Studies & Degrees in Law

Choose the degree program you would like to study:

Administrative Law American Law Anglo-American Law Program Applied Legal Studies Business Law Canon Law Civil Law Commercial Law Corporate Law Criminal Justice Ecclesiastical Law of the State Economic Law Environmental Law French Law Global Law (GLP) International & Comparative Private Law International Business Law International Human Rights Law International Law International Private Law Jurisprudence Law Law and Society Legal Assistant Legal Medicine Legal Science Maritime Law Marriage Canon Law Navarran Law Paralegal Studies Private Law Public Law Social Law Sports Law Tax Law Tribal Legal Studies

Study Administrative Law

Choose where you would like to study Administrative Law:

IndiaIraqIrelandMexicoSpainThe United StatesUkraineUruguayVenezuela

In almost any country, usually there are three kinds of laws that, more or less, give order to a society in general, and these are Constitutional Law, Civil Rights Law and Administrative Law. Probably, everyone would know about Constitutional Law and Civil Rights Law as they would wind up probably in a school subject matter or a common discussion among older people. However, Administrative Law would be a bit like foreign language to ordinary citizens because it would only apply to administrative agencies of the government and those that deal directly and indirectly with those government agencies.

Administrative Law, basically, as with Constitutional Law and Civil Rights Law, is binding and is the basis of conduct of government agencies and officials depending to what branch of government they are attached to as different branches and agencies of governments may adhere to different rules of regulations set by the administrative law makers. Administrative Law is usually used in rulemaking, adjudication and enforcement of specific regulations.

Rulemaking is more of an executive function as those in this branch of Administrative Law are concerned with creation or promulgation of regulations. As it is known that most types of governments have legislative bodies like the House of Congress or Senate who usually pass the laws but it is Administrative Law practitioners that refine those laws passed by the legislators. For example, it was found out that there had been a lot of people going to hospitals because of a presence of bacteria in a certain brand of peanut butter spreads. So, as a means of protecting the citizens, congress then will pass a law calling for peanut butter companies to get a seal of approval from government representatives who will make sure that the batch going out to the store shelves are safe and bacteria free. The agency in charge of food safety would then give these companies a set of rules in accordance with the anti-bacteria law. The food safety agency would then publish a set of rules to be adhered by companies or businessmen who wants to make peanut butter spreads. More or less, the rules to be published by the rulemaking agency would be more specific like the level of bacteria that can be allowed for a given sample, to make companies declare on their labels an allowance of 30 days before the actual expiry date and something of this sort.

Adjudication is the legal process called forth when a certain government regulatory body is needed to arbitrate disputes between two private individuals or corporations, disputes between private individuals and public officials and disputes between public officials.

The third function of Administrative Law is to serve as an enforcer. Notice in the news, government agencies like the SEC closing down a business who did not comply with regulations or the Center for Disease taking jurisdiction over an area and enforcing quarantine where no one can go in and out of a cordoned area.

Those who want to get into Administrative Law in the pure sense would be a bit more difficult because only the brightest are usually employed by the government’s policy making bodies.

Study American Law

Choose where you would like to study American Law:

IndiaSpainThe United States

Study Anglo-American Law Program

Choose where you would like to study Anglo-American Law Program:

IndiaSpainThe United States

Graduates of an Anglo-American Law Program are definitely knowledgeable in civil and common law systems and face bright job opportunities as full-fledged lawyers in international legal institutions and law firm, or as executives in many other fields of endeavor. The program is a new way to study law, complementing the study of the traditional law degree course offered in many law schools. The program is compatible with global law studies and with an international business law course, stressing the fundamentals of both the civil law and Anglo-American law based on the principles of common law. Common law, as a system of principles and rules grounded in natural law, is historically the basis of Anglo-American legal systems.

The University of Navarra Law School in Spain offers the program for four years during the regular academic years. The courses include Introduction to Anglo-American law and Case Analysis, U.S. Constitutional Law and Criminal Law, U.S. Contract Law, U.S. Litigation and Dispute Resolution, U.S. Business and Corporate Law, U.S. Tax Law, and U.S. Tort Law. The John H, Carey II School of Law of the Anglo-American University in the Czech Republic provides students with a practical approach to the study of law in Europe where common law and civil law systems appear to blend partially. The Central European University‘s Department of Legal Studies offers a program for Anglo-American legal concepts leading to a master’s degree in international business law, with courses of Historical Development of Civil Law and Common Law Compared; Statutory and Case Law; Law and Equity; American Court System and Federal and State Courts; Public and Private Law; Constitutional Law; Administrative Law; Criminal Law and Procedure; and the Jury System: Role of Counsel and Judge in the Trial. In the Ritsumeiken University School of Law, the Anglo-American Law is treated as one of the common courses along with European Law and Asian Law for first, second and third-year students.

At the Southern University Law Center in Louisiana, the Anglo-American Law is integrated into the curriculum to ensure students that they graduate with a comprehensive knowledge of both common law and civil law, and prepare them for various career opportunities. The University of Washington’s School of Law offers a course in Roman Law which affords students a background of the legal system that has profound impact on the Anglo-American common law, which still exists in many civil code nations.

Some law schools in Asia also offer Anglo-American Law courses to keep abreast with the developments in global law studies. The Chuo Law School of Chuo University of Tokyo offers a wide array of courses in Anglo-American Law to afford its students with basic concepts needed to study law in foreign law schools. The National Taipei University and the Kyung Hee University in South Korea offer a course of study in the Continental and Anglo-American law systems, and Anglo-American Law and Legal System, respectively, with emphasis on American law as provided in the U.S. Constitution.

