Studies & Degrees in Sciences

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Actuarial Science Acuatic Sciences Administration Sciences Advanced Biochemistry Advanced Chemistry Advanced Materials Science Agricultural Biotechnology Agriculture Agrifood Agro-Chemicals & Pest Management Agrobiology Agroecology Agronomy Analytical Chemistry Animal Biology Animal Ecology Animal Psychology Animal Science Anthropology Applied Anthropology Applied Archeology Applied Behavioral Science Applied Biological Sciences Applied Biostatistics Applied Chemistry Applied Computer Science Applied Criminology Applied Ecology Applied Forensic Sciences Applied Geography Applied Geology Applied Geophysics Applied Mathematics Applied Meteorology Applied Physics Applied Physiology Applied Plant Science Applied Political Science Applied Science Applied Solid-State Physics Applied Statistics Aquaculture Aquatic Ecology Archeology Artificial Intelligence Astrobiology Astronautics Astronomy Astrophysics Athletics and exercise science Atmospheric Science Audiology Aviation Aviation Maintenance Behavioral Neuroscience Behavioral Sciences Bioarchaeology Biochemical Pharmacy Biochemistry Biodiversity Conservation Bioentrepreneurship Biological Anthropology Biological Chemistry Biology Biomathematics Biomechanics Biomedical Genetics Biomedical Informatics Biomedical Physics Biomedical Sciences Biomolecular Design and Synthesis Biomolecular Sciences Biopharmacy Biophotonics Biophysics Biopsychology Biosciences Biostatistics Biosystems Botany Bromatology. 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Study Actuarial Science

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In the days before Actuarial Science was established, the majority of those who were then considered as “actuaries” belonged to the insurance industry. Up to this day, actuaries are still much engaged in, but are no longer limited to, the pre-need companies. Among these entities are real estate and property corporations, health insurances, educational plans, and the like.

The modern-day actuarial venture has evolved into a formal and complex science. Just like other professional disciplines, it has become a specialized field of study.

The roots of Actuarial Science trace back to the period where societies realized that there was a rapidly growing necessity of considering the significant influence of “risks” in their everyday activities. At about that same time, Actuarial Science was conceived, putting this idea of the “risk factor” on a more scientific basis and a relevant position.

Actuarial Science is centered in the assumption that the frequency with which events took place in the past may be used to predict or measure the probability of their occurring in the future. Hence, actuaries are simply inseparable with probability tables dealing with mortality, accidents, sickness, fires, industrial losses, natural disasters, and still others more. On the basis of these tables, the amount of money reserve required to settle expected claims are established. These data collection is then used to compute for rates for the various types of insurance plans, project proposals, investment offers, and asset evaluation, among others.

Actuarial Science has paved the way to make insurance schemes possible. The combination of interest computations and theories of probability, integrated in Actuarial Science, have made life insurance for individuals or health benefit plans for employees available and accessible.

The Actuarial Science program is fit for students who aim to gain specialized knowledge of mathematical approaches to solving real-life finance problems and various issues in business environments. As what has been already mentioned, graduates of this program are commonly found in insurance companies, banking and accounting firms, and property and other investment companies, and the like.

Other than serving in the insurance domain, actuaries are widely employed in various government agencies that deal with regulating not only the insurance agency industry but also its subsequent influence in the operations of the government social security, health, and pension programs.

The relatively new field of operations research employs a large number of actuaries. Modern management and manufacturing paradigms, such as Risk Management, cultivate knowledge from Actuarial Science to further improve or maximize the use of resources and hence, minimize production costs, and prevent possible loss.

Graduates of this program are mostly involved in employee benefits and pensions, life and health insurance, finance, economics, and investments, property and casualty insurance. Recent developments have even linked Actuarial Science with fields like criminology, and psychology, among others. This simply shows that Actuarial Science is continuously finding its way to establishing its applications in different industries. Since actuaries acquire sufficient knowledge of a diverse pool of fields – as Statistics, Economics, and Accounting – this flexibility gives them an advantage when it comes to employment opportunities

Study Acuatic Sciences

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Study Administration Sciences

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Heading an organization be it a business organization, a union, or a government is not as easy as it looks. Being a head of an organization is not just about issuing orders and waiting for your plans and visions to come to fruition but it is about making sure your subordinates are one with your goals and respecting your authority at all times.

Once in a while, a natural born leader like Napoleon Bonaparte, Nelson Mandela, Jack Welch and other famous political and business figures comes to rally a race, a cause or take their business enterprises to new heights, and now they’re regarded as great leaders of their time. However, there isn’t always that a great leader comes along. It’s a good thing that there are academic programs that can actually train people to lead organizations where they can develop their leadership skills to the fullest. Once enrolled, students of administration sciences would be taught the ABCs of management like how to plan, organize, direct and control an organization more effectively.

By planning, it refers to the visions and objectives of what the head of an organization wants to do in the near term, middle term and long term. This is the very most important of all because if done wrong, the succeeding phases to realize the plans would surely go wrong as well. Organizing would refer how the organization will be structured and how the delegation of tasks will be done. When people know how they are supposed to function, then the organization would function smoothly like a well-oiled machine. In the directing phase of administering an organization, the heads or managers or even section heads must have a complete drawing of lines on authority. When orders or memos are issued, it is imperative that these orders or new policies are immediately disseminated to everyone involved and implemented the soonest time possible, if not, insolence and intrigues will hover over and it will just result to counter-productivity. The last important rudimentary concept any student of administration sciences should have a good grasp of is the concept of control. Learning the art of control is essential in becoming a good administrator as when applied efficiently, everything becomes predictable. Like for example, to avoid tardiness among the employees, a little reward and punishment is usually employed by business organizations. If an employee got late for 7 times in a month, an admonition is usually meted out. Then if it happens again for the next month, a suspension will finally be given or worse, in other business establishments, it is the pink slip they face right away. In this case, employees’ tardiness is controlled in a manner where it is up to the employees to prove how serious they are in being a productive member of an organization.

Students of any administrative sciences, be it a Business Administration, Public Administration or Hotel and Restaurant Administration course, will be subjected to a lot of accounting and financial concepts, micro and macro economics and as well as how to communicate more effectively. In any kind of organization from government to corporations and even non-profit organizations, all have to deal with its financial soundness. By getting knowledgeable in these aspects, making sound decisions would just become second nature.

Study Advanced Biochemistry

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There are some definitions and concepts of biochemistry. One says it is a scientific study of the chemistry—composition and properties—of living things. Another describes it as the chemistry of life, or that it is the study of the elements, components, and chemical reactions that are controlled by enzymes and take place in all living organisms. These concepts similarly refer to biochemistry as the basic science which is said to explain life processes in chemical and physical terms, and deal with the chemical and physical properties of living matter, and the chemical changes occurring in the same living matter.

Although biochemistry started in 1833 upon the discovery of the first enzyme, its first application was done in the making of bread using yeast about 4,000 years ago. A study was also conducted to prove that organic compounds could be created artificially, opposite a common belief at that time that organic compounds could only be made by living organisms. With the development of new techniques, biochemistry advanced in the mid-20th century. At present, biochemistry findings are used in many areas, from genetics to molecular biology, and from agriculture to medicine.

What is Advanced Biochemistry, therefore?

On the basis of the concepts of biochemistry, it can be said that it is the advanced study of selected topics in biochemistry and molecular biology such as Metabolism, Enzymology, Photosynthesis, Hormones, Viruses, Recombinant DNA and Immunology, which are some of the very areas of study in various institutions of learning offering biochemistry curricula.

Among the commonly offered subjects in Advanced Biochemistry degree programs include General Biology, Molecular and Cell Biology, General Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, Classical Physics, Microbiology, Immunology, Thermodynamics, Bacterial Genetics, Advanced Protein Chemistry, Advanced Molecular Biology, Enzymes and Metabolism, Chemical Biology, and Pharmaceutical Synthesis. A PhD course on Integrated Program in Biochemistry consists of three stages on the areas of Protein and Enzyme Structure and Function, Mechanics of Enzyme Action, Macromolecular Crystallography and Dynamics, Biochemical Techniques, Biophysical Chemistry, and other related subjects.

Most institutions have parallel or nearly similar objectives for the program. A degree program offering Advanced Protein Biochemistry aims to describe the physical and chemical activities of proteins and their functions in cells, and to nurture student technical skills in protein biochemistry. An Advanced Biochemistry Bachelor’s Degree course teaches students the detailed examples of how biochemistry and molecular biology techniques are applied in the development of biotechnology, while a shorter program prepares students to bridge the gap between modern chemistry and biology or for graduate work in biological and chemical sciences.

Graduates of Advanced Biochemistry programs are highly employable on the basis of the academic content of their degree courses. They are taught to be responsible for developing their skills demanded by employers especially from biotechnology industries, research groups in hospitals, medical and academic institutions, dental groups, as well as industries concerned with food processing and drug production, and chemical and petroleum industries. They are also assisted with job placements which provide employers with access to the graduates in cost-effective manner, and enabled to gain entry-level positions in various industries and workplaces suited to their individual choices and educational qualifications.

Study Advanced Chemistry

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Study Advanced Materials Science

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Study Agricultural Biotechnology

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Study Agriculture

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The development of society as it is now would not have come to fruition had man not learned the science of food production or more popularly known as Agriculture. Before, ancient men would use the slash and burn method which tends to deplete the resources of the land. When game and edible plants would be running dry, the ancient people would then move on to the next uninhabited place where food is available hence they became nomadic. However, at some point maybe these nomads discovered that plants grow from seeds and they observe a certain cycle. From that knowledge, nomadic tribes stayed put in one place and before they knew it, their tribes became thriving settlements which would later became cities and nations.

Agriculture would normally refer to livestock and plant farming and everything else that relates to food production. In modern times, plant farming could be very complicated. Planting seeds is not what they used to where seeds were simply injected to a patch of land and then wait for them to grow. Modern farmers would perhaps check first ph-levels of the soil to see if, indeed, a particular plant would grow to such environment. Modern techniques like crop rotation, application of fertilizers and pesticides are widely used to get maximum usage of the land. Land tilling is not as a back breaker anymore as it used to be as modern machines can do an animal’s job in a matter of minutes. Application of pesticides has rather become a task that can be completed in minutes as compared to a whole day affair. Perhaps, the most astounding innovation of modern technology to the field of Agriculture is the application of genetic engineering to plants. Some farmers are already using Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) which allows crops to be disease and insect resistant.

In the livestock area, modernization has also caught on. Animal scientists are developing technologies that would bring down fat content to minimize the threat of heart disease which has been the number one cause of death in most countries year after year and being linked to high cholesterol foods. There has been a news item a couple of years back where a cow was successfully cloned and was given a live birth through a surrogate mother. There have also been rumors that allege a major food chain that is growing chickens attached to tube feeders comparable to the movie “Matrix.” It is said that these chickens are stationary and limbless as a result of higher muscular content. These technologies however are having resistance from all sorts of groups as making clones and unconventional livestock growing are tampering with nature or playing God and unknown consequences may be brought about by these unnatural methods.

The field of Agriculture is indeed the backbone of every society as food is the very basic need of human beings. Right now, the question of feeding 5 billion people remains a task to be accomplished. Population as according to a theory doubles every 30 years. If projection of the number of mouths to feed does not change then it is high time that more people should take up courses in Agriculture so that more people would give thought on how to balance the ratio between population and food production.

One of the courses which is sure not to get obsolete despite the proliferation of new ones is no other than Agriculture Botany and Forestry Science. Even at this time where Computer Science and Telecommunication courses seem to be on the periphery of every college-bound student’s minds to take, Agriculture Botany and Forestry Science graduates remain a high paying job especially when pursued all the way to a doctorate degree.

With the challenges facing the human race right now, the need for more people taking this course has never been more urgent. Because the population of the world has literally exploded compared to, say, 30 years ago, the challenge of feeding the world perhaps may lie on understanding plants more. There has never been a more natural and healthier food source for humans than plants. Learning new techniques on the area of plant breeding is perhaps one key to alleviate hunger which future graduates of this course can only understand and can fathom. Basically, the course is designed on understanding how plants can be utilized in whatever useful field like medicine, food, clothing or raw materials for modern industries.

More or less, one can deduce that this is one area of study that is research intensive. This will entail long hours both in laboratories and field work. The computer age has not only improved lives of people but also of scientists like botanists. Students will now be also utilizing computerized instrumentation gadgets to aid them measure things like relative humidity, temperature, soil moisture content or any other things. Before, getting information may require some calculations but now, information can instantly be derived, and that could only mean more time to research and development of plant breeding techniques.

The other third of the course is Forestry Science which, of course, would be focused on research on forest plants. Although Forestry Science, of course, would be largely based on botanical science concepts, it will be more focused on conservation of forests, reforestation techniques and taxonomy because forests are one place where new species of plants could spring as a result of cross fertilizations with whole gene pool of flora present in the area.

Before, Agriculture Botany and Forestry Science used to be offered as separate degree courses but now some schools have found a way to integrate the two disciplines and just give students more latitude to work on as the course would be encompassing three overlapping disciplines which are agriculture, botany and forestry. It would be up to the student which area would be more suited for them but the course would expose them to all three.

