as part of a family, an organization, and a nation.
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Study Protestant Theology
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The study of Protestant Theology involves acquiring a deeper knowledge of the Protestant religion, mainly in the quest of being the head within the community. A degree in Protestant Theology offers two courses- the merely academic course or the parochial, theological course that will further lead to a profession in the clergy. This study will provide some perception of how Protestantism will blend in with the rest of the planet – today, in the past as well as in the future. The five biggest bodies of Protestants are Presbyterian, Methodist, Lutheran, Episcopalian and Baptist.
A religious system like Protestantism gives important influence in the lives of many people and has a vital role in the foundation of countries and communities. Religions, particularly the Protestantism searches to give answers to huge questions about the existence of humans and its roles in their lives. It aims to give guidance and strength to a person and to connect communities in common rituals and beliefs which are pass from generation to generation.
Any individual who wish to have a Theology-related career, specifically with Protestant Theology must realize that they are not just picking a profession but a lifestyle as well.
Protestant Theology is inclined to give graduates with a broad knowledge of how Protestantism plays both in the cultural and personal aspect of the community. Educational prerequisites for access into the Protestant ministry greatly vary. A Bachelor of Arts degree in religion, theology or liberal arts might be needed for a future ministry member as groundwork for graduate programs. Actually, a religious background is never a requirement in order to start studies in Protestant religion. About three out of four ministry members have accomplished a bachelor’s degree course and a lot of denominations need a master’s degree in theology studies. Some denominations command students with different kinds of training from liberal arts colleges or religious colleges. You may ask your religious leader to know exactly the needed requirements.
Most candidates for Protestant clergy and minister possess a 4-year degree from a recognized university or college. They then get a Master of Arts degree and partake in theological seminars. If you choose to have a career in your ministry, your studies at the bachelor’s level could center more on subjects that may complete your knowledge base like English, philosophy, classic and arts.
Ordination in a religious institution will serve as a certification in case of clergy. The process of ordination, which differs by denominations will separate the Protestant Theology graduates from the laymen and make them give religious services and head congregations legitimately.
The Protestant movement or Protestantism started in Europe in the 16th century. From Europe it then spread to the American continents, Africa and the Asia Pacific Region. Today, there are about 800 million people worldwide following the Protestant faith. The Protestant community is composed of several thousands of denominations with some differing beliefs, practices and doctrines. The largest of these groups are the Baptist, Episcopalian, Lutheran, Methodist or Wesleyan and Presbyterian. Regardless, they all seek to strive to live and practice their Christian way of life.
Many schools and universities offer the study of Protestant Theology as a course. What is Protestant Theology? The word Protestant is derived from the Latin word “protestari” which means publicly declare. The word theology is derived from two Greek words, “theos” meaning God and “logos” which means theory. In general, Protestant Theology is the study of the Protestant faith and its religious practice.
Those who take Protestant Theology as course do so for various reasons. Some take this study out of academic interest; to have a better understanding of the doctrines and traditions of the Protestant faith. Most of those who take this course do so for religious reasons. The study of Protestant Theology can help Protestants understand and appreciate the beliefs and traditions of their religion. The study can also aid them when they start teaching and invite others to their religious community. Protestants knowledgeable in their own theology will be more able to defend or justify their religious faith. For those who wish to enter the clergy, the study is an excellent starting point as they further pursue their chosen career. Students who take this course will get to know the writings and teachings of distinguished Protestant writers and theologians. A student will get to know the history and evolution of this remarkable religious faith and learn the origins and basis of the Protestant beliefs, practices and doctrines and how it guides and influences Protestants in their day to day lives.
Many from the Protestant clergy and community leaders like ministers or pastors and those who aspire to be one take this course. Some Protestant denominations may actually require their minister or pastor to have some form of education in religion or theology. Members of the Protestant faith depend on their leaders for answers on questions of faith. So those of the clergy who are well versed in Protestant Theology are better equipped to guide and enlighten their church members. Although most of those who take this course are members or aspiring to be with the Protestant clergy, this study is not exclusive to them. Any person who is curios about the Protestant religion and would like to know more about their teachings and doctrines can take up a study in Protestant Theology.
Protestant Theology is more than an academic discipline. It is can also be viewed as form of professional training for the Protestant ministry. Many Protestant denominations now require those who wish to enter pastoral service such as ministers to be Protestant Theology degree holders.