Study Applied Legal Studies

Choose where you would like to study Applied Legal Studies:

IndiaIrelandThe United States

Study Business Law

Choose where you would like to study Business Law:

AustriaBahamasCanadaEcuadorGreeceIndiaIrelandItalyMexicoNigeriaSloveniaSpainThe United KingdomThe United StatesUkraineUruguayVietnam

Those who study business law are concerned with the legal issues and rights surrounding business practices and development in their country of origin. It is a law pursuit, meaning it mainly studies the history and application of various laws (at federal and other levels). Business law encompasses many legal issues including employment standards, taxation, business ethics, banking and contracts.
The most prestigious places to study business law are at a college or university. While a bachelor’s degree is attainable in business law, most individuals choose to pursue a higher degree, most often in a law school (as most employers will prefer a law school degree). Many students will earn a bachelor’s degree in a related field (such as political science) and pursue a business law study at a master’s level.
It is unlikely to find a complete course of study in business law anywhere aside from an accredited college, university or law school. Some online programs or universities offer associate or bachelor degree courses in business law, along with some form of certification. Individuals can find textual and online resources for study, but this type of self-education will not give them a certification to practice business law.
Skills, Qualifications, and Prerequisites for Studies in Business Law
Studying business law as an associate or bachelor’s program at a college will entail certain admission requirements. Before a higher education institution will allow entrance, a candidate must at the least earn a secondary school completion certificate and pass a standardized aptitude test or entrance exam. If the individual seeks to pursue study at a law school, they are nearly always required to already hold a degree. Often, law schools also require candidates to pass an admission test that covers basic subjects and necessary legal information.
An online study program will typically not require any prerequisites, aside from a possible secondary school completion certificate. Any self-study programs are also void of prerequisites.
Business law requires a long, intensive course of study, so candidates should be dedicated to the course from the beginning. High intelligence is essential, as there is an enormous amount of legal information and technical research. An impeccable accuracy rate, especially in regards to detailed laws, is fundamental. Highly developed critical thinking, communication and interpersonal skills also makes for a prime business law candidate.
Skills and Qualifications Acquired from Studies in Business Law
A study in business law must cover all business regulations at multiple levels, from employee standards to international laws. Business law, therefore, provides skills and knowledge in the following applicable areas:
  • History and development of the legal system.
  • Basic business structures.
  • International laws and regulations.
  • Federal laws and regulations.
  • Administrative laws and regulations.
  • Labor and employment laws and regulations.
  • Commercial laws and regulations.
  • Court system and processes.
  • Ethical practices.
  • Leadership techniques and qualities.
  • Sales and marketing.
  • Negotiation and contract types and functions.
  • Benefits, downfalls and types of partnerships.
Careers for Studies in Business Law
The vast majority of business law students undertake this study in order to become lawyers. They usually work for law firms or privately owned practices as attorneys, or as lawyers for trial cases. Sometimes they manage accounts and transactions for individual clients or consult in business projects.
Some business law graduates find employment in more specific fields, such as financing. They may become financial advisors, banking employees or legal analysts. Rarely, they will use their study as a foundation to undertake or partner in their own business, which may or may not be a legal consulting firm.

Study Canon Law

Choose where you would like to study Canon Law:

BelgiumFranceIndiaSpainThe United States

Vatican City happens to be a small yet powerful State being home to the Central Catholic Faith. The territorial area measures 44 hectares, and enclosed the landlocked City-State along with its famous landmarks such as the Apostolic Palace, the Sistine Chapel, and St. Peter’s Basilica. Although it is the smallest country by land area, it is nonetheless influential with over one billion Roman Catholic converts and over 200,000 churches worldwide. Consequently, the extensive influence brought about by Catholicism also implies the huge ambit of Canon Law.

Canon Law, also known as Ecclesiastical Law, originated in Christian Communities. Before the 20th century, members of the faith were guided by spiritual customs and traditions. The church had no written laws recorded for over five centuries. In turn, the Roman State regulated all religious activities. As a matter of fact, the Justinian’s Codex contained imperial statutes pertaining to the practice of religion. In the mid-19th century, the codification of Canon Law was proposed by the bishops in the First Vatican Council. On May 27, 1917, it was codified and enforced under the regime of Pope Benedict XV. Since then, it has been the prime source of religious rules of conduct observed by priests and laymen, alike.

Ecclesiastical Law is the body of law employed by religious people, especially the members of the Christian faith. Most likely, it consists of norms relating to the proper practice of religious beliefs among Christians from all walks of life. These include the conditions, duties, and responsibilities of bishops, clergies, and non-clergies. In the same way, the law contains the sacred Holy Scriptures, Holy Sacraments, and other legislations. In particular, it is used by three Christian congregations: the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern and Oriental Orthodox Church, and the Anglican Church.

The impact of Christian Faith on the world compelled the academe to provide degree courses relating to Cannon Law. These are offered in graduate and undergraduate schools under bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral programs. Students can choose from various curricula which may include Canon Law Studies, Ecclesiastical Studies, and Theological Studies. Certain requisites though are involved to be an official Canon lawyer. Apart from passing all the required courses, the student must be able to come up with a thesis for a licentiate degree. Further studies may be pursued for a doctorate degree which would require submission of an academic dissertation at the end of the program.

Career options await graduates of Canon Law and related studies. The wide ranging religious institutions such as the five million Christian churches found all over the globe comprise a great employment niche. Besides, there are many religious offices which can tender job placements to specialists. Spiritual groups are likely to consult practitioners of ecclesiastical law for divine guidance. Non-profit entities may hire Canon Law experts for research projects of religious interest. Christian schools may also offer teaching posts to professionals who can to share their expertise in the academe. Private counselling firms can also provide jobs to eligible degree holders.

Study Civil Law

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CanadaIndiaIrelandSpainThe United States

Study Commercial Law

Choose where you would like to study Commercial Law:

IndiaIrelandSpainThe United States

Study Corporate Law

Choose where you would like to study Corporate Law:

IndiaIrelandSpainThe United States

Study Criminal Justice

Choose where you would like to study Criminal Justice:

AustraliaCanadaDenmarkGermanyIndiaIrelandNetherlandsSloveniaSpainSwitzerlandThe United KingdomThe United States

Inside a prison cell in Birmingham City Jail where he was imprisoned in April of 1963, Martin Luther King, Jr. wrote “Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere.” These are compelling words that are now recognized as a guiding principle in many countries and human rights organizations as well as a credo of Criminal Justice Systems worldwide.