With regards to opportunities, a lot of new companies have sprung for the last decade or so whipping up miracle cures but are really preventive medicines in the guise of food supplements. These companies were founded as technology can now allow encapsulation of plant extracts. Right now, the market has only tapped a number of plants like ginger, aloe vera, gingko biloba, berries, grapes but the possibilities are really endless as each plant could have a unique ingredient that could be extracted.

Job positions for Agriculture:

Cattle Raiser

Among the richest men who ventured into agriculture are those who gallantly brave the challenges of cattle raising. Thanks to the popularity of fast food chains like Burger King and McDonalds, beef consumption in the form of hamburgers has seen unprecedented heights. As long as hamburgers are selling, Cattle Raisers can grow as many cattle as they can as these fast food chains are adding branches all over the world. Imagine how many cattle should be grown if McDonalds successfully penetrate the Chinese palate which numbers to around a billion mouths. If one Chinese national even just out of curiosity, would buy one Big Mac Burger priced at $1 (for computing purposes only) in his or her lifetime that would give the company a whooping $1 billion.

Cattle raising however is a daunting task. To produce quality beef that would be at par with international standards, certain farm practices have to be observed. First and foremost, safety precautions which usually are related to cleanliness and good sanitation practices should be in place. This way, viruses and bacteria would be discouraged to propagate and the health of the cattle and the farm help would not be put at constant risk. Perhaps, the most important part in cattle raising is the training of people on how to properly do basic things like milking cows, feeding, handling the animals when mating them, weaning, feeding, and the most delicate of them all is when the mama cow is giving birth. It is advisable that Cattle Raisers should see the condition of newly-born calves the moment they are born. More often, the breeding capability of a calf’s parents can immediately be assessed on the youngling’s initial movements. The difference between successful commercial farms is how well developed their breeding programs are. Setting schedules when heifers and breeding cows are to be serviced by their bulls. This is very important because when cows are given enough time to rest from giving birth, the calves that would be produced would be naturally of healthier constitution. Cattle Raisers should also take into account when to castrate male cows that won’t be used as studs. The process of castrating non-alpha males has been found to produce around 500-650 kilograms of live weight.
Investing in a good veterinarian would prove to be the wisest thing as their expertise would be a good source of technical information. Normally, the veterinarians are the ones who make necessary recommendations on what farm practices should be observed as profits would all depend on the overall health of the herd.

Cattle Raisers should also take into account other aspects of raising cattle such as production of dairy and leather. Dairy production usually includes making of butter, milk, cheese and other products derived from milk. Investing in mechanical milking machines would also be a good move as milk and milk products are becomingly increasing in demand.

Cattle raising is indeed more of a management task if done on a commercial scale. Courses in agriculture would be very useful for future Cattle Raisers as knowledge in both production and management aspects of running a farm will be taught in a very scientific manner.


The field of agriculture would probably be still in the dark ages had not been advancements in one of its sub-branches made tremendous breakthroughs in the last decades. If not for Agronomists, modern farmers would still be doing trial and error farming. Agronomists helped the field of agriculture greatly, specifically on the improvement of irrigation and drainage methods, plant breeding, pest control (weed and insects), plant genetic engineering, soil fertility and farm management.

In the area of plant breeding, Agronomists are aiming to produce the most suitable crop for any given condition. Normally, plants as it has been observed, generally, grow at specific places because certain conditions are suitable for the propagation of specific plants. Like, for instance coconut and other palm trees are tropical plants and grow abundantly on hot places because they can retain moisture longer than any plant in the planet. However, due to advances in hybrid plants, nowadays, it is not surprising to find tomato growing in a different climate which is usually grown in cold places. Before, and even now, plants do observe seasonality but Agronomist have found ways to grow seasonal plants even when they should be out of season. Another breakthrough in plant breeding is enhancement of a plant’s useful part. Thanks to the method of selective breeding, plant breeders have been able to produce bigger tomato fruits, longer rice grains, bananas with less seeds and for sure almost any commercial plant has a desirable characteristic that had been more or less a product of plant breeding.

Another area in the domain of Agronomists is pest control. Pests usually come in the form of insects and weeds. Some insects eat the plants and some insects are vectors of microorganisms that are harmful to the plants. Agronomists specializing in insect control would have to have further studies in entomology and chemistry. One of the most common methods of controlling insects is by application of pesticides. Agronomists make it their business to know what kinds of chemicals are not friendly to the insects but friendly to plants and humans. With regards to weeds, weeds are also considered pests and needs to be controlled because they compete with the plants nutrition and water intake. Bottom line, a plant’s health and capability to produce quality fruits or whatever essential plant part is needed would depend on the growth of weeds around it. Because of advances in pesticide technology, productivity in plant-based farming has increased immensely as losses brought about by insects and weeds have been neutralized.

Agronomists are also the guys to contact in case soils are needed to be analyzed. Different soils have different characteristics like ph-level and moisture retention capabilities. If plants are grown on a wrong soil, chances are, they won’t have a chance of even exfoliating a single leaf. Plants are not the only ones needing special treatments as properties of soils like nutrient content changes over time. Agronomist would recommend steps to take in order to bring levels of potassium, sodium and other essential nutrients into equilibrium in order to produce quality crops.

With land increasingly becoming scarce, the services of Agronomists can undoubtedly become one of the most sought after professions in the future. Solving the problem of feeding the world remains a quintessential task but Agronomists would definitely be in the forefront in solving the problem of producing food for everyone.

Study Agrifood

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Study Agro-Chemicals & Pest Management

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Agro-Chemical and Pest Management career is the skeletal frame of successful farmers, agriculturists, and agribusiness tycoons. The knowledge of Agro-chemists is the key factor in supporting the technical know-how of farmers to have a superior yield. They provide extended knowledge and skills that will ultimately lead them to maintain sustainability in their production and effective protection of their plants from the threats of killer pests leveraging the economy of a country.

Small and big time producers of rice, wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables and other plants deemed important to man are reliable on the scientific knowledge of Agro-chemist experts. Graduates of this course are responsible in formulating pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides which are important in controlling pests. Apart from this, they also come up with fertilizers and other agricultural products which are equally crucial in farming. Without such, farming would be considered as a doomsday for producers.

This career is very interesting because graduates can become scientists in their own rights. Through researches and studies, they come up with solutions to problems related to any form of pests and improving produce of every farmer all over the world. They create break-through in agricultural field which can make them a superstar if the product they invented made a successful entry into the market of farming. In all due fairness, Agro-chemists are also among those behind the big names in the agricultural business like Bayer, Syngenta, DuPont and other big business names.

With so much innovations going on with some chemical companies, new generation of Agro-chemist experts are being eyed to be hired in the coming years. Indeed, actions are being taken to fund scholarship for a final year of PhD students particularly from United Kingdom to attract more prospects. Moreover, graduates have the potential to be hired as toxicologist as new laboratories are opening and environmental programs are expanding. Others could also be involved doing research. However, before you could be hired, you have to be expert in your own field. For instance, if you are a Chemist, you have to be very competent in handling chemical products and knowledgeable of other things related to it.

Remarkably notable about this job is that you have to collaborate with other experts like biologists, engineers, chemists and other people of your area and from other sectors of the company. Hence, it is eminent that ideas be communicated to people within your team most importantly to the people who you work for. Fairly wonderful too is the fact that at times you can escape the four walls of your office to talk to people to get feedbacks for improvement of the product or to give trainings for effective usage of it. Since you are an expert, you can also be topped as a consultant in your own expertise.

Students who are envisioning joining the wagon of Agro-chemical and Pest Management teams need to undertake chemistry of pesticides and their formulation, soil science, entomology, weeds crops and their diseases, analysis of agrochemicals, toxicology and life science with apprenticeship in their spare time. Joining in this venture appears not easy but once you entered the premise of this career, your time and effort is all worthwhile.

Study Agrobiology

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Study Agroecology

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Study Agronomy

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Do you know that the late Orville Redenbacher, an American businessman who created the most popular popcorn in the United States was an agronomist? He earned his agronomy degree from Purdue University in 1928 long before he introduced his popcorn that was the product of his experiments with hundreds of corn hybrids in their small family corn farm in Indiana. Today, 15 years after his death, Redenbacher is best remembered as one of successful personalities who have put into use the knowledge of agronomy learned from the school and actual experiments. With sufficient knowledge of plant breeding, which is part of agronomy, Redenbacher managed to improve the nutritional value of his crop—the corn.

But agronomy involves not only plant breeding, which is one of the areas of specialization that includes crop rotation, plant physiology, irrigation and drainage, soil fertility, soil classification and weed control. As a science, agronomy deals with producing plants for use as food, feed, fiber or fuel, or with soil management and production of crops. Some authorities have referred to it as scientific agriculture; involving the application of such sciences as biology and its branch genetics, chemistry, earth science, and ecology. At best, it is the application of soil and plant science to the production of crops, emphasizing food crops like rice, corn and other staple foods.

If you are a graduate of agronomy as a course of study, you are knowledgeable in bio-technology that expedites the development of the desired characteristics of plants; soil science that makes soils more productive; soil conservation that is concerned with the development of methods that can preserve the soil and protect it from the effects of erosion caused by water and wind. Agronomy graduates are likely to land jobs as businessmen (hopefully in the likes of Redenbacher, the popcorn man), consultants, professors and researchers, and other important positions in agricultural experiment stations, government agencies, universities and industrial companies, or international organizations such as the Agency for International Development (AID), the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), or the United States State Department of Agriculture, especially for the Americans.

Many colleges and universities around the world offer agronomy programs of study in cognizance of the continued growth of population and an increasing need for the study of agriculture, food crops and agronomy. In the U.S., agronomy programs are offered in both graduate and undergraduate levels, with the graduate program having specializations in Agricultural Meteorology, Crop Physiology and Production, Applied Ecology, Plant Breeding and Genetics, Environmental Studies, Plant Pathology, Water Resources Planning and Management, Soil and Water Sciences, and Weed Science. An undergraduate program usually has under it such subjects as Applied Meteorology, Soil and Crop Management, International Agronomy, Plant Breeding and Genetics, Soil Biochemistry, Soil-Water-Plant Relations, Soil and Crop Science in which students learn how to maintain soils for cultivation of healthy plants, Soil Fertility and Soil Microbiology.

Study Analytical Chemistry

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Have you recently earned a Bachelor of Science degree in engineering or one of the sciences, or perhaps someone who has been working in a scientific field for some time now?  Have you considered pursuing an advanced degree (Master of Science), one that could advance your skills and open doors to more lucrative and exciting career possibilities?  If so, the Master of Science degree in Analytical Chemistry may be the perfect program for meeting your needs.  To help you get started, below we will provide a quick snapshot view of the M.S degree in Analytical Chemistry, information which will include a brief description of the program and a word about its goals.  We will also outline the various eligibility requirements for admission for those looking to pursue this advanced degree.
Master of Science Degree in Analytical Chemistry:  Program Summary and Goals
The Master of Science Degree in Analytical Chemistry is a graduate-level program that is now being offered at colleges and universities throughout the country.  The program is designed for students who wish to focus on the scientific study of techniques for analyzing and describing matter, including its precise composition and the interrelationships of constituent elements and compounds. The coursework in the program will stress, among other aspects, highly-specialized instruction in techniques such as spectroscopy, chromatography, atomic absorption, photometry, chemical modeling, mathematical analysis, laboratory analysis procedures and equipment maintenance.  It will also delve into the various applications of these techniques, particularly the specific research into industrial issues and health problems.
The primary aim of the M.S. program is to broaden students’ backgrounds in analytical chemistry.  More specifically, the goals of the program are to expand and deepen students’ knowledge of state-of-the-art analytical techniques, to convey to students the various methods for designing and managing projects, to present a cohesive overview of statistical methods and projects, and to improve students’ communication skills.
The Master of Science in Analytical Chemistry typically spans two academic years or four full semesters in duration, and is offered through the College of Science and Letters, with contributions from the graduate departments of Biology, Chemistry and the Physical Sciences.  To graduate students must earn passing grades in 36 credit hours of coursework and present a capstone graduate thesis to the faculty.  In some institutions, a final comprehensive examination may be offered as an alternative to the thesis requirement.
Master of Science Degree in Analytical Chemistry:  Admission Requirements
To qualify for admission into the Master of Science Degree program in Analytical Chemistry, candidates must possess a bachelor’s degree in science or engineering (other degrees may also be considered) with two semesters of physical chemistry, two semesters of organic chemistry, and one semester of analytical chemistry, with a 3.0 GPA in each of these courses.  Other requirements include a TOEFL minimum score of 520/215/80 (for foreign students only) and the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) with a score of 1000 or better in the quantitative + verbal components of the exam and a score of 2.5 or better in analytical writing.

Study Animal Biology

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Animal Biology is concerned with the study of the characteristics of animals; this means examining their behavior, development, genetics, and evolutionary history. Usually, people who are involved in animal biology are called zoologists, and they can be both general practitioners or they can specialize in farm animals. Depending on the area of focus, zoologists can perform different tasks. They undertake experiments to examine species and gather data on growth, reproduction, and prey. They can also observe and document the inter-relationships between animals, or between animals and their surroundings. Furthermore, the specialists in animal biology give lectures at universities, or participate in wildlife awareness programs.