Job positions for Protestant Theology :
A religion such as Protestantism is an important influence in the lives of millions encourages many to join to strengthen their faith. A lot of denominations exist in Protestantism, with every group possessing special responsibilities and traditions given to its clergy.
A Protestant Clergy is a spiritual and religious leader, an interpreter and a teacher of his faith and tradition. Most clergy members serve in a platform. They lead and organize standard religious services and preside at special ceremonials such as weddings, funerals and confirmations. They might guide believers in prayers, oversee the sacraments, convey sermons and read from consecrated text like the Bible. When not performing veneration services, the clergy will lead, organize and supervise education programs for their worshippers. A Clergy may visit a sick person or a bereaved to give counsel and comfort to individuals who are searching for a moral or spiritual guidance or who have a personal problem. Also, a Clergy might work to extend the membership of their worshippers and ask donations to fund their facilities and activities.
A Clergy who will serve in a big congregation normally share their responsibilities with a junior clergy or an associate. A senior clergy might spend significant time on directorial obligations. They supervise the administration of edifices, deal for repairs and services, order supplies and administer the work of volunteers and staff. An assistant or associate clergy member sometimes concentrates in the field of religious services like education, music or youth guidance.
Other Clergy members serve their religious communities in manners that do not need them to have a position in their congregations. Some of the clergies may serve as a chaplain in the hospital or Armed Forces while others perform the tasks in social services groups and religious community.
Typically, a Clergy member works irregular hours and a lot of them work longer than the standard working days. A Clergy who does not function in a congregational setting might have further routine plans. Though, most of their works are deskbound and naturally logical, a clergy is often called on short notice to comfort the sick, console the dying and give guidance to those who need it. Participation in community, directorial and instructive actions sometimes requires clergies to work early mornings, evenings, weekends and holidays. Due to their duties as leaders on morality and spiritual issues, some clergy members normally feel obliged to tackle and determine both community problems as well as personal troubles of their worshippers.
Educational prerequisites for entry into clergy position greatly vary. Just the same with other professional jobs, about three out of four clergy members have attained a bachelor’s degree in Protestant Theology. Many denominations obliged that a bachelor’s degree and a professional-level program of Protestant Theology.
The annual wage of a Protestant Clergy depends on the size of the congregation he administers and how rich the members of the church are. But the estimated annual income of a clergy is $80,000 - $100,000.
A Protestant Minister guides individuals attending in worship and manages the different rites of their churches like baptism, confirmation and Holy Communion and presides at other events.
A Minster who serves in big congregations might share particular parts of the ministry with a single assistant/associate or more like a minister of music or a minister in education. Several small churches make use of a part-time minister who may be a student of a seminary, a secular job holder or a retired minister. Protestant denominational religious studies only accept students who have gained a bachelor’s degree or its counterpart from a recognized college. After finishing college, a lot of denominations need a three-year course of specialized study in a recognized seminary or school for the degree in Master of Divinity.
Competition is intense for positions serving big, town/city congregations. A Minister who is willing to be employed for small, pastoral congregation or for part-time might have better entry potentials. A recently ordained Protestant Minister who will not be able to find parish post could work in family relations, youth counseling and/or in social welfare groups, teach in a spiritual edifying institutions or work as a chaplain in hospitals, universities, correctional institutions an Armed Forces.
A person that is in the course of being ordained is at times called as “ordinands”, whereas the liturgy or rituals of ordination are called as the “ordinal”. Prior to the advent of Internet, studying at a seminary was normally required so as to become an ordained Protestant Minister.
Nowadays, one could easily become an ordained Protestant Minister by means of different websites, which give free ordination. For instance, the non-denominational ULC or the Universal Life Church of Modesto in California, USA advertises ordinations amid other products and permits a person to be an ordained minister for about $12.
Though the effectiveness of ordination online might be morally debatable, a person who has become minister by being ordained online could lawfully govern weddings and sign marriage contracts, just like other religious leader. Provided that the person who has become an ordained minister has superior reputation in his church, he is lawfully permitted to sanctify marriages in many states in the U.S.
There are several states in the U.S. that need more than just a mere Internet ordainment from a person who would like to execute religious rituals. States like Virginia, Oklahoma, Delaware, Louisiana and Arkansas need a person who has been ordained to present to the particular state a copy of his credential in addition to his address before performing any religious ceremony. Nevada, Ohio and Rhode Island all certify their state’s ministers, while Tennessee requires that the ordination should be “a calculated and conscientious act” and might completely prohibit a person who has become ordained through the online process.