Criminal Justice could be a defined as a system composed of procedures and protocols carried out by three major institutions: first, is the Law Enforcement arm of the Criminal Justice System, these are the Police who makes the arrests on suspected criminals as well as conduct investigations on the aspects of the criminal act. Second, are the courts that serve as a venue for the settlement of the disputes and where the guilt or innocence of the accused is decided on and the sentence or punishment is determined. The third part of the system is Corrections or jails where the sentence or punishment is carried or served by an offender found guilty of the crime. The Criminal Justice system is also tasked at deterring, controlling and mitigating crime in the community. With these roles and functions that the system has to perform, jobs and career choices in this department abound.

Individuals who want to be an instrument of justice could study in undergraduate programs and post graduate degree programs offered in many colleges and universities. There are many possible career paths to embark on depending on your career goals. These options could in be in any of the three branches mentioned earlier i.e. law enforcement, courts or corrections. For the law enforcement branch, career choices could be to get certification as crime scene technician for those who fancy ala CSI characters that look so cool on TV, or they could pursue trainings and studies to become a detective or a police officer. There are also government academies and facilities like the FBI Academy of the United States where trainings to become special agents of the government are conducted. These training however are rigorous mentally and physically. Thus, aspiring agents should make the necessary preparations prior to enrolling. Other preferences could be to work in the courts as a paralegal, or a legal secretary these are usually offered as associate programs in universities or perhaps go the whole ten yards and earn a law degree. Individuals could also choose to be in the corrections arm of the Criminal Justice System. Career options on this field are: to become a corrections officer, a parole and probation officer or a correctional treatment specialist. These options however could require a bachelor degree before one could enroll in the degree programs and trainings leading to the jobs mentioned. It would be wise to make inquiries on the educational, physical as well as other qualifications that the career options may require.

Being in the Criminal Justice field is often regarded more as a calling than a choice. People who are genuinely interested in embarking on this field should have intact values, should morally upright and possess the passion in upholding and serving justice in the community.

Study Ecclesiastical Law of the State

Choose where you would like to study Ecclesiastical Law of the State:

IndiaSpainThe United States

Vatican City happens to be a small yet powerful State being home to the Central Catholic Faith. The territorial area measures 44 hectares, and enclosed the landlocked City-State along with its famous landmarks such as the Apostolic Palace, the Sistine Chapel, and St. Peter’s Basilica. Although it is the smallest country by land area, it is nonetheless influential with over one billion Roman Catholic converts and over 200,000 churches worldwide. Consequently, the extensive influence brought about by Catholicism also implies the huge ambit of Canon Law.

Canon Law, also known as Ecclesiastical Law, originated in Christian Communities. Before the 20th century, members of the faith were guided by spiritual customs and traditions. The church had no written laws recorded for over five centuries. In turn, the Roman State regulated all religious activities. As a matter of fact, the Justinian’s Codex contained imperial statutes pertaining to the practice of religion. In the mid-19th century, the codification of Canon Law was proposed by the bishops in the First Vatican Council. On May 27, 1917, it was codified and enforced under the regime of Pope Benedict XV. Since then, it has been the prime source of religious rules of conduct observed by priests and laymen, alike.

Ecclesiastical Law is the body of law employed by religious people, especially the members of the Christian faith. Most likely, it consists of norms relating to the proper practice of religious beliefs among Christians from all walks of life. These include the conditions, duties, and responsibilities of bishops, clergies, and non-clergies. In the same way, the law contains the sacred Holy Scriptures, Holy Sacraments, and other legislations. In particular, it is used by three Christian congregations: the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern and Oriental Orthodox Church, and the Anglican Church.

The impact of Christian Faith on the world compelled the academe to provide degree courses relating to Cannon Law. These are offered in graduate and undergraduate schools under bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral programs. Students can choose from various curricula which may include Canon Law Studies, Ecclesiastical Studies, and Theological Studies. Certain requisites though are involved to be an official Canon lawyer. Apart from passing all the required courses, the student must be able to come up with a thesis for a licentiate degree. Further studies may be pursued for a doctorate degree which would require submission of an academic dissertation at the end of the program.

Career options await graduates of Canon Law and related studies. The wide ranging religious institutions such as the five million Christian churches found all over the globe comprise a great employment niche. Besides, there are many religious offices which can tender job placements to specialists. Spiritual groups are likely to consult practitioners of ecclesiastical law for divine guidance. Non-profit entities may hire Canon Law experts for research projects of religious interest. Christian schools may also offer teaching posts to professionals who can to share their expertise in the academe. Private counselling firms can also provide jobs to eligible degree holders.

Canon law is the body of laws and regulations made or adopted by ecclesiastical authority, with the purpose to govern the Christian organization and its members. This type of law should not be mistaken with the type of law that aims to govern all citizens; rather, the system of rules and mechanisms for holding trials and imposing punishments is used within the Church. Canon law is an extremely old legal system, and the canon of the Roman Catholic Church is one of the oldest continuously operating legal systems in the world.

In general, canon law covers everything from the activities of religious officials to the grounds for excommunication, and includes standards for trials and other hearings that may be held to decide on Church matters. Canon law does not apply to people who are not members of the Church, and individual Christians have the choice to follow it to varying degrees. Some Christians have expressed disagreements with some aspects of the Church law and have insisted for reforms to modernize the law and address emerging ethical and religious issues. Canon lawyers can represent people in ecclesiastical courts, provide legal advice on interpretations of canon law, and offer other services to Church officials and members. Canon lawyers are allowed to practice before courts and tribunals held by the Church, but not before the bar.