Personal Qualities

To become involved in animal biology, one certainly needs to feel genuine love and interest in all types of living forms on earth. Further qualities include:

  • Enjoy research
  • Excellent attention to detail and observation skills
  • Problem solving skills
  • Confidence in both oral and written communication
  • Accuracy
  • Ability to work both independently and as a part of a team

Study Options

If you are looking to become an animal biologist, you would need to complete a college degree – a bachelor’s or a master’s degree would normally suffice for you to work as a lab assistant or a field researcher. However, if you are aiming at the organization and conduct of original research projects, then a Ph.D. in a zoology-related field would be required.

Another fact that you might consider is to gain good background knowledge in chemistry and biology, while you are still at high school. This will prepare you for the college studies that will be required to complete an undergraduate degree in animal biology or zoology. You would most likely be taking courses like embryology, organic chemistry, and environmental science. This will normally take four years, after which you may wish to specialize in a certain field, which is a very common option among biology students.

Career Options

As mentioned earlier, it is very popular among scientists to specialize in a certain field, and so do most animal biologists. You can choose to concentrate on entomology, which deals with insects; parasitology – concerned with internal and external parasites; ecology – the environment of animals; ethology - animal behavior, and so on.

An important point to mention is that most specialists in animal biology work for private research institutions and universities, museums, or laboratories. On the other hand, however, agricultural scientists are often employed by government organizations and agriculture consulting firms. They participate in the research of various methods of how to breed and raise animals whilst increasing the farm’s productivity and efficiency. In this case, the animal biology specialist undertakes tasks like the investigation of factors that have influence on milk production, the evaluation of the quality of life of the animals, and the regular testing for water or soil pollutants.

Study Animal Ecology

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Study Animal Psychology

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The ability of an animal to be aware of its environment and make judgments about it is called animal cognition. This is part of the study of animal psychology which generally refers to the understanding of an animal behavior—whether it is instinctive or learned—and instincts in its natural habitat and in the unnatural human environment. The foundation of animal psychology is your understanding of the difference or various differences between the animal’s learned behavior and instinct. As a study of animal behavior and mental life, animal psychology is used by veterinarians to refer specifically to the study of the animal’s disordered behavior or a forced change in its behavior.

Animal psychology as a course of study is offered in many schools anywhere in the world or even online or distance education programs. One of these online programs offers an animal behavior course for 100 hours for students of psychology, animal owners and animal lovers, as well as for people who work with animals such as pets, farm and wildlife animals. The course consists of eight lessons including Genetics and Behavior, Influences and Motivation, Animal Perception and Behavior, Behavior and the Environment, Instinct and Learning, Social Behavior, Behavioral Problems and Handling Animals. Another online program, this time for a master’s degree, is also offered by the Breyer State University for 58 semester hours with a prerequisite of a bachelor’s degree in psychology, counseling, behavior analysis, ethology and zoology. The program is aimed at providing an in-depth overview of animal behavior from the perspective of behavior analysis, and at dealing with basic science, critical thinking and research methods. An animal psychology center in South Dakota conducts classes on animal training to diagnose and solve problems to improve harmony between humans and their pet animals. The center claims being able to train not only dogs but nearly all kinds of animals, from ferrets to horses or bunnies (young rabbits) to big cats.

In the United Kingdom, various colleges and universities offer both undergraduate and post-graduate courses on animal psychology. A degree in zoology with animal behavior is usually earned from these institutions that emphasize animal behavior in which students discover or learn how animals interact with one another in their respective environments. Certain textbooks and published articles on animal psychology can provide guides in your study of the program in a formal or non-formal or online school. These include (a) Current Topics in Animal Learning: Brain, Emotion and Cognition, (b) 20th Century Psychology with Part III on Animal Psychology, (c) Animal Psychology: Viewpoint and Program, (d) Theories of Animal Memory, (e) Animal Cognition, (f) Emotion in Man and Animal: Its Nature and Relation to Attitude and Motive, and (g) Motivation of Behavior: The Fundamental Determinants of Human and Animal Activity.

After you complete the course, you are qualified to land a career as animal trainer, humane society worker, or field researcher and veterinary technician, or in academic institutions, zoos, amusement parks, aquariums and agricultural industries.

Study Animal Science

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Bigger than any monarchy established on Earth, the Kingdom Animalia is certainly enormous. As a matter of fact, it is comprised of over two million animal species endowed with many different characteristics. These distinctive attributes gave rise to the complexity of this biological domain hence the variety of classifications such as phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. In the same way, the taxonomic particulars imply the peculiarity of each animal that ever lived. Besides, no two life forms are created with absolute identical physiological qualities. Consequently, a significant portion of this comprehensive animal realm happens to be the subject of animal science studies.

The word animal is of Latin origin inspired by the term “animalis” which can be translated to the phrase “having breath.” Scientifically speaking, it denotes affiliation to the huge Kingdom Animalia although colloquial implication commonly refers to non-human members of the group. Furthermore, these creations are described as both eukaryotic and multicellular capable of ingestion and digestion not to mention its ability to generate motion. Furthermore, animals have some other unique traits such as their ability to undergo sexual reproduction hence ensuring sustainable preservation of species from one generation to another.

Animal science is dedicated to inquire on the interesting life forms of the animal kingdom. Given the overwhelming numbers of species, this scientific faculty is focused to a particular grouping of animals. No wonder, it is described as the study of animal life under human dominion such as farm animals. Some other domestic species though were eventually added through time such as dogs, cats, and other companion animals. Even exotic animals are being considered as subjects of studies nowadays as the scope of inquiry broadens. Scientific investigation basically inquires into how these animals work through normal physiological functions of the organ system down to the molecular and cellular level. In the same way, it deals with growth and development via life processes such as lactation, nutrition, and reproduction for improvement of health, welfare, and productivity.

To respond to the growing demands of animal science expertise, the academe provided relevant academic curricula. This fact applies to both undergraduate and graduate schools offering course programs under this discipline. Bachelor’s degree conferred consists of specialization in Animal Science, Animal Science and Wildlife, and Applied Animal Science. Postgraduate curricula include Master of Animal Science, Master of Laboratory Animal Science, and Doctor of Philosophy in Animal Science. Short courses under two-year academic programs are also offered such as Associate of Applied Science in Animal Science which can be a great entry-level for students.

An array of career opportunities awaits animal scientists worldwide. The US veterinary industry alone caters for 28,000 animal testing laboratories not to mention animal centres and hospitals that comprise a competent academic niche to professionals. Government institutions may offer employment to eligible specialists for its livestock programs initiated by the Agriculture Department. Non-governmental organizations also hire animal science experts in the likes of Asian Federation of Laboratory Animal Science Associations, International Council of Laboratory Animal Science, and Companion Animal Science Institute. Colleges and universities worldwide can likewise provide teaching posts for degree holders who would like to share their knowledge and skills to the academe.

Study Anthropology

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Care to know more about the human species? Anthropology will always be a relevant field of study for it delves on the humanity. No wonder this particular branch of study officially begun way back in the 16th century when a German Philosopher in the person of Magnus Hundt recognized the discourse as “Anthropology.” In particular, the etymology has been inspired by the Greek words “anthropos” and “logia” which mean “man” and “study,” respectively. Just as human is diverse by nature, the study is broken down into branches of learning such as biological anthropology, social anthropology, archaeological anthropology, and anthropological linguistics.

Objective anthropological study is one prominent facet of humanity inquiry. In particular, it deals with theories and evidence that have been proven via scientific experiments and researches. Under this descriptive category are biological and archaeological anthropology. Biological anthropology also known as physical anthropology is grounded on human evolution that explains human population based on the evolutionary timeline hence Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution. On the other hand, archaeological anthropology or simply archaeology is concerned on the collection of artefacts excavated and dated via carbon dating showcased in museums. Both of these commonly involve gradual development of human species based on remnants of the past.

Subjective anthropological study is another equally interesting intellectual faculty. This commonly involves passive academic approach that likely involves extensive observation. Under this descriptive category includes social and linguistic anthropology. Moreover, social anthropology is focused on societal particulars such as kinship and ethnography branching out on societal matters such as laws, politics, and economy. Conversely, linguistic anthropology which can also be described as language study is concentrated in an array of human communication both verbal and nonverbal either chartered or unchartered as deduction of cultures. These disciplines commonly involve in depth analysis of behaviour to decipher cultural trend.

Anthropology is offered in over 1,500 colleges and universities. Specifically, it deals with an array of higher level programs ranging from undergraduate to graduate studies. Bachelor degree programs under Arts and Sciences include General Anthropology, Language and Semiotic Anthropology, Social Anthropology, Biological Anthropology, and Directed Minor on Environmental Anthropology. Postgraduate programs include Master’s Degree and Doctoral Decree on Cultural Anthropology, Medical Anthropology, and Archaeology. More often than not, Graduate programs offered are grounded to achieving Doctor of Philosophy diploma in which Master’s Degree may be obtained along the academic course.

There are varied career opportunities that await Anthropologists. Graduates can go into the teaching having taken some relevant courses on education. Bachelor degree holders can teach in junior schools while those with graduate school diploma can teach in colleges and universities. Another ideal niche is research which applies to diversified Anthropological studies. For instance, biological anthropologists can delve into scientific researches while cultural anthropologists can work on social researches. Either way, anthropologists are expected to publish results useful in opening new discourse which may support or contradict an existing idea. Public and private industries are likewise home to some other relevant professions such as forensic science specialist, journalist, museum administrator, international trader, marketer, banker etc.

Study Applied Anthropology

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Humanity never fails to be an interesting subject matter. As a matter of fact, the inquiry on human evolution remains to be an ongoing process as new discoveries fascinate anthropologists hence the missing link query up to date. Undoubtedly, anthropology happens to be one of the most remarkable disciplines that encompass many different facets. This fact best explains its multidisciplinary character that extends on science, sociology, literature, and the like. Nonetheless, the study promotes unity of investigative pursuits via holistic approach to any particular phenomenon. Consequently, application of established faculties of anthropology paved the way for another branch of learning known as applied anthropology. Anthropology is diversified hence the variety of specializations. These include its many different sub-disciplines such as archaeology, anthropological linguistics, biological anthropology, and cultural anthropology. Anthropological sub-fields are given specific areas of study which may overlap for collaboration purposes. Archaeology is basically concerned with human material and culture commonly supported by excavated artefacts from the past. Anthropological linguistics have also its own domain consists of communication processes interrelated with language and culture.

Biological anthropology deals with human population via evolutionary framework. Cultural anthropology finally focuses on cultural studies usually grounded on ethnography. Imperative to the application of anthropological studies, applied anthropology has become another remarkable sub-disciplinary component. As anthropology features diversity, practical application likewise ranges to archaeological, biological, cultural, and linguistics. In the same way, collaboration of these anthropological sub-fields may take place along the process. For instance, an applied anthropology specialist may integrate culture and linguistics upon explaining migration of Asians to America. More often than not, cases may involve either explanation or forecast of events based on anthropological theories. Intensive research is the primary approach used by these anthropologists particularly ethnography, participant observation, textual analysis, survey, and some other empirical tools. Related faculties may include development anthropology, economic anthropology, and public anthropology.

Attributed to the growing interests on applied anthropology, the academe provided for relevant course programs both in graduate and undergraduate schools. Bachelor’s degree confers specializations in Applied Anthropology, Behavioural Science and Community Development, and Socio-Cultural and Applied Anthropology. Postgraduate academic curricula are also offered for further studies such as Master of Applied Anthropology, Master of Applied Anthropology and Participatory Development, Master of Arts in Applied Anthropology and Community and Youth Work, and Doctor of Philosophy in Applied Anthropology. Associate degree may also be considered such as Associate of Arts in Anthropology. Furthermore, these academic programs are tendered in colleges and universities such as SUNY Cortland, Truckee Meadows Community College, and University of Redmond. Employment privileges await applied anthropologists worldwide. Non-governmental organizations comprise an attractive academic niche to professionals in the likes of Association of Social Anthropologists, European Association of Anthropologist’s Medical Anthropology Network, and Society for Applied Anthropology. Pertinent government programs may also offer research professions to competent specialists to conduct inquiries on various social phenomena. Educational institutions can likewise provide teaching posts to eligible anthropologists who can share their expertise to the academe. In most cases, typical duties and responsibilities entail research although administrative, supervisory, and discretionary functions may be required, too.