According to the BLS of the United States, an estimated average salary of an ordained religious leader in the year 2007 is $43,720. Wages for a Protestant Minister differ depending on where he functions, what denomination does he belong, how many individuals attend the church and how rich the church members are. Some denomination will tie the pay of a minister to the standard pay of the community or the congregation, thus salaries would be considerably greater in bigger and wealthier congregations.
Study Religious Studies
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Since the dawn of time, man has found meaning or purpose in religion. The Ancients have built monumental wonders and developed philosophies based on their religious beliefs. History tells us how nations and empires were united by religion. Man has found enlightenment and fulfillment in religion. Unfortunately, violence and wars were also waged because of religion. Today, as we read the newspapers, watch the television, or surf the Internet, we encounter these two effects of religion on people. What is Religion? The dictionary may define religion basically as a set of beliefs practiced or agreed upon by a group of persons or sect. Many people find such definitions inadequate. Each group or sect have their own definition of religion according to their perspective. These different perspectives, as history has shown, have led to misunderstandings and conflicts up to the present day in many parts of the world. Despite of this, it's fascinating to see how powerful the influence of religion affect our daily lives no matter what religion one belongs or what religious belief one practices.
In order to have deeper understanding on the motivations of these different religious sects, one can choose to study Religion as a course. Though Religion as a course is considered as a new discipline, interest in the study of religion could have started as early as 550 B.C. Islamic scholars have already studied the beliefs and practices of other religions during the middle ages. In Europe, the study of Religion was formally established in the late 19th century. This was brought about by a surge of interest in the historical analysis of the bible and the translation to European languages of various texts from eastern religions like Hindu or Buddhism. A study in Religion will not make one more or less religious but instead the student will be better informed about his traditions as well as the other person's traditions. The study of Religion is a multi-discipline course which involves other fields like history of religion, anthropology, sociology and philosophy among other things. It is a study of human religious behavior, beliefs and institutions. It applies the scientific approach without any religious bias. The study of religion does not seek to prove the existence of a supernatural entity nor the validity of a religious belief. But instead it focuses on describing and explaining a religion or interpreting a religious belief through scientific observation and historical analysis.
This course is not only for people who are or who would like to become leaders of a religious community like pastors or priests, but this course is also for those whose work or career involves dealing with people of different cultures and beliefs. As the world of today is becoming a global village where people, institutions and companies from around the globe could meet, interact and do businesses like never before, there is a demand for people with skills in critical thinking and cross-cultural understanding. The study of Religion course is an excellent training ground in honing such skills.
Study Sociology of Literature
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Do you have a strong interest in literature, particularly in the way it is able to influence and impact societal norms and customs? Have you considered pursuing a degree that addresses this topic in depth—a graduate program that would enable you to take a closer look at some of these trends? If so, you may be an ideal candidate for the Master of Arts degree program in Sociology of Literature. To give you a clearer idea with regard to the specifics of this popular program, below we have provided a brief overview of the Master of Arts degree in Sociology of Literature, including a brief course description and an outline detailing some of the typical coursework and topics this degree program typically includes.
Master of Arts Degree in Sociology of Literature: Course Overview
Since the beginning of time, literature has played a vital role in society, influencing and even predicting the way societies behave and interact, not merely in the time in which a particular literary work was penned, but often decades and even centuries thereafter. This relationship between societies and important literary works is the major emphasis of the Master of Arts Degree in Sociology of Literature.
The Master of Arts degree in Sociology and Literature is a two to three-year graduate level program open to any student who possesses at least a bachelor degree in the same or similar field. It is designed for students who wish to thoroughly explore the connection between Sociology and Literature and the way each affects the other based on past examples. Students will explore works of literature that:
- Predict future trends, often with no notable causal link
- Influence societies both now and in the future
- Define and explain cultural identity
- Celebrate or denigrate a particular ideological or political point of view
- Reflect the religious and ideological restrictions of a given society
Anyone with a passion for literature and its ability to reflect, predict and influence socio-historical trends will thoroughly enjoy and most likely excel in this program.
Graduates who earn a Master of Arts degree in Sociology of Literature can pursue career positions in any number of fields, particularly those in the literary discipline, working as writers, researchers and offering critiques on literature and other scholarly works.
Master of Arts Degree in Sociology of Literature: Coursework
The Master of Arts Degree in Sociology of Literature explores a number of significant topics and key concepts, reflected in modules such as:
- The Impact of Society on Literature—the manner in which the ideological and religious points of view of a given society affected the literature of a particular era.