Personal Qualities

Genuine interest in the matters of the Church is required, combined with some of the following skills and qualities:

  • Excellent communication skills
  • Enjoy subjects like history, sociology, and literature
  • Very good interpersonal skills
  • Enjoy research
  • Very good analytical skills

Study Options

Canon Law and Ecclesiastical Law of the State is a discipline that is offered in various forms – licentiate degree, doctoral degree, at the postgraduate level, or even as a summer school course. You are able to choose your option according to your future goals and preferences. Most of these programs are designed for those, who practise or are involved in the administration of church law, and for those wishing to pursue an interest in this developing field of legal scholarship. Students get to become thoroughly acquainted with church law, examining the subject from various angles – gaining theological, philosophical, and historical background, while the discipline is usually taught both from the academic and practical points of view. Such a degree is also likely to be very much research-led, while requirements for entry usually involve at least a bachelor’s degree in Law.

Career Options

This degree is usually taken by secular and ecclesiastical judges, university academics, barristers, solicitors, and clergy. You could also dedicate yourself to research or teaching.

Study Economic Law

Choose where you would like to study Economic Law:

IndiaSpainSwitzerlandThe United StatesUkraine

Economic law deals with the main legal issues that are normally arising from the economic activities. Currently, economic law is most commonly referred to as international economic law, and is involved with the legal requirements that come with the globalization of the world economy.

Pursuing the discipline of international economic law, you would gain thorough knowledge of the legal trade agreements and treaties that support the cross-national commercial transactions. You would also study the legal aspects of the different forms of international business, including joint ventures and financial projects. And finally, you would gain a perception of the changing roles of international economic institutions such as the EU, the North American free Trade Agreement, and so on.

Personal Qualities

This is a subject that requires a great deal of open-mindedness and an internationally-oriented nature. Further qualities include:

  • Good knowledge of economics and economic principles
  • Excellent analytical skills
  • Great communication skills
  • Very good memory

Study Options

Both economics and law are highly challenging disciplines, and in this case they are blended together to form a subject that requires a lot of thought and hard work. Most commonly, universities offer this degree at the postgraduate level, while admission of candidates would be very selective.

If you consider to pursue this subject area, pay close attention to your academic record in your economics and law-related subjects. Other disciplines you may wish to stress on are history, geography, and psychology. The subject of economic law is also highly suitable for law students, who wish to gain a broader perspective of the economic world, and specialize in the field of economics.

Career Options

Career prospects for students with a postgraduate degree in economic or international economic law are more than excellent. Such a degree would be ideal to support a wide range of future career goals you might have, including corporate law, contract law, or tort law. You would have the opportunity to work both in the private sector – either in specialized law firms or in the legal department of large corporations; and in government agencies that may need to interfere in the dealings between companies.

Study Environmental Law

Choose where you would like to study Environmental Law:

GermanyIndiaIrelandSpainThe United StatesUkraine

Environmental Law is a body of state and federal statutes designed to protect the environment in general. These laws are commonly concerned with wildlife, clean air, land, pollution or over-cutting of forests, endangered species, conservation of water, and other developments on preventive measures meant to protect the natural environment from detrimental impacts of human activities.

The Environmental Law Program is meant to prepare future lawyers to regulate the interaction of society with the natural environment to minimize the harmful effects that certain processes cause. Environmental Law emerged from “pro-nature” movements as environmentalism which includes principles like conservation, responsibility and sustainability, among others.

In essence, Environmental lawyers advise and represent clients on a wide range of matters. The most common cases involve air and water pollution, land use and agricultural concerns, parks and wilderness protection, waste management, resource extraction, transportation, to name a few.

Areas of concern in Environmental Law consist of air quality, water quality, climate change, species conservation, pesticides and other hazardous chemicals, sustainable development, impact assessment, and conservation and management of natural resources in general.

The opportunities entwined with the Environmental Law Program are practically limitless. There are several areas related to Environmental Law, such as:

Agriculture Law

Agriculture Law essentially considers the role of government in the industry. There are numerous federal and state regulations governing agricultural activities as well as their impact on farmers, workers, consumers, and the environment. With its continuous presence and evolution, technology has also made its way to agriculture. This phenomenon in turn has caused issues on intellectual property, trade, finance, credit, and general commercial transactions to be likewise present in the industry.

Animal and Wildlife Law

Animal Law and Wildlife Law basically refers to the collection of laws that concern the rights, state and wellbeing of animals and wildlife. The increasing occurrences of animal and wildlife abuse have caused this new area of law to branch out. Animal law encompasses domesticated animals, animals used in entertainment, animals raised for food, and animals used in scientific research. Wildlife Law, on the other hand, is concerned generally with the natural world, both plants and animals.

Energy Law

Energy Law deals with all laws that govern the use, restrictions and conservation of energy. The laws that apply to energy are enforced to combat the increasing problems and issues regarding the production and use of various types of energy. This body of law actually encompasses the use of electric, gas, solar, atomic and other energy resources. Several energy laws and regulations commonly aim to provide affordable energy while protecting the economic and environmental interests of society.

Natural Resources Law

Natural Resources Law is a compilation of national and local laws that have to do with the regulated use and protection of natural resources. Natural Resources Law is focused on the purpose of reducing the damaging effects of human activity on the natural environment, and hence on humanity itself.

Apart from the above mentioned, the Environmental engineer may also take be involved in Equine Law, Forestry and Fisheries Law, and Oil and Gas Law.