Study Applied Archeology

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Study Applied Behavioral Science

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Study Applied Biological Sciences

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The biological sciences study the characteristics, structures, functions and other aspects of living organisms and systems. An applied biological science is a study in these fields that can be used to solve scientific problems relating to animals, horticulture, health, ecology, medicine or the environment. It examines factors, theories and elements of these living systems from a global to the molecular level.
Applied biological science is an advanced scientific study, so the only dependable places that offer a well-developed course are colleges, universities, technical schools and other higher education institutions. Colleges that specialize in science and math (as opposed to liberal arts colleges) are far more likely to offer this course. A study in applied biological science is available as an undergraduate and graduate program. Some online courses are also available for this study.
Applied biological sciences encompass a wide range of sciences, including biology, ecology, environmental science and others. A study in one of these specific areas is a study of an applied biological science; however, it will not give you an entire education in all of these sciences.
Skills, Qualifications, and Prerequisites for Studies in Applied Biological Sciences
Only higher education institutions will provide individuals with an education in this field, so anyone seeking a study in applied biological sciences must meet the admission requirements to one of these institutions. This primarily includes the achievement of a secondary school completion certificate, and the passing of an aptitude test or entrance exam. A certain number of secondary school science credits may also be required for admission. Graduate programs in this field require an undergraduate degree in a related field (such as biology or environmental science) before admission.
A high aptitude for math and science
Skills and Qualifications Acquired from Studies in Applied Biological Science
If a student chooses to specialize in one area of applied biological science, he/she will naturally gain a more developed set of skills in that area. However, to study a general course in applied biological science, an individual will obtain skills and knowledge in the following areas:
  • Advanced Ecology.
  • Biotechnology.
  • Advanc ed mathematics and statistics.
  • Advanced biology (cellular, molecular, etc.).
  • Organic chemistry.
  • Health, nutrition, psychology and human behavior.
  • Anatomy and physiology (human, plant, animal).
  • Environmental and soil science, biology, conservation and restoration.
  • Animal biology, zoology and wildlife management.
  • Laws, policies and regulations regarding biological systems (environmental, etc.).
  • Strategies for analyzing biological systems.
Careers for Studies in Applied Biological Sciences
Students that complete a course in applied biological science are ready for careers in a wide variety of areas. Environmental organizations, government programs, conservation projects and restoration initiatives employ these graduates as surveyors, consultants, researchers, wildlife managers and other scientific experts. Research facilities in the private, corporate and government sectors employ these graduates

Study Applied Biostatistics

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Study Applied Chemistry

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Though not widely known as a field of study but, now, for sure the field of Applied Chemistry will gain ground as biofuel is being touted as the next big thing of the future. Yes, that’s right, at the forefront of biofuel development are leading chemists who likes to put into practical use their knowledge in covalence bonds and mastery of the elements to give the world’s future generations a better alternative when it comes to consuming fuels.

Applied Chemistry, basically, sprung forth from the field of Chemistry in the original sense which invariably does not discriminate if theory from application. It is just however that in recent times, that Applied Chemistry branched out as field of study as innovations for consumer products are becoming much more in-demand. Before, people were satisfied with germicidal soaps but now, even at the grocery stores, one can see that there are about just any kind of soap one can think of. There are soaps with glutathione, soaps with SPF for sun protection, soaps with aloe vera, soaps with glycerin, soaps with Vitamin A, and the list goes on. It is not just soap but the trend also applies to lotions, shampoos, perfumes, disinfectants, and anything that has chemicals in them. Of course, Applied Chemist are not limited to come up with new kinds of consumer products but Applied Chemistry are also in the forefront in coming up with new kinds of agricultural chemicals, new kinds of materials like environment friendly plastics and in the food and beverage industry as well. Agriculture, packaging and food and beverage are among the three biggest industries in about any country so opportunities for chemists who are more bent on pursuing the applied branch would have opportunities abound anywhere in the world.

Basically, the course, Applied Chemistry, is very much the same with the regular Chemistry course offered in college, meaning, they study the same concepts and chemical laws and they both know the chemical processes that takes place when hydrogen gets mixed with an inert gas and all but the major subjects are where they differ, more or less, as the applied course covers the synthesis, separation, and analysis of materials and methods of industrial manufacturing more thoroughly and also would have more laboratory time to conduct more experiments.

Choosing the right school is important if the chosen course is Applied Chemistry as compared to a regular chemistry course because each school would have different laboratory set up. Some would have more sophisticated laboratories and some would have more updated equipments and so it matters because that’s the bread and butter of applied chemists, the laboratory exposure. Modern laboratory equipments now comes with software and sometimes the knowledge alone of using a laboratory software can already land a job as knowing a software already speaks volumes.

One caveat about taking this course is that it would be geared towards consumerism as this is the branch of chemistry that takes advantage of its practical uses. So those pursuing this course for the science of it may become frustrated as more or less students or degree holders of Applied Chemistry would be limited to developing shampoos, soaps, deodorants and other consumer goods and may not get Nobel Prize nominations. But as mentioned earlier, Applied Chemists are among those in the forefront of biofuel development, which is a basic consumer product. Once developed fully might just bag that Nobel Prize award.

Study Applied Computer Science

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Introduction to Applied Computer Science

Applied Computer Science is a branch of computer science that combines both its academic and practical aspects. The emphasis is on understanding the applications of computing in industry and commerce by focusing on the core nature of computation. In today’s information-dependant world, information systems and computation are crucial and it is this need that computing science aims at fulfilling.
Studying Applied Computer Science

Enrolling in an applied computer science program involves studying in depth about computer programming fundamentals, information science, software engineering, operating systems, net-centric computing, embedded systems, web design, telecommunications, multimedia, and human computer interaction. The core courses are in mathematical foundation, webpage construction, database management, algorithm design, and advanced planning and decision making. Students can learn to control robots, create virtual realities, program artificial intelligence, use query languages, create Internet security networks and data models, create GUI design, and use software tools to design, test and document large programs.
Skills and aptitude required to pursue the course

Applicants must have a very good mathematical background and English reading skills. The science and mathematics requirements in an applied program are less theoretical than the basic computer science program. However admissions are competitive and high academic standing is important particularly when it comes to physics, lab science, math and communications.
Qualifications acquired with the course

Students gain scientific and analytical skills. They can solve complex logical problems by using advanced software engineer tools and design. This course also enhances team building capabilities and process implementation through collaboration. Qualifications acquired include designing applications programs in object-oriented language and digital circuitry, utilizing time sharing operating system concepts and associated communications, demonstrating multi-user database processing on LANs, designing and implementing relational database, and demonstrating object-oriented design techniques. Some of the application areas include bioinformatics, computer game design, geography, technical project management, network administration, lead programming, modelling and simulation, web development, software architecture and information security.
Course Options

Applied Computer Science can be studied at different levels: Bachelor of Science, Master of Science, Master of Business Administration, PHD, Associate in Science, and Diploma. A host of universities and colleges across the world offer these courses with options for part-time study.  Usually courses take up to two years with full time study and no requirement of development courses. Masters courses require undergraduate degree or graduate diploma in computer science.
Career Options

Rapidly changing technology and information trends in this world of modern communication create the demand for professionals proficient in applied computer science systems who can operate technologies for digital photo and video, web, mobile and computer. Applied computer science graduates become equipped to create and solve new problems in computer science and not just do computing. Entry-level positions include network technicians and database application specialists. Masters program graduates can secure management or business oriented positions in the information technology field with specialized job roles in IT companies, banks, research institutions, insurance companies, computation centers, medical and R&D institutions, industrial laboratories, environmental monitoring organizations, industrial environmental control and assessment, medical instruments producers, and consulting agencies.

Study Applied Criminology

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Study Applied Ecology

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Study Applied Forensic Sciences

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Study Applied Geography

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Are you a graduate student with a Bachelor of Science degree in Geography or a related field?  Would you be interested in expanding your knowledge and enhancing your employment prospects in this field by studying the various applications in which an advanced knowledge of geography comes into play?  If so, you may want to consider pursuing a graduate degree in Applied Geography.  The Master of Science degree program in Applied Geography is designed to provide for students the background knowledge and analytical skills needed to study and solve real-world issues with geographic dimensions.  Below we will discuss this course of study in a bit more detail, including a course description, the typical curriculum to which students will be exposed and the eligibility requirements for admission into the program.
Master of Science Degree in Applied Geography:  Course Description
The Master of Science Degree program in Applied Geography is a two-year, full-time course of study which aims to ready undergraduate geographers to utilize their skills and knowledge in a number of different areas in which a background in geography is essential.  These areas include, but are not limited to, land use/land cover change; urban and regional studies; qualitative and quantitative methods and analysis; transportation and location analysis;  border studies; remote sensing; globalization; glaciology; hydrology and water resources; geomorphology; medical geography; climatology; and meteorology.
Master of Science Degree in Applied Geography:  Curriculum
As mentioned briefly above, the Master of Science Degree in Applied Geography is typically a full-time, two-year program requiring 36 semester hours of study prior to completing the program.  The first 15 hours of the program are dedicated to the core or foundational courses associated with this degree, and while the exact titles of these courses may vary from one university to the next, they may include courses such as:
  • History and Philosophy of Geography
  • Methods and Practical Approaches in Applied Geography
  • Advanced Quantitative Methods and Analysis
  • Advanced Qualitative Methods and Analysis
  • Research Design and Proposal Development
In addition to the 15 semester hours of core coursework, students will also be asked to choose and complete an additional 15 hours of elective courses.  These courses give students the opportunity to concentrate their studies in a specific subject area, one that matches their unique interests.  The Master of Science Degree in Applied Geography culminates with a Master’s thesis that must be presented to the faculty prior to graduation.  This thesis represents the final 6 hours of the 36-hour course of study.
Master of Science Degree in Applied Geography:  Eligibility
All students with a background in geography are encouraged to apply for the Master of Science Degree program in Applied Geography.  Successful applicants must possess a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree in geography or a related field, with a cumulative grade point average of 3.0 or higher in all of their core and elective coursework.  Students who wish to study at a university in the United States must also take the GRE examination and earn a score of 1000 or better to be eligible for the program, and submit two letters of recommendation, preferably from people who have an intimate knowledge of the student’s prior academic success.

Study Applied Geology

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The degree in Applied Geology involves the study of the composition, structure and evolution of the earth including its natural resources. Different areas studied by geologists would encompass mining and quarrying, energy exploration, environmental geology, supply of water, geological mapping and surveying, civil engineering, volcanology, seismology, paleontology, and research.

If you are interested to become a geologist, you must have interest in science and environment, and possess keen scientific ability. You must have the passion to learn to use instruments and technical equipment. You should be analytical and have the potential to interpret statistical and graphical data. You must also be good in problem solving and always apply a methodical approach in coming up with decisions. You have to pay attention to details and must be in constant pursuit for accuracy. Lastly, you should be observant and your eyesight must be good.

To work as a geologist, you must undergo a minimum of three years full time course study in Applied Geology in a university or center that is accredited by the Geological Society. Some universities offer a one-year-full-time postgraduate courses to provide better training for employement, and this may include subspecialties such as mining geology, petroleum geology, and hydrogeology. PhD degrees may also be further pursued for another year to three years if you are interested to take research jobs in universities and other industries.

The opportunities for graduates of Applied Geology are vast as there are multitudes of companies requiring the services of a geologist. Notable types of companies that hire geologists are oil and gas firms, water suppliers, mining and quarrying companies, consultancies and service corporations that advise environmental issues and assist exploration and production facilities, environmental protection institutions and research centers, civil engineering and construction firms, geological survey organizations, and universities.

Finding a job after graduation may be competitive as applicants are usually greater in number than job openings. But once you get in, training is usually provided by the companies and the job is extremely rewarding. Average salaries of geologists would range from $28,000 to $80,000 per annum. The job is challenging as it may entail a lot of traveling if you are conducting land and sea explorations, but some also stay indoor doing laboratory and office works. The conditions of the outdoor working environment may vary depending on the location of the geological surveys and other job related activities.

Specific job roles of geologists may include producing geological maps and sites for surveillance, conducting seismic surveys and interpretation of results, managing drilling operations and collecting samples for analysis, and giving advice on possible sources of materials like gravel, metals, limestone, and the likes. They also study the behavior and quality of underground water and can make designs for water supply programs. Geologists conduct assessment of ground conditions and give advise on the effect of the construction of buildings, dams, tunnels and other structures on the target site. They also study and map out the rock distribution of the surface of the earth to create geological databases. Some study fossils, while others specialize in examining volcanoes, earthquakes, and seismic activities. A lot of geologists also pursue careers in teaching and research, and others opt to become self-employed as consultants.

Applied Geology indeed is an interesting course and you can start your career in this field by checking out the university programs, or the online courses that may be suitable for you.

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Study Applied Mathematics

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Applied Mathematics is a branch of mathematics, which deals with mathematical methods that are usually used in science, engineering, business, and industry. Therefore, Applied Mathematics is an interdisciplinary subject, which covers a diverse range of scientific activities. It provides a broad qualitative and quantitative background for use in the above mentioned fields.

As an applied mathematician, there are a number of tasks you may perform and some are the analysis of processes from chemical, mining or agricultural industries by translating them into mathematical models; the development of models for financial markets and financial risk management; working on image and signal processing for astronomy, cartography, and medical and radar imaging; teaching others how to develop these models, and more.

Personal Qualities

Applied Mathematics appeals to people with a variety of different interests: some wish to study the degree in order to obtain a good quantitative background for use in a certain future career; others wish to have a better understanding of the basic mathematical aspects of other fields; or, you could be interested in the basic techniques and approaches in the subject itself. In any case, the base of this discipline is mathematics, and here are some qualities that may help:

  • Enjoy working with numbers
  • Have a love of problem-solving
  • Excellent analytical qualities
  • Imaginative and creative
  • Disciplined and perseverant
  • Be able to work both independently and as a part of a team

Study Options

You should be aware that universities may not be very consistent in the way that they group and label courses, programs, and degrees in applied mathematics. While at some schools, there is a single mathematics department, other institutions have separate departments for Applied Mathematics and Pure Mathematics. Most applied mathematics programs apply the knowledge and expertise of various departments and faculty. Some basic concepts explored are the theory of ordinary and partial differential equations, statistical sciences, probability and decision theory, operational analysis, optimization theory, the mechanics of solid materials and of fluids flows, numerical analysis, scientific computation, and the science of modern computer-based modeling. Furthermore, applied mathematics is often combined with another subject like biology, economics, or computer science. It is very important, when choosing a course of Applied Mathematics to carefully consider your future aims and goals. Whether you wish to pursue the subject at the graduate level; do you intend to later pursue a related area, after you have gained a good basis of applied mathematics at the undergraduate level; or do you wish to take a course in applied mathematics for general understanding and knowledge.