- The Impact of Literature on Society—a historical reflection on specific literary works that somehow shaped or changed a society over the course of time, either for better or worse.
- Literature and Symbolism
- Literature as a Means of Communication
- Literature and National Identity
- Literature and the Spirit of an Age
- Literature and Causal Factors
- Evaluating Literary Texts
- And more…
The final assignment for students pursuing a Master of Arts degree in Sociology of Literature is the presentation and defense of a Master’s thesis, usually on a topic chosen by the student that was first approved by the faculty of the program.
Study Soviet and Post-Soviet Studies
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Study Systematic Theology
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In humanities today, the modern approach to people is to highlight the array of Scripture at its unity’s cost or as a whole; thus adapt the area of study in Systematic Theology. Systematic theology is an area of study tailored to enhance and expand the education taught in liberal arts and humanities. If you are into Bible and religious teachings, you can have a degree in Systematic theology and enjoy the learning of the Bible or theological topic one by one.
Systematic Theology is a teaching of the Christian theology which tries to put together a well ordered, rational, and logical description of the beliefs and faith of people in Christianity. Built-in to a theological thought system, is that a particular and certain kind of way is developed and formulated; this can be applied on both in general and specific theories. It relies on the principles of the Christianity’s sacred texts as well as the development and formulation of the doctrine about the course of philosophy, history, ethics, and science to be able to produce a complete and versatile possible philosophical approach to people.
Systematic Theology combines the historical, biblical, and occasionally the philosophical theology to the methodology itself. Its main objective is to produce a very clear description and explanation of the thorough understanding of teachings of the Bible about a certain and particular doctrine. Moreover, it does not look only to the individual biblical doctrines of Christianity’s faith but also stays mindful of the cause and effect relationship and connection of each biblical doctrine.
There are some general areas in the study of Systematic Theology. These are:
- Prolegomena – is the study of the methods as well as theories prior to Systematic Theology and sometimes includes the study of God’s revelation of himself.
- Bibliology – means the study of Bible.
- Theology Proper – is the study of God’s doctrine.
- Christology – means the study and learning of Jesus itself.
- Pneumatology – is the study and understanding of Holy Spirit.
- Anthropology – is the teaching of humanity.
- Soteriology – is the general study of our Salvation.
- Ecclesiology – means the study of our Church.
- Eschatology – is the teachings on end time.
- Angelology – is the study and understanding of angels or angelic beings.
The Systematic Theology is a very important device in assisting us to better understand as well as teach the doctrines in the Bible in a very well organized manner of overview that will forever remains truthfully faithful to many biblical witnesses. However, no matter what the method of the theology is learned and studied, what is really important is that the theology itself is really learned and studied by people.
Students and graduates of Systematic Theology can have the opportunity to study and learn the Bible’s particular doctrines and other religious teachings as well as impart that knowledge to other Christians to be able to enhance their faith by teaching them the same principles they have learned.
Job positions for Systematic Theology:
Chaplain or Minister in Hospice-Home Care
After finishing the Systematic Theology study and earned an advance degree in the theology, graduates can have a job as Chaplains or Minister. Chaplains are also called by some people as preachers, deacon, bishop, or elders. Chaplains are very highly educated people, religious, secular, and ordained people. They are commonly endorsed and recommended for the ministry by their own bishops, or some clericals and officials of different faith or institutions. They must become genuinely board certified and need to complete a program in clinical education in pastoral program. Chaplains are Ministers, who have other types of pastoral and spiritual target group such as school population, military unit, patients, and many more.
As Chaplain in Hospice or Home Care, their main duties are to provide an individual or group the spiritual guidance as well as support during their illness, or injury, or in an emergency situation. They perform religious services and administer prayers. They must be familiar with the standard concepts, procedures, and practices in that particular field.
Below are detailed duties of a respectable Chaplain in a Hospice or Home Care Centers:
- Assures the spiritual assessments of the people in a group area as well as the appropriate services rendered for different individuals accordingly.
- Facilitates and identify a group’s spiritual needs.
- Provides personal spiritual care to individuals.
- Serves as trustworthy liaison and aid to other group’s or community chaplains or spiritual counselors thus, documents services that are direct and communicates constantly.
- Documents the clinical records of each individual’s spiritual care utilization and the related activities for program development, quality assurance, and procedure and policy reviews and revisions.
- Serves to provide consultations, education, as well as support on individual’s care (i.e. patients, students, etc).