Study French Law

Choose where you would like to study French Law:

The United States

Study Global Law (GLP)

Choose where you would like to study Global Law (GLP):

IndiaIrelandSpainThe United KingdomThe United StatesUkraine

They say the world today is akin to a global village, with global problems. These problems require global solutions and this field of study exposes students to the environment of local, regional, and national legal system, along with individual rights and welfare. The study addresses issues as diverse as international human rights, law and development, cross border investment disputes and climate change. Students of global law get exposure to global legal issues both in the classroom and beyond. The study of global law outlines the role of legal practice and an efficient lawyer in the welfare of the society. Students of global law would be able to combine solid education and practice experiences in local or domestic law with a range of applications in international and global law, which include legal aspects of comparative, migration, national security and foreign relations. The students of global law would enter the legal profession with a global scope and perspective.
Programs in Global law are often taught by law professors from around the world to introduce students to the legal picture in different parts of the globe. The huge number of people moving across international borders each year has led to the belief that the practice of law has escaped the bounds of any particular jurisdiction. This has created a demand for lawyers who can approach the legal practice with a global perspective.
Courses in Global Law

Global law is usually offered at graduate schools and universities at the Masters Degree level. Masters in Global law is a two year program that provides an extensive training in global law. The study allows students to go on to pursue doctorate studies in global law. The course requires intensive work at an advanced level in the field of global law. Students are sometimes familiarized with an additional discipline like anthropology, sociology, international economics, international history or international relations. The course comprises class room instruction, seminars, as well as, an original dissertation. Masters in Global Law aims to provide students with the tools and approaches required for a rigorous analysis of contemporary global international problems.
For admission into a Masters program in Global law, students are required to hold a bachelor’s degree or an equivalent in a related program. They might also need to fulfill any additional requirements that a specific institute or university may have.
Career Opportunities

There are various career options in global law (international, comparative/foreign, migration, foreign relations and national security law), just as there are in domestic law. Graduates of Global Law follow many paths. Those with a background can choose to work with private law firms and legal departments of corporations on international business transactions, arbitrations and intellectual property matters. Some choose to work with developmental organizations or NGOs dealing with human rights violations, immigrant issues, war crimes and so on. Graduates of global law can also choose to engage in consultation on trade law and policy, organization of humanitarian help for refugees or displaced persons, advocacy at international tribunals, gaining asylum with court petitions, or petition international bodies to stop governments from imposing the death penalty.

Study International & Comparative Private Law

Choose where you would like to study International & Comparative Private Law:

IndiaIrelandNetherlandsSpainThe United StatesUkraine

The discipline of International and Comparative Private Law has been becoming more popular in the recent years, with the increasing globalization and regional integration between countries. Such a course is aimed at lawyers who wish to work in internationally operating corporations and law firms. What comparative law refers to is the study of the differences and similarities between the law of different countries, which means that the various legal systems around the world are also thoroughly explored (i.e. the common law, the civil law, socialist law, Islamic law, Hindu law, and Chinese law). Foreign legal systems are described and analyzed, even if no comparison is undertaken.

Furthermore, comparative law consists of a number of branches, which include constitutional law, comparative administrative law, comparative civil law, commercial law, and criminal law. Within each of these areas, international comparative lawyers have to make detailed comparisons between countries, or broad-ranging studies of several countries. Consequently, comparative law follows the aim to not only gain a deeper understanding of the legal systems around the world, but also contribute to their unification.

Finally, an example of a casus to be solved from this field of study is when a French company buys goods from a German one, but the delivery is not complete, and some products are not as ordered. International Comparative and Private Law deals with who is responsible, as well as the court of which country will be allowed to rule over this dispute.

Personal Qualities

The qualities required to deal with international law definitely relate to the desire to learn about different countries, make comparisons, and solve problems. Here are other skills to consider:

  • Excellent communication skills
  • Aptitude for learning foreign languages
  • Excellent analytical and problem-solving skills
  • Very good memory
  • Sharp thought and persuasiveness
  • Open-minded and flexible

Study Options

This is a course that is usually offered at a higher level of study – this can suggest a master’s degree, or a doctoral degree. This means that you should have already completed an undergraduate Law degree, and you are looking for a specialization. When choosing this course, you should be looking for a truly international environment, and the opportunity to learn from real life experiences while studying. Some of the most common subjects, relevant to such a course are Comparative Private Law, International Contracts Law, Comparative Private International Law and Cross-border Commercial Transactions. Usually the requirements for entry are very high, and you should be sincerely committed to achieving good academic results while completing your bachelor’s degree.

Career Options

Career opportunities for graduates from the field of International and Comparative Private Law are based around working for organizations with multinational activities and law firms that offer services for such companies.

Study International Business Law

Choose where you would like to study International Business Law:

EcuadorGermanyIndiaIrelandItalyMexicoSpainThe United StatesUkraine

International business law relates to the practice of law in the worldwide business community. It represents a good mix of the fields of economics and law, including international business transactions, taxes, tariffs, licensing, and others. International law involves all basic business law concepts applied in an international setting.

An international business lawyer has to take into account the laws of a number of different jurisdictions in order to evaluate which jurisdiction is best for a given transaction. He or she would also need to have a very good knowledge of trade agreements, as they play an important role in international business law. In the case of trade agreements, countries normally join together to define certain aspects of trade and commerce. Another responsibility such a lawyer may have is the licensing of property rights – for example, a company may develop a specific intellectual property, but then have the product produced in another country, or license different companies to produce it in various countries. Finally, international lawyers need to possess very good knowledge of tariffs, taxes, and other similar regulators.

Personal Qualities

Personal qualities required are similar to these of a regular lawyer, but also include a great deal of flexibility and readiness to travel or live abroad. Here is a list of skills to consider:

  • Deal very well with people of all backgrounds and nationalities
  • Have excellent memory
  • Outstanding analytical and problem-solving skills
  • Good persuasion skills
  • Excellent communication skills
  • Adaptive to changes

Study Options

To become an international law professional, you will still need all the basic training of a lawyer whose focus is domestic. In addition, you will have to add the perspectives and insights for working with people, laws and issues from different parts of the world. The program you should look for has to enhance your understanding of the function of law, while at the same time clearly explaining to you the differences and similarities found in cross-cultural legal conflicts and collaborations.

Initially, you need to gain a bachelor’s degree, and it may not be too late to become a lawyer if you already have undergone some undergraduate education in English, History, or Economics. The next step for you would be to apply for law school, and ideally aim for one that is specializing in international, transnational, and comparative law and policy. Furthermore, there are law schools that provide students with trial or mediation experience in real-life cases supervised by lawyers. These might take place in legal aid offices or on human rights projects, and will largely contribute to your education and future career prospects.