Career Options

Applied mathematicians, similarly to computational scientists work for federal and state governments, the military, financial services, scientific research and development services, and consulting services specializing in management, science, and technology. They can also find employment with software publishers, insurance companies, aerospace, pharmaceutical, and other manufacturing companies. A lot of other applied mathematicians also work in academia, teaching the next generation and developing innovations through their own research.

Graduate study in the same or other areas (engineering, planetary sciences, investment management) is a very common choice, too.

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Study Applied Physics

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When Albert Einstein’s Theory of Relativity convinced the science community of its soundness, and inadvertently, he also gave rise to a slew of different branches in physics, and among them is Applied Physics. Einstein’s main point in his theory was that it was possible that a large amount of energy could be possibly released even from a small amount of matter as illustrated in his equation E=mc2. Physicists took this cue and applied the principle on weaponry and warfare and the atomic bomb was later revealed to the world particularly in Japan, proving that indeed Einstein theory is packed with substance.

Basically, Applied Physics is founded on quantum mechanics, electromagnetic theory, mechanics, statistical physics and advanced mathematics.

In deference to pure physics, Applied Physics, more or less, is concerned with finding practical uses of concepts based on physics and does not concern themselves with formulating theories or explaining a phenomenon like why all things thrown upwards would eventually come down back to the ground or why planets orbit around the sun in a periodic fashion. Although, Applied Physics in general does not concern with the bigger picture or things but still it is a field filled with unlimited possibilities. Right now most physicists specializing in this field are concerned with doing research and development in technological advancements from medicine to space technology. Currently, the field of Applied Physics is burning the midnight oil, so to speak, in coming up with useful technologies on the different branches of physics:

• Accelerator physics – development of medical equipments usually for diagnostic purposes

• Acoustics - researching into developing sound, ultrasound and infrasound technology

• Analog Electronics – usually applied on the development of telecommunications and semiconductors

• Force microscopy and imaging – development of image enhancing equipments from telescopes to atomic microscopes

• Ballistics – development of new kinds of bullets, missiles and other projectiles

• Biophysics – development of medical procedures

• Communication Physics – development of methods of transmitting data

• Control Theory – development of dynamical systems

• Digital Electronics – applied also on telecommunications and semiconductors

• Econophysics – development of financial models using physics

• Fiber Optics – development of glass or plastic fibers and bandwidth technology

• Fluid dynamics – usually applied on aerodynamics and hydrodynamics

• Geophysics – development of cheaper methods in finding petroleum deposits

• Laser physics – development of high precision cutting technology

• Medical physics – applications in medicines like medical imaging and radiotheraphy

• Metrological Physics – development of accurate measuring devices

• Microfluidics - development of products that contains small amounts of fluids from ink-jet printers to micro-propulsion technology

• Nanotechnology – development of miniature mechanized technology

• Nondestructive testing - development of testing methods minimizing damage and risks

• Nuclear engineering – development of alternative sources of energy

• Optics – development of technologies like infrared and ultraviolet rays

• Optoelectronics – development of electronic devices that detect, source and control light

• Photovoltaics – development of solar power cells

• Plasma physics – development of plasma technology

• Semiconductor physics and devices – development of microchips

• Soil Physics – development of methods of maximizing soil properties and development of equipments as well

• Solid state physics

• Spintronics – development of technologies like magnetic storage (computer) and semiconductor technology as well

• Vehicle dynamics - development of automotive technology

Invariably, from the list supplied above, one can surmise that indeed Applied Physics has already contributed a lot to modern-day technological advancements and right now the world is just waiting for the next technological wonder.

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Study Applied Plant Science

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Are you a graduate student who has previously earned a Bachelor of Science degree in botany, ecology, horticulture or another one of the plants sciences?  Are you looking for a graduate degree program that can not only expand your current knowledge base but also teach you how to apply the concepts and techniques you’ve learned?  If so, you may want to consider pursuing a Master of Science Degree in Applied Plant Science.  To help you get started, below we will provide a brief synopsis of the Master of Science degree program in Applied Plant Science, including a course description and an outline of some of the topics/classes you will encounter while pursuing the degree.  Additionally, we will list some of the typical eligibility requirements for admission into the program.
Master of Science Degree in Applied Plant Science:  Description and Coursework
The Master of Science Degree in Applied Plant Science is a two-year graduate-level program offered by many colleges and universities throughout the world.  The program is designed for students who want to increase their knowledge and learn cutting-edge application techniques, skills that will help them succeed in a career in the plant science industry.  Master-level students in the Applied Plant Science program are given the freedom to design an integrated and individualized schedule of classes, a schedule that combines a wide variety of theoretical and practical courses from several different disciplines. In addition to studying plant biology at the organic level, students will also be exposed to courses in genetics and plant breeding, cropping systems and communities, and courses related to the production and ecology of agronomic and/or horticultural species.
The required coursework for the Master of Science Degree program in Applied Plant Science may vary slightly from one institution to the next, but the topics that students will study are relatively the same regardless of the institution.  Below is a brief sample of some of the courses students will encounter as participants in the program, listed according to the specific branch of plant science under which each course falls.
Genetics and Plant Breeding
  • Orientation to Crop Production and Restorative Methods
  • Evolution of Crop Plants
  • Plant Chromosome Biology
  • Advanced Plant Breeding
  • Molecular and Cellular Genetics of Plant Improvement
  • Plant Genomics
Organismal Biology
  • Advanced Plant Propagation
  • Plant Physiology
  • Plant Cell Biology
  • Manipulation of Plant Growth and Reproduction
  • Plant Virology and Bacteriology
  • Introduction to Fungal Biology
Cropping Systems, Communities and Commodities
  • Biology, Ecology and Management of invasive Plants
  • Turf Grass Management
  • Organic Viticulture and Fruit Production
  • Restoration and Reclamation Ecology
  • Principles of Plant Pathology
  • Organic Vegetable Production
Master of Science Degree in Applied Plant Science:  Eligibility Requirements
Students who wish to pursue a Master of Science Degree in Applied Plant Science must possess at least a Bachelor of Science degree, preferably in the areas of ecology, plant biology, botany, horticulture or a closely related field.  Students studying in the United States will need to take and pass the GRE examination, earning a combined score of 1000 or better.  Many universities will also require students to sit for an interview with the faculty and/or present letters of recommendation prior to being admitted to the program.

Study Applied Political Science

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Study Applied Science

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Applied Science refers to the application of one or more natural sciences to practical problems. The study of applied science will not only provide students with a broad understanding of various scientific principles, but also with the skills required to apply their knowledge for solving problems and providing solutions to a range of practical situations. These are crucial skills that are sought after by employers and thus prove to be immensely advantageous when entering the workforce.

Courses for Studying Applied Science

Courses for applied science are offered by various universities and colleges for students with a keen interest in science. These courses are offered at both Bachelor’s as well as Master’s levels. A Bachelor’s or Master’s course in applied science provides students with a broad background in basic sciences. The degree duration is the same as other under graduate (3-4 years) or post graduate (1-2 years) degree courses. Candidates who study applied science are often required to choose from a diverse range of specializations, depending upon their career aspirations. Students can choose a major or two majors from a wide variety of options that range from biology, chemistry, physics, to forensic science, agronomy, horticulture and so on.

Admission Requirements for Studying Applied Science

The admission requirements for being admitted into a degree course in applied science can vary from one university to another. However, depending on the degree one is applying to, they would have to meet the basic requirements of a Master’s or Bachelor’s course. Previous qualification and/or experience in a scientific discipline may be required by some institutes; however, a keen interest in science is usually desired by all. The student applying for a course in applied science should be interested not only in learning the theories of science, but also in the practical application of the same.

Career Options

Studying Applied Science opens up a lot of career options for students. Applied science scholars are in usually high demand- by various industries and sectors. However, where one can find employment would depend on their specialization.

If you complete a short course in applied science fields like nursing and midwifery, you can apply for relevant positions at healthcare centers or you can use the certificate as a leg-up for studying medicine. A number of professional memberships await you if you take up animal and plant production and management studies, and you can be a part of research teams or take up experimental agriculture. With a degree in forensic sciences to your resume, you can clinch law enforcement and crime investigation positions at national and international agencies.

Broadly, the careers fields that are open to applied science graduates include- agronomy, crop sciences, conservation, animal husbandry, crop management, forensic sciences, midwifery, nursing, paramedic work, and psychotherapy or sports sciences. The courses essentially provide students with the practical knowledge that makes you invaluable to employers, boosting one’s value in the job market when you seek employment.

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Study Applied Statistics

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Study Aquaculture

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Aquaculture is a term used to describe the act of farming of water creatures for human consumption. The subject is concerned with the culture and care of fresh water aquatic animals. The practice is mainly known for its application to fisheries, but that is not the only thing aquaculture can be used for. It also applies to oysters, shrimp and other animals not traditionally thought of as aquaculture. Aquaculture makes it possible for natural populations of fish to reproduce, while farm-raised versions are being used for food. This helps the sustainability of some heavily-demanded fish, and it also means that the fish is easier to find. Unsurprisingly, aquaculture is a fast-growing industry, attempting to meet the growing worldwide demand for fish, shellfish, seaweeds, and other aquatic species. Because fish are the major product of the industry, aquaculture is also usually called fish farming. Finally, it is worth mentioning that pearls are another popular product produced through the use of aquaculture. These are known as cultured pearls, and are produced both in freshwater and saltwater.

Research carried out in aquaculture is directed towards raising fundamental questions, relating to strategies for sustainable aquaculture – both in modern commercial markets and in feeding poor communities in developing countries. Crucial research on environments, reproduction, genetics, aquatic health, nutrition and feed supplies, on production systems, on markets, and on social and economic impacts plays a significant role in today’s world.

Personal Qualities

Aquaculture requires practical and scientific skills and an ability to apply science to solve practical problems. In relation to this, qualities required could include:

  • Aptitude for sciences (especially biology)
  • Excellent problem-solving and analytical skills
  • Good at applying technology in various tasks and situations
  • Good communication skills

Study Options

Aquaculture is the fastest growing primary industry and is predicted to keep growing. For this reason, opportunities for gaining a bachelor’s or master’s degree in aquaculture are growing, too. There are specialized schools in aquaculture, as well as specifically designed institutes within larger universities. When deciding where to study this subject, it is recommended that you ask the university that you are considering a number of questions, some of which include whether you would have access to a large on-site aquaculture research and teaching facility; whether  your degree course would be able to offer you a good range of options to get a lot of hands-on work experience, including practicals, group projects (that will allow you to develop skills to work in teams), farm visits, and intensive periods of industry work experience. Other relevant questions include these about the faculty that will be teaching you – whether they are active researchers, working on key aquaculture species and with direct links to industry; is the course internationally recognized and will it prepare students for the workforce through work experience. Last but not least, are guest speakers, international and national, used to provide industry relevant perspectives to students.

Career Options

Aquaculture is an industry that increasingly employs university-educated students and offers a diverse range of careers. Areas include Fish, Shellfish & Crustacean Production, Technology Development, Policy and Regulation, Aquatic Animal Health, Aquatic Biology, Research, etc.

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Study Archeology

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Perhaps, one of the major fields of studies that have explained a lot of historical mysteries is the field officially known as Archeology. The enigma of Egypt, the grandeur of Greece and the splendor of Rome were all revealed by archeology. Primarily, Archeology studies human cultures through unearthed historical remains of ancient structures, relics and artifacts, scrolls and biofacts among other things. From these unearthed items, more or less, a glimpse of how human beings lived during ancient times can be deduced. Although, it doesn’t promise solutions to modern woes like how to cure diseases like AIDS and cancer or how to achieve world peace but it has helped mankind restore the past and has brought cultural pride to the different indigenous cultures around the world.

A study of Archeology usually begins with surveying. Through the process of surveying, identifying sites to excavate became more systematic and cost effective. To identify potential sites, surveying techniques like a simple survey where manual combing of an area done with the use of augers, corers and shovels are employed, an aerial survey, a technique that has revealed buried structures accurately uses infrared and ground penetrating radar wavelengths and thermography, and geophysical survey where deviation in the Earth’s magnetic field caused by the artifacts themselves are widely used. Once the site has been identified, the next process is the excavation proper. This is the most expensive phase in any archeological activity because this is where the heavy equipments come in to remove tons of top soil. When unearthing relics and artifacts, it is necessary to record the actual coordinates of where an item was found (provenance or provenience in archeologist’s parlance). By doing this method, deducing what pieces goes together would be easier later on when stitching together the whole story. When the digging finally goes to a halt and the site has been exhausted of artifacts, the archeological team then starts a series of post-excavation analysis. This phase is the most time consuming. In fact, most publication of post-excavation analysis took years before the final report was published. The archeological team owe it to themselves to think very thoroughly because once published they can never retract it. A wrong conclusion and approach would surely ruin their reputation.

Archeology not only recreate and understand the past but in certain countries like Egypt, Greece and Italy, it has helped their economy quite grandly as their tourism industry is the envy of the world with regards to the amount of tourists visiting their countries. A robust tourism industry is just of one of the potential after-effects of discovering an archeological site. For the natives, it gives them a cultural identity and pride that their forefathers belonged to an advanced culture.