- Attends other religious community conferences.
- Recruits other group chaplains/ministers, spiritual counselors, and as many volunteers in a spiritual care.
- Provides services for funerals and memorial services as requested.
- Assists in the planning of annual memorial ceremony to meet the personnel, volunteers, and other individuals’ needs of the group.
- Provides spiritual and emotional support to family members especially in the bereavement period in coordination of other members of the team.
- Assists in making reviews on chaplain programs and services to ensure that the spiritual goals are being achieved and met, and then makes certain recommendations accordingly.
Professional chaplains or ministers in many of the religious affiliations are provided with a stipend, or a wage, or a salary depending on the group or community they are in or depending upon their employers and as well as the location, company, industry, experience. For example, the expected salary or pay for typical Chaplains in hospice or home care in the U.S. is approximately $44,537. These reports on market pricing of Chaplains are analyzed through surveys.
Chaplains are spiritually enjoyable job. After the hard but amazingly lifting study in systematic theology, the hard work pays off. Giving advices and services in a spiritual way to people is a very spirit uplifting.
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If you are one of those persons who want to be prepared for a life long education as well as those who want to work with communities in terms of addressing world issues and personal matters, then you may take up a Theology degree. This area of study tackles the existence of God or other gods and how they relate to man’s way of life. More generally, this pertains to the religious faith, experience and practice. This is often associated with one’s spirituality and frequently compared to religious studies when in fact, they are two different entities. Theology is the study of religion from an inner point of view while the study of religion is from an external perspective.
Theology instructors utilize different forms of investigation and argument including ethnographic, historical and philosophical analyses so that the students will be able to understand, explain, critique, test, promote or defend any religious topics. This should be accomplished well so that the learners will be able to comprehend more about their traditions in religion as well as the belief of other people. This can also help students make comparisons and justify their opinions when it comes to religion. If accurate information has been properly disseminated, it is without a doubt that they will be able to facilitate reform and assist in the circulation of a particular religious tradition. It is also important that a theologian will be able to make use of the resources to take in hand some of the present situations and other needs.
Originally, the word “theology” can be translated into a Greek phrase that means “talk about the divine God.” However, as time passes by, the initial meaning shifted and now, it has a variety of meaning including the study about gods or more commonly, cosmology. It is hard to trace the roots of theology and the period when it started to be a part of the academic discipline. Nevertheless, many experts believe that it began ever since the inception of one institution since each and every one of them has theological themes on their subject matters.
Along with the evolution of theology, the studies associated with it also improved. The primary forms included on the subject are Philosophy, History, Psychology, Sociology and the Anthropology of religion. All of which involve the historical and contemporary practices and concepts of the traditions in religion using tools and intellectual structures. The study of theology is often found in colleges and universities that are run by Christian superiors. Those who take up this course will be exposed to several vocations and professions including being a pastor, chaplain, educator, ministers, deacons and even music teachers.
Once completed, you have the chance to further improve your education and also practice your chosen field with regards to religion and values. Bachelor degree in Theology allows a person to study the foundations of liberal arts, Biblical and Christian faith so that they will be able to develop views about the world and the viewpoints associated with it.
Job positions for Theology:
Systematic Theology Professor or Lecturer
The Systematic Theology Professor or Lecturer’s qualification depends upon the employer’s preferences. So, if you have a doctorate in this field or applicants who are very willing to pursue their doctorate, you may be considered to be a professor or a lecturer in a particular school. Also, some schools and universities require prior teaching experience, pastoral experience, or productivity academically. So, if you will apply and work to these schools and universities, you need to fulfill their requirements. Furthermore, the professors of systematic theology have an average salary of $62,843 according to the survey made to different industries, schools, and etc. However, this salary also depends on the location, industry, employer, and experience in the specialization in the area of study of the Systematic theology.
Professors or Lecturers of Systematic theology are responsible for teaching mainly the doctrines for some schools. However, they may also include teaching the historical theology courses or the biblical content and methodology to students. Furthermore, they are responsible also for giving spiritual advice to students who are in need or students who are just willing to listen, give curriculum oversights to see whether the students are following and understanding the course outline and the course itself and as well as certain scholarships and services given by the school or university so that students may continue to enjoy those benefits. Other tasks include the teaching of students about the bible and lecturing them about particular doctrines. Moreover, Professors are also responsible for student pastoral, and some administrative tasks given by the school administration itself. Systematic Theology Professors must be able to promote the gospel by somehow commenting on the issues in relation to the study, mastery, and complete understanding of Christian Scriptures in church and academy.