Career Options

It is important to remember that a career in law will have to be built step by step, as jobs in international law are not very easy to secure. Most likely, you would have to specialize in an area of international law, and then look for positions within this field. Some possible options are the government, as well as employment within companies that have multinational operations. Popular employers are oil companies and communication firms, but there is also the opportunity to work for human rights organizations and environmental action groups. Often information for jobs can be found through various means. For example, The International Law Student Association is a nonprofit organization consisting of attorneys and students, organizing conferences and providing opportunities for research, study and networking in international law.

Study International Human Rights Law

Choose where you would like to study International Human Rights Law:

CanadaIndiaIrelandNetherlandsSwedenThe United States

International human rights law is a collective term encompassing any law, regulation, or treaty agreement that relates to how governments treat certain groups of individuals. Most international human rights laws have to do with discrimination, racial profiling, gender inequalities, and government-sanctioned violence or torture. Since the laws of each country are different, there is no single international human rights law. On the other hand, there are uniform human rights treaties at both global and regional levels that many countries have adopted. The majority of the developments in international human rights law are products of the United Nations (UN) treaties and committee work. Perhaps the best known UN treaty is the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), which outlines the basic rights that all human beings throughout the world should be able to enjoy, addressing civil rights, socio-economic rights, and cultural and political rights.

What a human rights lawyer would do would typically depend on whether they work for governments or for NGOs. Tasks may include meeting with people, who have had their rights violated, advocating on their behalf, preparing for court, writing briefs, etc. They could also investigate human rights violations, which would include meeting with victims, their families, witnesses, then writing reports based on the information they have obtained, speaking with the media and government leaders, and so on. On the other hand, an international human rights lawyer could also spend their time mostly working on paper – evaluating current policies, changing work protocols, or educating policy makers. Other human rights lawyers mainly work in the academic field, conducting studies and writing academic papers.

Personal Qualities

To work as an international human rights lawyer, you need to feel a strong inner drive to fight for people’s rights, be honest and have a good framework of principals. Other qualities and skills you might ponder on are:

  • Excellent communication skills
  • Excellent interpersonal skills
  • Very good analytical skills
  • Outstanding problem-solving skills
  • Good memory
  • Good at persuading people and outlining your arguments

Study Options

International Human Rights Law is usually offered as a master’s degree at various universities. It is typically aimed at lawyers or law graduates, who wish to focus on the field of international human rights law. These programs are often offered in a way that they can suit working individuals – part-time, full-time, or distance learning courses are available. Human rights is a field, multi-disciplinary in its nature, for which reason it is likely that some institutions would also accept candidates from other backgrounds, too. Some universities offer a full-time internship within their program, and this would be the best option for students, serious about advancing in their careers as international human rights lawyers.

Career Options

International Human Rights Lawyers can work for their private practice and the judiciary, with the United Nations and other international organizations, non-governmental organizations, the armed forces, in universities, the media, medicine and other fields.

Study International Law

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International Law is applied in the affairs between countries, which may involve trade, crime, or commerce. International law basically encompasses a complex network of treaties, agreements, customs, declarations, international organizations, writings of judges, etc.; these represent the body of rules that bind nations in their relations. Normally, those building the international system are responsible for developing international law, but not every country takes part in the process. The United Nations is probably the most recognized of all international institutions.

As an international lawyer, you would need to not simply understand the law of your home country, but also have in-depth knowledge of the international law, concerned with the area in which you practice. Two main categories of International Law exist – public International Law and private International Law, which in fact are quite interrelated. Public International Law deals with relationships between different nations or between a nation and persons from another country, while private International Law gets involved with individual concerns, such as civil or human rights issues, not only between a government and its own citizens, but also in how its citizens are treated by other nations.

In real life, International Law covers a great deal of opportunities. Being an international lawyer could involve sorting out human rights issues, migration, or being involved in international trade and investment. A lot of corporate law firms also have an international department, dealing with cross-border mergers and acquisitions, infrastructure or development projects, and many other activities.

Personal Qualities

Excellent communication skills are a personal quality that would definitely represent a strength when embarking on an International Law degree.

Open-mindedness and flexibility are also prerequisites to be successful in this area, combined with some international experience – living or studying abroad for a period of time. Additional qualities are:

  • Ability to memorize a large amount of facts
  • Analytical and problem-solving skills; ability to use facts logically
  • Persuasion skills
  • Decision-making under pressure
  • Liaise with a great number of people
  • Integrity – and ability to understand its importance in the overall development of international law.

Study Options

An undergraduate, postgraduate, or MBA degree in International Law would be an excellent option, considering that countries are becoming even more interrelated with the growth of technology, globalization, and various unions formed (i.e. European Union). The development of international laws also becomes a demand with nations becoming more and more bound together.

In any case, if you aspire to become an international lawyer, choosing a school that offers a good international law program is vital. All lawyers need to graduate with an undergraduate degree at the very least. It would be a good idea to check university’s rankings – both its general standing and the international law classes offered. It would also be smart of you to check whether the university offers some form of international internships or study-abroad programs that will definitely enhance your future career. Help with finding summer internships are offered by many law schools, and this provides a great opportunity to gain experience in a specific area of international law. Such opportunities are more likely to be found in a large, cosmopolitan city, and some schools even offer programs that allow students to interact with the United Nations or with the court system of a foreign country.

A final important point that you have to consider is what the exact requirements for becoming a lawyer in the country you wish to build your career are. For example, in the United States, on top of gaining an undergraduate degree, one has to also get a juris doctorate degree by completing three years of law school. Finally, one has to become licensed in the state where he or she plans to work by passing the bar, the multi-state professional responsibility examination, and pass a background check.

Career Options

Career options in this area are very diverse. The requirements for securing a job are also very high, for which reason sound education background, combined with some experience, is crucial. Still, the degree in International Law provides options to work for national governments, international or non-profit organizations as well as private corporations.