The field of Archeology is unarguably one of the most complex fields in human studies as there are just so many skills to be acquired. Deciphering scrolls of forgotten languages, preserving artifacts which require special techniques and carbon-dating to know exact age of relics are just among the few skills needed to get by in this field.

Job positions for Archeology:

Museum Curator

Going inside the famous Louvre Museum, museum goers just can’t help but be in eternal awe with the timeless pieces of art to be found there like the Venus de Milo, the Victory of Samothrace and Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa and a host of other artworks. Naturally, these priceless masterpieces did not go to the museum by themselves but were arranged for by somebody and that somebody is the Museum Curator.

The Museum Curators, especially if the museum is the Louvre in Paris or the Smithsonian in Washington D.C. or the Guggenheim in Bilbao, Spain, would find that time come and go so fast because they would have a lot of responsibility in their hands administratively, academically and financially.

Administratively, the day-to-day affairs of the museum are the overall responsibility of all curators. Making sure that everything is in order is already a monumental task. It is necessary to make the museum always sparkling and shining before it officially opens for business. One source of income for the museum is from entrance fees collected and having a dirty museum would just drive the viewing public away. Since a lot of people is expected to come and view the museum’s priced exhibits, it is the Curator’s job to set a decorum of order for the museum’s special guests like restricting them from touching the art pieces or eating food during the guided tours. Security is perhaps the most important job a curator should always give emphasis to. The art pieces are considered priceless and so arranging necessary security measures like installation of an extremely thief deterrent system and hiring ushers are essential. Some museums doesn’t even put on display the genuine piece but instead put on an exact replica so that those who might be planning a heist would be disappointed in case they do pull off a fast one.

Academically, the Curator needs to showcase the art pieces in a way that a trip to the museum is an educational one. Usually, museums have tour guides who take care of informing the public the significance of just about anything the museum put up in display. Basically, museums are tied up with universities and research institutions. Curators have the power to plan and conduct special research projects sometimes on their own accord or sometimes in collusion with universities and research institutions.

On the financial aspect, Curators are the ones responsible informing the board of directors what’s happening with the museum’s financial soundness. Accounting every penny spent on researches, on repairs, on acquisitions, on personnel wages and on marketing activities to attract more museum goers should be presented in a clear and detailed manner. Usually, most museums get by through philanthropic donations and government appropriations and so there is really no pressure for museums to earn money and so detailed accounting is a necessary task if indeed they do depend on donations.

Museum Curators are indeed busy men and women. If they are not in the museum probably they are meeting with potential grant donors or private individuals who own priceless arts pleading them to loan their masterpieces for an exhibit in their museum, they are probably teaching at a university somewhere explaining the mummification process or the genius of Leonardo da Vinci. A lot of Curators are actually archeologists because more or less their experience from seeking out funds for research and knowledge in historical events make them perfect for the job.


In the movies, Archeologists are often depicted as an adventure-filled profession as quest for long lost treasures and mythological objects are always the theme. Perhaps, the most well-known fictional archeologist is Indiana Jones that guaranteed Harrison Ford a star in famed walk with the stars in Hollywood. In almost all the installments of Indiana Jones movies, there is always swash-buckling action, answering riddles that may mean death if a wrong answer is given and getting out of booby-trapped places. In real life however, Archeologists need not be a swash-buckling gigolo just to find a hidden treasure but it promises tons of adventure nevertheless.

Archeologists would be the experts when it comes to identifying unearthed relics and artifacts. Depending on what culture is the specialization of the archeologist, they can tell approximately what era a particular relic belongs to. For example, if the specialization of the archeologist is Chinese reliquary, and when somebody wants to know what era an item belongs to, the archeologist could more or less give an approximation that the relic belongs to let’s say to the Ming Dynasty based on the markings or whatever clues it may give as there is usually an inherent pattern or fad for every era.

One skill an Archeologist should possess is knowledge of ancient writings. This particular skill would be the handiest of all because interpretation of scripts found would give a clue to a possible explanation of what kind of society the ancient people were living. Not only that, sometimes it is a life-saver as some places have some kind warning and that opening or disturbing that particular place or item is hazardous as booby traps are in placed.

Archeologists can be compared to modern day forensics experts in a certain sense like when solving a crime, forensics experts looks at the evidences at hand and from there draw a picture on how the crime was orchestrated. Archeologists perform similar functions as they recreate what scenarios were happening thousands of years ago based from artifacts, art works and other clues. More or less a single item could tell how advanced an ancient civilization was. For example an iron shield was discovered and was carbon-dated and was found out that it existed during the time when bronze was the common material used by neighboring states. The shield alone can tell that indeed its users were more advanced as their technology in shield making was way ahead of their neighbors.

Another necessary skills Archeologist should know is how to preserve dug up artifacts and biofacts (like seeds and mummies). During excavations, it is of utmost importance that items to be found would not be destroyed due to mishandling. These items have been preserved through natural means so when an excavation team suddenly unearths them, a wisp of air could literally destroy them and so techniques in recovering these items are also a skill in itself.

Becoming an Archeologist is not an easy feat to accomplish. Interest in knowing the past should be an inherent passion together with an optimistic point of view towards success is needed as sometimes in an archeologist’s lifetime, an excavation project may not come at all.

Study Artificial Intelligence

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The most remarkable differentiation between human and the rest of the animal kingdom happens to be the intellect. Unlike other life forms, the homo sapiens is endowed with superb intelligence that best explains the many different discoveries of men in an array of fields. No wonder, the human brain has been the most interesting subject of study considering its progressive development in history. As a matter of fact, it is believed that human ancestors develop huge and complex brains with progressively increasing potential courtesy of its interesting evolutionary process. Furthermore, intellectual development is further triggered by significant factors such as environmental and biological factors. Nonetheless, human intelligence happens to be an imponderable subject of study which inspired the science of artificial intelligence studies.

According to John McCarthy, artificial intelligence is the science and engineering of creating intelligent machines. In particular, this discipline dates back in the ancient times in Greece when myths were told about intellectual machines such as the bronze robot Talos of Crete. The used-to-be science fiction came into reality with Alan Turing’s mathematical computation theory. Such study was further pursued through the project called Al research led by MsCarthy, Minski, Newell, and Simon. Realization of its ends though only commenced in the onset of the 21st century hence the successful IBM’s question answering system.

Al’s research took 50 years before the science gets fully developed. No wonder, many different approaches have been introduced on this field of study consist of symbolic (cognitive, logic, anti-logic, and knowledge-based), sub-symbolic (bottom-up and computational intelligence), statistical (mathematics and operations research), and neuroscience (information theory). Integration of multiple approaches was likewise established courtesy of agent architecture, intelligent agent, and cognitive architectures. In the same way, multiple tools were established such as control theory, language, logic, neural networks, search optimization, probability, and statistics. Applications also range in various fields like competitions, philosophy, probability, and prediction.

Relevance of artificial intelligence in the society brought about pertinent programs in the academe. This further holds true both in graduate and undergraduate schools worldwide. Bachelor’s degree conferred consists of specializations in Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Computer Science, Mathematics, and Statistics, and Cognitive Science. Accessible graduate curricula include Master in Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Master of Science in Artificial Intelligence, and Doctor in Artificial Intelligence. Associate degrees may also be considered in Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Electronics and Computer, and Information Systems. Academic institutions offering these programs include University of Birmingham, University of Groningen, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Career opportunities await Artificial Intelligence specialists in many different fields. Research and development companies comprise an attractive employment niche such as Acquired Intelligence Incorporated, Logic Programming Associates, and International Business Machines. Non-governmental organizations may also offer job placements in the likes of Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, Catalan Association for Artificial Intelligence, and Association for Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence. National Governments may also organize projects such as the CAGE Project of United States National Defense. Academic institutions may also offer teaching posts to competent professionals interested at sharing their expertise in the academe.

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Study Astronautics

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Study Astronomy

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Taking the Astronomy Program is not equivalent to merely gazing at stars through telescopes, as the common notion is. Modern Astronomy actually as a science, complete with analytical and mathematical methods of studying celestial bodies in the universe. These celestial bodies include the planets, their moons or satellites, comets, meteors, stars, and galaxies both old and newborn, and the like.

Similar to other bodies of knowledge, Astronomy emerged from the trivial yet astonishing thing called curiosity. Ancient peoples were always in awe about the sun, the moon, the stars, and the unusual fiery rocks that fell from the sky on the odd occasion. Eventually, they observed how these heavenly bodies moved in an orderly, regular manner throughout a certain time interval. From these seemingly simple studies emerged what we now recognize as the calendar, the zodiac belt, and hence, the zodiac signs, and astrology, among other things. Ancient people believed that the planets influenced their fortune. Hence, as man progressed, this early belief likewise caused the growth of astronomy, as it encouraged the pursuit of better schemes to determine the truth of the principle. As time advanced, the methods grew more rigid, mathematical, varied, and scientific, eventually producing the sub-fields of modern Astronomy.

There are several inter-connected fields of study under the Astronomy Program, these include:

Astrometry involves the observational study of the position and motion of the celestial bodies. This branch of Astronomy is essential in determining universal time, or what is known as UTC (Coordinated Universal Time), which is actually relative to the earth’s rotation.

Closely linked to astrometry is the next branch – Celestial Mechanics. This study, as its name implies, likewise deals with the motion of celestial bodies. What actually sets celestial mechanics apart from astrometry is the fact that this branch focuses on orbits and, generally, the effect of gravity on celestial motion. Celestial mechanics uses the principles and quantities of Physics. Hence, this branch of Astronomy has direct applications in astrophysics.

Astrophysics is basically the study of the chemical composition and physical properties of the stars, planets, galaxies, and the like. From birth to end state, celestial objects are observed, in terms of the physical conditions and laws that dominate them, for their behavior to be understood.

Cosmology, on the other hand, is comparable to astrophysics but a slight difference lies in the range of study. This branch is macro-point of view in the study of the universe. Cosmology deals with the universe in its entirety, from its beginning to its future.

Taking the Astronomy Program means having an innate interest, or passion, not only for the stars and planets, but also for other sciences like Physics and Mathematics. Astronomers actually spend a lot of time reading, to keep up with the developments and findings of others in their field. They also have to learn how to deal with a lot of computers, where they merge science with technology, creating models and simulations.

Most graduates of the Astronomy Program move on to getting their doctoral degree. These further studies mostly involve research, writing proposals, and likewise publishing of papers. This is why a number of graduates are employed as faculty of various colleges and universities. Others choose to become involved with advanced research in observatories and institutions; others work alongside engineers and astronauts in space stations like the NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration).

Study Astrophysics

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Astrophysics, one of the branches of Astronomy, is the science that aims to determine and understand the roots, changes, properties, present state, and future evolution of celestial objects. Electormagnetic Radiation and Spectroscopy (which is the study of spectra - a series of observed colors) and others similar or linked to such tools are the mainly responsible for making this study possible. Apart from that, theoretical models are designed to aid in the interpretation of data. Such models are useful in explaining in radiation-emitting mechanisms, which in turn, help in understanding the properties and behavior of celestial bodies under study. With radiation measurements, it is now possible to determine even the properties and states at the atomic level of objects millions of miles away. Moreover, physical laws, such as those under Thermodynamics, to cite one, include key concepts applied to gain essential knowledge in this field.

The Astrophysics program is mainly concerned with the study of (1) the stars and (2) the universe. A short discussion of each follows:

Stars are among the most popular objects of study among the celestial objects. Although a lot of knowledge about the peculiar behavior of these celestial bodies has already been established and understood, it is already a given fact that even the common man can not help but be fascinated just looking at the display of such wonders scattered on a blanket of sky. This is why stars are continuously considered objects of extreme curiosity and are still being observed and further studied. The study of stars includes determining luminosity (in terms of radius), surface temperature, and the like. Physical laws like the laws of Thermal Radiation are mostly applied in this area.

The study of the universe, or more commonly called Cosmology, basically aims to comprehend the composition and arrangement of the universe. Modern cosmology is founded on the discoveries of renowned personalities like Edwin Hubble, an American astronomer, about the galaxies moving away from each other at specific velocities in 1929; Alexander Friedmann, a Russian astronomer, who established that the composition of the universe is consistent everywhere; and Albert Einstein, with his general theory of relativity, actually paved the way for the ascertaining the Big Bang Theory.

Although there are innumerable theories established about the universe, one thing remains uncertain and that is if the universe will continue to expand and live on ceaselessly. Such debates are centered on the concern that the gravitational force present in the universe will not be able to contain the amount of mass that apparently exists in the universe, hence, the continuous expansion. Black holes are one of the most interesting topics of such debates in the study of the cosmos.

Graduates of the Astrophysics study have moved on to a number of areas to establish their careers. Some have opted to go into research. A lot of research institutes and organizations, both public and private, are in need of research scientists. With the training and academic background obtained in the Astrophysics program, graduates are more than welcome in these areas. Others choose to stay in the academe to take up Master’s and Doctorate programs, and afterward become professors in universities. Still others utilize their expertise in technology and go into the computer industry to create programs and models to aid in interpretation of astronomical data.