As a summary, the Systematic theology professors/lecturers’ mission is to help and support the advancement of the Kingdom of God by means of training and education. They aid in nurturing the growth of ministering individuals within a Charismatic life so that students can experience God’s wisdom and be prepared to lead, evangelize, disciple a community or nation, and lead and serve the Body of Christ in the whole as well as lead and serve the church. Thus, this mission can be accomplish by the student’s acquisition of the theological and biblical knowledge, pursuit of conventional studies from the Christian perspective, development of behavior, and formation of leadership and ministry skills.
Theology graduates have undergone a lot of lectures and trainings when it comes to dealing with other people and their behavior. This is why there are many of them who choose to become a school counselor. If you are one of those who are willing to help people select the best path for them, you can apply for the said occupation. There are other terms that are connected to this type of job including guidance and educational counselor.
It is the job of a school counselor to provide the right direction for the students as well as their parents. In line with this, it is also their duty to educate them so that they will have stronger faith in God and concern for others. There are actually a lot of schools that advertise their need for a qualified and professional counselor that will offer guidance to the students. It is specifically important for these institutions to have such worker since the learners will reflect how good their services are. If the students are truly well behaved, a certain school will be known for their ability to discipline them and provide the right education for the students.
Counselors are present so that the problems of an individual will be solved in the proper manner. They also provide enlightenment for those who are going through a lot of difficulties in their life. This is a very important time in their life since they will have an opportunity to help people along with the chance to establish themselves in their chosen career. School counselors are faced with the challenge to assist the students in their academic development in addition to their personal lives. Usually, they perform counseling when a learner wants to enter a certain school. This takes place during assessment exams wherein they interview the youth and from the information they have obtained through their answers, they make an evaluation as to whether that person deserves to be a part of the school.
School counselors also work in information centers where they offer career advice for those who are about to go to college or those who have already graduated. This is very beneficial for them because everybody needs guidance at times like this. There are also elementary school counselors and their main duty is to identify the strengths and the weaknesses of the child so that they can further enhance their abilities and eliminate those limitations that hinder a child’s progress.
Being a school counselor might appear to be an easy task because most people would think that this only involves giving advice to others but in reality, this is a tough job. It is their responsibility to check how the students are doing and if they have been following the recommendations given to them. Since fights occur in institutions from time to time, it is also their duty to break the brawl and reprimand those who were involved. They can also report to the parents so that they will be informed of what their children are doing.
Now that you have graduated and earned your Theological degree, you will be wondering what job you will apply for. Although there are some people who think that it will be hard to find an occupation that is suitable for the said course, there are actually many employment opportunities available for you. One of them is pursuing the pastor career path. Pastors are considered as one of the kindest people on earth since they sacrificially help and assist others without asking for anything in return. It is their duty to point each and every person to God in addition to praying for us whenever we require it.
Although there are a lot of types of pastors including youth, worship, senior, executive, Baptist, associate and children’s pastors, they have the same responsibilities. They are often referred to as the elders and the educators of the church. They should be able to counsel people and help them understand that the struggles and difficulties are part of the life of very person. Delivering sermons is what they usually do, which is a great way to uplift the citizens’ souls. Another part of being a pastor is to visit those who are sick as well as those individuals who are recuperating in the hospital. Most of the time, they officiate funerals and give a hand when there are burials. Along with this, they are also in charge with baptizing the babies and those older people who have not been officially baptized yet.
Pastors should be able to offer moral support and guidance for people, which is an easy thing for them to do because of the fact that they have been trained in this area while they were still studying theology. In reality, there are only a few of the population who are willing to work as a pastor given that they will have to live through their faith and most of them depend their salary on other people’s generosity. Although this is the case, the job is very rewarding in its own way.
Like all other professions, pastors are confronted with several challenges in their own life and in the ministry also. In order to become a successful pastor, authority is required along with their experience in the matter. The latter can be obtained while a potential pastor is still in college or in a learning institution. Having the appropriate skill is also important in view of the fact that they are obliged to divide the word of God in the right manner, which is known as practical wisdom. In accordance, there should be sufficient knowledge and compassion towards other people.
Pastors have the continuous duty to pray for the people and for their souls. This is greatly needed by people since we are in the critical moment where we are dealing with plenty of troubles. Being able to fully grasp the meaning of the job and the importance of it for the other individuals will allow one to succeed in their chosen occupation.
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