Starting with governments, they have a lot of departments that have some form of international activities, which would definitely require legal support; for instance, environmental departments may work with other countries to implement agreements, such as the Kyoto agreement.

The United Nations and non-government organizations are another major employer of international law graduates. Taking a job in such organizations can be highly rewarding, as it can contribute to making a positive change in the world.

Study International Private Law

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Study Jurisprudence

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Study Law

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No one is above the law – so says the old adage. So if you cannot rise past it, why not be a master of it?

Having a Law degree is probably one of the most revered qualifications in the modern society. The word law by definition means a set of rules and policies and is said to be the primary element that facilitates the relationship among people in a given society. The study of Law hones an individuals’ faculty of reasoning, accurate and effective arguing and the skill to dissect and convey complex ideas.

The field of Law is probably one of the most developed bodies of knowledge both in the ancient and in the modern worlds. This is because the study of law is closely linked to the evolution of human civilizations. Early societies such as the Egyptians have created civil codes dating back to 3000 BC. Even the Bible’s Old Testament, which goes back to 1280 BC, outlines several moral and ethical tenets citizens should follow.

Centuries of exposure to law made it penetrate almost all aspects of people’s day to day living. In broad strokes, Law can be divided into three subcategories. The first one is Law and Society. This particular branch of law deals with facilitating human relations and societal functions. It includes civil and human rights, labor laws, criminal procedures and family law, just to name a few. Ultimately, Law and Society is the most relatable branch of law because everyone is affected by it.

The second subdivision is Law and Commerce. Anything that has to do with business falls under this sub-category such as taxation, commercial law, company law, intellectual property rights and others. Companies nowadays, especially multi-national corporations, have legal departments to deal with legal issues their business might encounter.

Finally, there is Law and Regulation. The key word here is regulation that means implementing several measures to control a certain scenario of phenomenon. Tucked under this subdivision are consumer laws, environmental laws, banking laws and competition laws.

Being one of the basic components of day to day living covering expansive fields, a law degree opens up a myriad of career opportunities. Such skills are coveted in a wide variety of disciplines such as public administration and services, social media, trade and industry and social services. At the end of the day, having a Law degree prepares you to become not just a well-skilled lawyer, but also a bureaucrat, academician, diplomat or public official, social activist and even an entrepreneur or a businessman.

At the end of the day, being a lawyer is a great vehicle to bring change to the society – be it in a courtroom, a company board meeting, or a public office.

Study Law and Society

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Study Legal Assistant

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Study Legal Medicine

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Study Legal Science

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Study Maritime Law

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Maritime law, also referred to as admiralty law, is known to be one of the most established and oldest types of law. It involves laws and rules that deal with marine commerce, ships, shipping, and worker compensation claims that arise on the world’s navigable waters. Examples of topics that maritime law covers are maritime contracts, maritime injuries, salvage, towage, etc.

The most common cases that maritime lawyers deal with are when people get injured or property damaged in connection with a vessel in navigation. Contracts that relate to the navigation, business or commerce of the sea, or contracts to repair vessels are also drawn by maritime lawyers. Finally, sometimes the concept of salvage arises, which relates to the recovery of damaged property that includes treasure.

Personal Qualities

Maritime Law is a specific area within general law, for which reason you need to have a keen interest in the subject in order to pursue it. You also need the skills of a lawyer:

  • Excellent oral and written communication skills
  • Excellent memory
  • Ability to perceive facts and analyze them effectively
  • Ability to work under pressure
  • Outstanding interpersonal skills
  • Integrity

Study Options

Sound educational background is crucial for you to become a maritime lawyer. Due to the fact that maritime law is a fairly unique area of law, in a great part of the world it is subject to specialized statutes and court systems. Most law schools do not offer a great number of classes on maritime law in their basic curriculum. For this reason, the goal to become a maritime lawyer may be best met by pursuing a Master of Laws degree, or LL.M., in maritime law. An LL.M. is an advanced law degree that provides a focused study of one particular area of law. There are a good number of law schools around the world that offer LL.M.s in maritime or admiralty law.

Another factor to consider is the fact that because of the specialized nature of maritime law, many regions have special associations or organizations aimed toward maritime practice. In some places admission to such organizations is compulsory before one can start practicing maritime law.

Career Options

It is very common practice for a new lawyer striving to become a maritime lawyer to find a mentor in the field and work as his or her intern or apprentice for a certain period of time. This way, you would be able to learn the more practical aspects of becoming a maritime lawyer. This is a career that requires a lot of perseverance and hard work, so you would need patience while climbing on the hierarchical ladder. You could work in specialized departments of law firms, within government agencies, or work independently. In any case, pay prospects are very good provided you gain the necessary experience.

Study Marriage Canon Law

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Study Navarran Law

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Study Paralegal Studies

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What is a paralegal?

The term is used in many countries to refer to a non-lawyer who assists a lawyer in the performance of legal tasks. These legal tasks are usually specific assignments which only the lawyer is responsible by virtue of the latter being authorized by the country's rules of court. But not only a law firm employs a paralegal; many other corporations and agencies including the government and the court system also avail of the paralegal services by persons educated or trained to do such services. It has been reported that tens of thousands of paralegals are now gainfully employed around the world, with the profession still continuing to become as the fastest growing occupation of the decade, notwithstanding their educational background. Predictions further say that the paralegal profession will grow by from 22% to 28% in 2016, and faster than average, with more than 50% of graduates of paralegal courses dominating the legal profession.

Paralegalism has been in existence since four decades ago. It started when law firms first provided in-house training to experienced legal secretaries who were not yet known as paralegals, in various facets of the legal work. Whether it was known or not by those law firms, the training worked well. This was followed by the emergence of diversified paralegal educational programs to fully develop the potentials for not only the paralegal field but the education for the paralegal profession as well. Associations were also formed to help meet the need for, and maintain high standards of performance in the paralegal profession.