Study Athletics and exercise science

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Since the dawn of education various universities and educational institutions prided themselves in academic excellence, meaning that students are required to perform according to their perspective schools’ intellectual academic standards. But with the inevitable arrival of sports which has almost taken over the subject when there is talk regarding school spirit schools have undoubtedly succumbed to the prospect of lowering their standards when accepting students with regards to their mental capacities. Sadly, it is a known fact that most quite a number of career athletes aren’t exactly known for their mental brilliance but fortunately studies and various psychology departments from renowned universities fought for the accepted fact that brilliance is relative. Think of it this way, has anyone ever tried to make a Math genius run for 20 laps in an Olympic oval? Ergo is the birth of courses regarding Athletics and Exercise Science; preserved solely for athletes who are unable to cope with other available college courses.

The mindset of people regarding the course and its students make it much worse. Since the perception is concluded to the fact that most of the people in the course doesn’t even need to finish their studies due to the option of the students becoming professional athletes. As short sighted as the course seems, there is however a variety of options available for such graduates apart from turning “pro”. An option would be to become a spots trainer, specifically the job entails training private clients for personal fitness or for a certain sport. Sticking to this particular path may get you the opportunity to get up close to your favorite professional athletes. Since they, hire professional trainers to keep their bodies in shape during the off season.

Another would be to become a sports physician, although additional training in this area is advisable. The course of sports science commonly includes the study the functions and requirements of the bones, muscles and joints.

A different option for those with entrepreneurial ambitions would be to set up fitness centers. Whether it be a gym or a spa, a degree in fitness science would be perfectly suitable in such a business. These options maybe the only available ventures if one decided to stick with their line of study.

However turning into a professional athlete after graduation may just give you the edge you need. One thing; no one plays the game forever. The statement comes naturally due to the aging process and most athletes usually decide to hang up their guns before their fortieth birthday. So why not stick to the game you love and become a coach? Not only will you get to share your experiences with the younger generation, the prestige alone of the position is enough to make anyone stay in the game. But of course one has to be careful because there is a saying in the world of sports; players win the game and the coaches lose it. But then again if one fouls up in the field all one has to do is to look around and see who the audience is booing.

Study Atmospheric Science

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Did you ever wonder how the weatherman comes up with the daily forecast? This best explains the science of meteorology that provides for the explanation of weather events in a particular location. In particular, every weather bulletin involves meticulous scrutiny of atmospheric components such as air pressure, temperature, and water vapour. In the same way, these elements are also imperative to climate prediction encompassing long time climatic phenomena. Scrutiny of meteorological constituents is made possible by specialized facilities and equipment in the likes of Radar, Lidar, and satellites. Consequently, meteorology happens to be a single branch of atmospheric science.

The atmosphere is nevertheless an interesting subject of study hence the realm of atmospheric sciences. In particular, it is described as the layer of gasses embracing any material body such as a planet. Among others though, the Earth’s atmosphere is distinctive considering its capacity to sustain life forms. Basically, it consists of various gasses such as argon, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen, etc. No wonder, flora and fauna life processes are sustained specifically by carbon dioxide and oxygen gasses. Apart from that, it is also characterized by gaseous layers composed of troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, exosphere, and magnetospehere.

Atmospheric science is regarded as the scientific field that deals with overall atmospheric particulars. As a matter of fact, it branches out into many different facets that include meteorology (weather forecasting), climatology (atmospheric changes), aeronomy (top atmospheric layers), and planetary science (planetary atmospheres).

Furthermore, it involves various sub-disciplines such as atmospheric chemistry (Earth’s atmospheric chemistry), atmospheric dynamics (atmospheric motion systems), and atmospheric physics (atmospheric models). Along the process, it involves employment of relevant technologies utilizing equipment such as radiosondes, rocketsondes, lasers, satellites, and weather balloons. In some other cases, it may also be referred to as aerology which is more particular to the study of the Earth’s atmosphere.

Relevance of atmospheric science in the society brought about the various academic specializations tendered in the academe. Colleges and universities offering relevant curricula include Princeton University (Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences), Cornell University (Earth and Atmospheric Sciences), and Stony Brook University (School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences). Furthermore, this scientific faculty is accessible both in undergraduate and graduate schools. Undergraduate programs consist of Bachelor in Atmospheric Science, Bachelor in Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, and Bachelor of Science in Atmospheric Science. Further studies may also be pursued such as Master in Atmospheric Sciences, Master of Science in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, and Doctor of Philosophy in Atmospheric Science. Short technical courses are also available hence the Associate of Applied Science degree in Atmospheric Science and Meteorology.

Employment opportunities in many relevant industries await atmospheric scientists. In particular, the growing weather forecasting industry comprises an attractive career niche to specialists who can land jobs in prominent companies in the likes of AccuWeather Inc., Best Weather, Inc., and The FleetWeather Group of Companies. In the same way, national governments can also provide placements to eligible professionals for pertinent projects such as US Atmospheric Science Program pioneered by the Department of Energy. International organizations like the World Meteorological Association may offer research posts to degree holders. Also, educational institutions can hire atmospheric science experts who are interested in sharing their expertise in the academe.

Study Audiology

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Study Aviation

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A human activity that involves the flying of man-made aircrafts and consists of individuals, organizations and other regulatory bodies is called Aviation. People from different cultures have built-up machineries that travel through the air, from the first projectiles such as stones and spears, to the more complex floating or aerodynamic devices mirrored in the mechanical pigeon of Ancient Greece, Archytas; Australia’s boomerang; the Kongming Lantern as well as the kites.

Ancient legends have been told about humans being able to take flight such as the story of Icarus or the winged flights of Eilmer of Malmesbury that is believed to have occurred during the 12th century, 17th century’s Abbas Ibn Firnas and the Passarola of Bartolomeu Lourenco de Gusmao. Modern Aviation began with the hot air balloon laid out by the Montgolfier brothers in November 21, 1783. There was limited potential with the balloons because it was only able to travel with the speed of the wind. It was Jean-Pierre Blanchard who devised the first human-powered dirigible in the year 1784. Since then, humans have continued to make developments and innovations with aircrafts.

There are different types of Aviation and they are as follows:

Civil Aviation which consists of all non-military flying. Under Civil Aviation are General Aviation which includes non-scheduled private and commercial civil flying and scheduled air transport which includes the aircraft and aircraft manufacturers. Small aircraft manufacturers cater to the general aviation market with their aircrafts primarily used in private aviation and flight trainings.

Military Aviation serves the purpose of giving service to its country whenever it needs it.

Various courses are being offered in the field of Aviation. Some of the courses being offered are MBA – Aviation Management; Bachelor of Applied Science in Aviation; and Master of Aviation Management to name a few.

MBA – Aviation Management typically requires one and a half years of study. It integrates the skills necessary to solve and carry out creative solutions, improve leadership skills as well as communication and interpersonal skills, and to hone managers who will be results-oriented in terms of the aerospace industry and global air transport.

Bachelor of Applied Science in Aviation requires three years of study since it is a degree program suitable to train the graduates for occupations in the scope of operational management and planning responsibilities. This includes operations such as airport landslides, airport airside as well as airport planning, maintenance management of aircrafts its guidance and supervision; and employment options for the transition of skilled pilots of commercial airlines to the management of airline operations. The program encompasses the specific planning methods and management important to the context of the aviation industry; putting into account the risks involved; the human factors; the setting of the industry and other important subject areas.

Master of Aviation Management only requires one year of schooling for the middle-level managers in the Aviation industry with the necessary backup of undergraduate education to enhance and benefit both the company in which they are currently employed and themselves with a bigger advantage over their competition in the industry.

Study Aviation Maintenance

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Study Behavioral Neuroscience

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Study Behavioral Sciences

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Study Bioarchaeology

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Study Biochemical Pharmacy

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Study Biochemistry

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For common people, digestion of food is regarded as a very simple bodily process, that is, food enters the mouth, goes down to the stomach and the feeling called hunger dies down as food fills up the stomach and that’s it. However, what many people are unaware of, from the moment food enters the mouth complex biochemical processes have already been initiated. The enzyme called amylase which is present in the saliva actually initiates the process of digestion chemically, and even aids in making starchy foods to taste a little bit sweeter by converting them to sugar. In plants, the process called photosynthesis is another complex biochemical process that starts from the moment sunlight touches its leaves. Biochemical processes are constantly present and happening among living organisms such as humans and plants and the field that investigates and studies chemical processes that happens among living organisms is called Biochemistry.

More specifically, Biochemistry takes a serious look on the structure and function, in particular but not limited to, cellular components like proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids among a host of biomolecules to be found in every living organism. Basically, these five macromolecules mentioned could sum up most of the components that are responsible for the chemical processes that takes place in a living being. Proteins represent the different groups of amino acids. Amino acids are very important especially in metabolism and nutrition. Amino acids are commonly used by food technologists, plastic makers and drug makers. Yes, it was biochemists that came up with biodegradable plastic polymers. Lipids, in general, are a broad group that includes fats, waxes, sterols and soluble vitamins (A,D,E and K). Usually, lipids are used in energy and signaling functions in terms of chemical reactions. The carbohydrate groups which include monosaccharides (glucose, fructose and deoxyoribose) are the ones that produce water internally through the process called dehydration synthesis. The nucleic acids are vital for biochemists because they are the key components of a DNA where genetic information is stored in all living organisms.

Biochemistry, in general, has contributed in a hundred various ways in man’s quest of a better life. As mentioned earlier, biochemists are to be credited for the biodegradable plastics now being widely used as a solution to environmental concerns over mounting garbage. In the pharmaceutical industry, superior drugs are being whipped up by biochemists as who better understands the chemicals happening inside the body. Biochemists are also on the forefront of technological breakthroughs in the field of genetics. Just recently, in 2006, Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello won Nobel Prize for discovering the important role of RNA interference. To the fans of the TV series “CSI,” it is noteworthy to know that Forensic Science came about due to Biochemistry as biochemists proved through DNA evidence in 1988 where the judge accepted these findings beyond reasonable doubt. Right now, Biochemistry has three branches namely: Plant Biochemistry, General Biochemistry (covers both plant and animals) and Human/Medical Biochemistry.

To those who want to dabble in biochemistry, don’t be surprised to come across highly technical terms like monomers, polymers, polypeptides, deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, cytosine and a host of other terms that one would only see in encyclopedias and science textbooks. Studying Biochemistry is like getting two degrees in one (biology and chemistry) so expect this course to be for those with above average IQs.

Study Biodiversity Conservation

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Study Bioentrepreneurship

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Study Biological Anthropology

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Of the many branches of Theology, Biblical Theology is the discipline which studies the Bible and the story that it unfolds which speaks of God’s revelation to humanity through history. It is also called the “History of Special Revelation” as it deals with the unfolding nature of revelation as history develops in the Bible. Biblical Theology aims to understand what the Bible says by giving meaning to the scriptures through the writings in the Bible as well. It has its focus on the Old Testament to create an understanding on how each part of the Bible leads towards the fulfilment in the life of Christ as the Messiah.

Biblical Theology is all about giving meaning to the scriptures through the other scriptures in the Bible itself. In this light, for one to discover and understand what a particular scripture tries to explain, one must know where the text points towards or back to. At that, the aim is to understand the Biblical text against its background. Meaning, it should be realized that the Bible is in itself a historical progression, and that each part of the Bible is important and significant as each is essential in understanding the Bible as a whole. The study of Biblical Theology sees the Bible as a history book, which is a book that can be understood through time. Thus, it shows how the Bible is so diverse that each part of it can be understood using its own terms.

There are parts of the Bible where when one seeks to understand the deeper and true meaning of the text, he/she must only look for certain passages in the Bible itself, only in other books, which are related to the particular text and explains it thoroughly. Biblical Theology proves that God slowly reveals himself through history, through the Biblical texts, through the interrelated scriptures that unveil his words and deeds for and to His people. How God presents and reveals Himself throughout the Bible is the focus of the study of Biblical Theology, decoding each text according to related texts as well.

Biblical Theology also includes Covenant Theology, Ritual Theology, and Literary Theology. This study aims to answer questions such as “How much does a person know about God?”, “To what extent were God’s plans revealed, such as Jesus’ becoming the Messiah?”, and “How has Israel responded to God up to this point?”

For religious degrees such as Biblical Theology, there are usually 2 career choices where one can end up choosing: the parochial path or those who become Clergymen, or the academic path, or those who become teachers in the school setting. Biblical Theology majors usually end up being members of the Clergy, either a Preacher or a Pastor, a religious/spiritual leader, at that. Others prefer to be members of the academe to teach Theology as college professors and/or lecturers, or as teachers of religion in basic education levels. Some are called Biblical Theologians or those who research about topics related to the study of Biblical Theology.

Study Biological Chemistry

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Many industries rely on the advent of biochemistry to improve the lives of people. For instance, the huge pharmaceutical industry depends on this science in the formulation of drugs to treat various illnesses and diseases. In the same way, forensic science makes use of biochemistry concepts to prosecute all sorts of crimes via accurate pieces of evidence. Medical diagnosis also employs the science of biochemistry in clinical and lab tests to assess the specimen of patients. The fusion of biology and chemistry also paved the way for the progress of some other industries all over the globe, such as the production of an array of consumer goods found on the market.

Biochemistry studies can be traced back to the 19th century when major bioprocesses have been identified such as digestion. It is also in this period when Louis Pasteur discovered the catalysts (which he referred to as ferments) involved in the fermentation process. Further studies were pursued in 1878 to research into the properties of enzymes. Later on, Carl Neuberg coined the science of biochemistry to describe biochemical phenomena. The event brought about the delineation of this scientific branch which took its revolutionary turn in the 20th century. In turn, modern techniques were devised for in-depth analysis of intracellular processes.