It is now important for those desiring to be paralegals that education and training--nay experience--are prerequisites of the profession. These education and training can be acquired from various reputable institutions that offer programs on Paralegal Studies. These programs are designed to educate students mostly in the areas of law and ethics, as well as in the fields of interviewing and investigation, legal research and writing, civil procedure, corporate and business law, intellectual property, English composition, speech communication , criminal law, family law, immigration law, computers and the law, and a number of other important subjects. Most institutions of higher learning offer these programs under a specific department or college, with courses leading to the bachelor's and associate degrees, or post-baccalaureate certificates, which are given to students who have already earned an associate or bachelor's degree in other subjects.

Graduates of Paralegal courses are now prepared to enter the profession or go to law schools to broaden their knowledge on law and ultimately become a lawyer. As graduates, they are now considered as able to think critically, having learned the knowledge in legal concepts and procedures necessary for a successful paralegal profession. At the least, they can now also be registered, certificated or certified in the country where they intend to be paralegals, and choose which type of paralegal work they want to perform. More important is the fact that soon they will be part of a profession that may dictate the success of the task specifically assigned to them, and help chart the course and the destiny of a nation's legal profession.

Study Private Law

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Study Public Law

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Study Social Law

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Study Sports Law

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Study Tax Law

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Tax law is concerned with the legislation that is formed by the government with the aim to collect money from citizens and businesses. The taxes they collect are an important source of revenue for the governments, and for this reason a set of laws and principles are required to ensure that tax is collected in a fair manner. Consequently, tax law specifies who and at what rate should be taxed. The legislation also deals with things like exemptions and non-payments.

Tax lawyers, or tax attorneys, come in the game when tax payers need to solve various issues with the government, regarding the taxes they need to pay. Tax attorneys would assist a taxpayer who has in some way infringed the law to have their fines reduced, liens removed, the lawyer could help them throughout an audit process, and also assist with tax procedures for small businesses and self-employed individuals. A tax attorney can also be very helpful to prevent any future tax problems, as they can predict potential fallbacks and can give advice on how to avoid them.

Personal Qualities

To become a tax attorney, you need to have an interest in this kind of legislation system, be very patient and consistent. Other qualities to consider are:

  • Excellent oral communication skills
  • Logical and analytical thinking
  • Outstanding problem-solving skills
  • Good at decision-making
  • Very good interpersonal qualities
  • Able to work under pressure
  • Good at memorizing large amounts of information

Study Options

Tax law is a sub-discipline of the study of law. This means that if you wish to become a tax attorney, you need to pursue a law degree, and then specialize in the area of tax law. This can typically happen in the middle of your studies, or you can complete your law degree, and then look for further education in the area of tax law.

A very common trend is that law students at some point appreciate that tax legislation has a large impact on not only commerce, but personal matters as well. They realize that every lawyer has to be very well acquainted with the laws of taxation, as businesses and individuals often ask their attorney about tax matters. Another interesting fact is that tax law programs actually cover a number of areas, which include real estate, estates and trust, partnership, corporate, and international tax law. All of these are usually studied if you decide to pursue an LLM – a master of laws degree. In any case, you should look for an accredited institution, which has proven connection to the professional world, so that you can secure your job even before you have finished your degree.

Career Options

Tax lawyers can work in a number of settings. You can easily start on a graduate program at a law firm, and then go on to work independently giving private consultations. You could be the personal tax lawyer of individuals, or you can work as part of the legal department in a large corporation. Once you have gained some experience, you can easily decide whether you wish to focus on small businesses and individuals, or deal with the tax issues of bigger, international companies.

Job positions for Tax Law:

Tax Preparer

Tax Preparer is a profession that falls into the business, management, and fiscal or involves financial matters. They help or assist individuals in registering or filing their taxes. They study and analyze the financial statements of individuals and organizations to assure accuracy with set up accounting principle and in accordance to the tax rules and laws.

Other typical responsibilities of a Tax Preparer are the following:

  • Computes, prepares, and releases documents connected to accounts for instance, bills, inventory reports, invoices, and other financial statements utilizing manual and computer systems.

  • Validates and settle transactions such as payroll, invoices, account receivable and payable, cheque requisitions, purchase orders and bank statements.

  • Collects data and documents regarding budget based on approximated or figured income, operating expense and previous financial statement.

  • Prepares the outlay reports.

  • Estimates cost of materials based on price lists and quotations.

  • Takes action to client queries.

  • Does clerical tasks, like filing of record, photocopying and faxing.

Tax Preparers must maintain privacy or confidentiality of the entire customers and business or establishment information. They normally work under the management of certified public accountant, attorney and tax consultant and some Tax Preparers work as a freelance. Generally, the tax preparing is not a regular year around occupation. The occupied or fully engaged season for a Tax Preparer is from January to April.

Tax Preparer must have the ability to work on their own initiative in a fast placed environment to cope with the target deadlines. Knowledge in preparing business tax returns is also an advantage. They must be willing to learn the computer software application in tax preparation which is necessary to accomplish or perform everyday responsibilities.
Some of the character traits and aptitude that are needed for this kind of career include being flexible, motivated, achiever, outgoing person, organizational skills, oral and written abilities, interpersonal skills, abilities in figures and mathematical formulas, knowledge in computer tax preparation software (TurboTax, TaxCut and TaxACT) and expertise in general accounting and current tax laws is an additional factor or advantage.

The required education for a Tax Preparer is a 4-year college degree or at least 2-year associate degree in related field. There are several training courses and certifications that offer different levels of erudition or learning and advancement of knowledge with regard to business and corporate taxes, personal income taxes, tax credits and other categories of taxes.

According to the salary survey report, the approximate salary for Tax Preparer particularly in New York, New York, Los Angeles, Houston, Dallas, Charlotte, Denver, Phoenix, Indianapolis and Orlando ranges from 30,000 to $70,000 per year. But it also depends to the company, location, duties and responsibilities, projects and level of expertise.

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