Bioprocesses that transpire in all life forms happen to be the main subject of Biochemistry. This branch of science deals with chemical processes that occur in living organisms such as human beings. This is ascribed to the idea that each creature is a masterpiece driven by life elements and processes. As a matter of fact, every cell in the body exhibits metabolic bioprocesses at the cellular level. Macro and micro nutrients in aid of metabolism are stored in cells such as fats, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals. In turn, all these biomolecules comprise the core subjects of Biochemistry.

Biochemistry studies branch out in various degree programs both in graduate and undergraduate schools. The discipline is even offered as a major degree under bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral programs. Most likely, every curriculum consists of various concepts on biology and chemistry along with many other sciences. Not just that, it may also involve great deals of experiments. It is no wonder that students are expected to come up with quality research at the end of the program based on knowledge and skills learned all throughout the academic years. Biochemistry courses may also be included in related fields of study under life sciences, pure sciences, applied sciences, and the like.

There are various career options for graduates of Biochemistry. Research and development sectors, both of private and public nature, comprise a great employment niche. Biochemists can land jobs in top research institutions such as clinical testing, pharmaceuticals, and many other ventures under health and wellness industry. Even academic bodies are home to research centres that can employ scientific researchers, too. The academe can also offer teaching posts to degree holders who can deal with class lectures. Public agencies under the Science and Technology Department are likely to provide green pastures to professionals. There are also non-profit groups looking for experts who can handle science projects on the subject matter.

Study Biology

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Biology, as implied from bio, which means life, is the study and science of living things. The term was actually coined by the Jean Baptiste de Lamarck, a French naturalist. He aimed to unify the various disciplines involving the study of life. Hence, Biology, the diverse science that the world now recognizes, was developed and it continues to evolve.

This program basically involves not only pure biology but also the other sciences as physics and chemistry. Mathematics also plays a huge part, as this body of knowledge finds infinitely many applications in these sciences. The Biology Program fits well for students who are inclined to the natural sciences and the wonders that can be achieved with efficient application of this knowledge.

The Biology Program integrates the wide scope of this body of knowledge and tackles its subdivisions, which were formulated from the hierarchy of life forms, from the fundamental units to the largest clusters. The main divisions are:

• Cellular Biology – concerned with “the fundamental building block of life”, the cell, which is the basic unit essential for life to exist. The discovery of the cell and its functions led to the understanding of life, its evolution, and even its future.

• Molecular Biology – the branch that includes assimilates biology with physics chemistry, which has facilitated the development of Genetics, including the crucial discovery of heredity.

• Organismal Biology – mainly from cellular and molecular biology, this branch views the object of study as a whole living form. In this branch, the functions of the cells and molecules and the interactions of each varied form are studied.

• Population Biology – a relatively young field, formally established in the 1970s, this division of Biology includes the study of evolution, genetic drifts, and gene flow, among others. It is also closely linked with Ecology and Anthropology, where the study of human behavior is focused on.

Aspiring medical students commonly take the Biology Program. Since Biology is so broad a science, it subsequently has an extensive range of applications. For one there is Biomedicine, which, as can be deduced from its name, is the fusion Biology and Medicine. In this area, the information gained from the study of the hierarchy of life is applied to find ways to preserve and sustain it.

Other emerging fields are Neuroscience and Genetic Counseling. The former involves a combination of Biology and Psychology, where the molecular biology is linked with the study and interpretation of behavior. The latter includes providing analysis and advice on matters of the health, especially those directly related to Genetics.

Apart from the abovementioned, there are numerous other areas where career opportunities available, like the academe, public health and environmental agencies, pharmaceutical companies, and industries that employ biotechnology as agriculture, among others. While some graduates choose to move on to start a career after completion of the Biology program, there are also some who opt to pursue Master’s or Doctorate degrees to further enrich their knowledge. There is, indeed, virtually an infinite range of available career opportunities with a Biology degree.

Study Biomathematics

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Biomathematics is a unique field of study, also referred to as mathematical biology. It is an interdisciplinary field, which models natural and biological processes, using mathematical techniques and tools. In other words, biomathematics is there to develop analytical and predictive models of biological and medical systems. For example, data mining and mathematical projections are applied to understand the growth and change of living entities, including bacteria. Genetic codes and diseases are also studied through mathematical biology. Biomathematics programs are quite unique, because students are required to have a strong background in both biology and applied mathematics. Mathematics and statistics programs usually do not train students to be able to deal with empirical data in terms of measurements and biological meaning or to have deep biological knowledge. On the other hand, traditional biology programs elaborate on biological knowledge and techniques but don’t teach much mathematics. The Biomathematics field of study is based upon the fact that much of the research in the next few decades will require sound knowledge that combines empirical data and methods, statistics, and theory.

Personal Qualities

Biomathematics is a demanding field of study, for which you can consider the following qualities and skills:

  • Excellent analytical skills
  • Aptitude for both mathematics and biology
  • Good at research
  • Detail-oriented
  • Good communication skills

Study options

Biomathematics is offered at the undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate level at chosen universities. Courses in Biomathematics normally incorporate courses in mathematics, biology and computer science, most often offered through the collaboration between the mathematics and biology departments. As a student in Biomathematics you should expect to specialize during your junior and senior years in computer science, mathematics, or biology, and continue with advanced interdisciplinary training.

Career Options

Graduates in the field of biomathematics either progress onto graduate programs or find employment in bioinformatics, biostatistics, biomedical engineering, biomathematics and medicine. Careers in neuroscience, ecology and evolutionary biology are other possible options, too.

Study Biomechanics

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Study Biomedical Genetics

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In the past decades, there have been many discoveries that have brought a new meaning to the present statue of medical genetics and human genetics. Research studies have been converted into medical benefits and efforts to study all human genes are done. Such course of actions is a huge leap in revolutionizing a more profound and developed approaches that will be employed in biological sub disciplines that yield an in-depth understanding of biological systems and the inner workings of each system.

The program Biomedical Genetics is a multidisciplinary study that covers a wide scope of courses in genetics and bioscience. Students are provided with learning experiences as they conduct genomic researches to better recognize the curriculum’s objective. Each student will have a solid background in various branches of sciences but a more intense emphasis on topics about medical genetics, cell and molecular biology, chemistry, bio-informatics, genomics, systems and computational biology, genetic nursing, genetic counseling, gene testing, gene therapy, public health, organ transplantation, and reproduction among others.

The pharmaceutical industry is growing by the day. Students with a Biomedical Genetics degree are welcome to accept employment in this fast-growing industry as they are knowledgeable in pharmacogenomics, chemical, vaccines, and production and development of medicine. As future researchers, clinician, scientists, and geneticists, students will become more than excited and aggressive to look for new disease models and then establish and discover new therapeutic agents while learning how organisms and organ systems function normally.

The study of cellular mechanisms is helpful in determining genes that underlie human disease and disorders which in turn will lead to discovery of beneficial drugs. The development of genetic researches and studies through the years have helped in controlling the spread and worsening of life-threatening diseases and professionals who have the solid academic background in Biomedical Genetics and other life sciences are responsible for it. Better understanding of gene inner workings and the environment has a massive impact in targeting diseases that naturally pose grievous threats to humankind. This is the reason why students of the program are encouraged to be responsible enough to make humanitarian contributions that go beyond ordinary undertakings.

There are many issues concerning Biomedical Genetics and one of which is the privacy genetic information. The democratizing access to any genetic science information has produced negative impacts due to threats of misuse data. Thus, students are required to conduct genomic researches that aim to develop clinical practices. Under the curriculum, students are also taught physiology and pathology and then later on more further to therapeutics and prevention of disease.

Students who wish to take graduate education in Biomedical Genetics can choose their area of specialization because at present there is an occurrence of overlapping medical specialties since the program is an encompassing study. Etiologies in genetics alone include neurologic, cardiovascular, ophthalmologic, renal, dermatologic, endocrine, and psychiatric conditions.

Finally, finding an employment is an easy task for graduates of Biomedical Genetics because they can expect competitive compensation—every student manages to meet even international standards set for them.

Study Biomedical Informatics

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Study Biomedical Physics

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Study Biomedical Sciences

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Biomedical science is a science dealing with understanding the causes, diagnosis and treatment of diseases. A variety of subjects are explored in order to achieve this aim – mainly biochemistry, genetics, immunology, microbiology, pharmacology, molecular biology, anatomy, biochemistry. The more specialized fields within the biomedical sciences, dealing with disease are cellular pathology, clinical biochemistry, clinical immunology, etc.

Biomedical science is a subject that develops with great speed, but most of all it is highly relevant to investigating and understanding current controversies, concerns and dilemmas of modern life; i.e. the use of genetically engineered products in healthcare. Biomedical science graduates would possess sound knowledge of human anatomy and physiology, molecular genetics, and immunology. They would also understand the factors and processes which contribute to human health and disease. Therefore, a biomedical scientist would develop and test vaccines, pharmaceuticals, or other medical treatments; they could also apply sophisticated tools and techniques to examine samples of human tissue with the purpose to identify the presence of abnormalities such as bacteria, viruses, and cancers. Other biomedical scientists may work with patient samples to screen for blood disorders, toxins, or blood chemistry changes associated with kidney or liver disease.

Personal Qualities

To get involved in biomedical sciences, you need to be strictly dedicated to your education – the discipline requires a lot of diligence and patience, as these scientists usually spend about 12 years in universities and practical training positions before they are fully prepared to work independently. Some other qualities include:

  • Aptitude for sciences
  • Excellent analytical and research skills
  • Excellent communication skills
  • The ability to be both accurate and efficient
  • Capable of working with specialized laboratory equipment, computers, and high-powered microscopes
  • Must be comfortable working with biological samples
  • Good at problem solving and self-management
  • Team working abilities
  • Good IT skills

Study Options

If you wish to become a biomedical scientist you would typically need to complete a four-year bachelor's degree program in biology, chemistry, or premedical studies from an accredited university. After graduation, you can apply for admissions into a medical scientist training program; this is a specialized educational path that ultimately leads to both a science Ph.D. and a Doctor of Medicine degree. The accredited medical scientist programs are not too many, compared to the large number of students who apply for positions. Therefore, you are more likely to be successful if you are one of the students with the strongest grades, admissions test scores, and recommendation letters.

Once accepted into a program, a student usually spends the first three years attending lectures and participating in laboratory activities. The final three years are mainly dedicated to conducting original research with other students, professors, and experts in the field. A graduate of a medical scientist training program can apply for a postdoctoral fellowship position at a hospital or laboratory to gain additional experience. Fellowships usually last about three years and allow a new scientist the opportunity to hone their skills under the supervision of established biomedical professionals.

After completing a fellowship, a biomedical scientist can look for a permanent position at a hospital, university, or pharmaceutical company.

Career Options

Biomedical scientists work at pharmaceutical companies, universities, or private research institutions to develop new drugs and add to the collective knowledge of disease. Other possibilities include veterinary laboratories, blood banks, forensic laboratories, and public health offices. A lot of people who have trained to become a medical scientist, however, have gone on to find employment in other, non-medical areas like education, national defense, publishing, and even space medicine.

Study Biomolecular Design and Synthesis

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Study Biomolecular Sciences

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Authorities define biomolecular sciences as a discipline in modern life sciences at the center of biological, physical, chemical and computational sciences, focusing on the understanding of molecules as the smallest particles of a substance, and the functions of cells. This is based on the meaning of a biomolecule as any organic molecule produced by a living organism. As a developing discipline, biomolecular sciences now find itself in many programs of study in numerous institutions of learning around the globe. One of such schools is the Utrecht University in the Netherlands, which is known in the world of science for its advanced structural analysis of biomolecules in relation to cellular systems. The University offers only Doctoral and Master’s degree programs, with the Ph.D. program involving various disciplines such as biology, pharmacy, chemistry, physics, medicine and even veterinary medicine. Its Master’s degree program trains students for two years in the state-of-the-art techniques in cell biology, structural biology, and advanced methodologies in genetics.

The Central Connecticut State University in New Britain, Connecticut in the United States offers undergraduate, graduate degree and post-graduate certificate programs under the Department of Biomolecular Sciences with courses in biotechnology, biomolecular sciences, biochemistry, and other subjects that are integrated with the theory and practice of molecular biological research such as cell biology, molecular biology, physiology and genetics. In Melbourne, Australia, its Deakin University maintains a Faculty of Science and Technology providing research in biomolecular sciences, aimed at solving fundamental and practical problems in human health. The research topic areas include molecular allergy, copper and zinc in health and disease, cell biology and breast cancer, heavy metals in cyanobacteria, fungi and plants, muscle regeneration, comparative genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, bioinformatics, biofuels, Omega 3 fatty acids, new separation and detection methods, and functional foods. In Sydney also in Australia, the University of Western Sydney offers a Bachelor’s degree program in molecular sciences, providing the students with a chance to specialize in the discipline that strengthens an understanding of human health and disease and provides tools to diagnose, and new drugs to treat diseases. The University considers the degree in biomolecular sciences as the science degree for the 21st century based on the assumption that the discipline helps students find and apply the knowledge in improving the people’s lives in the immediate future. Supporting this program goal is the University of Toronto in Canada, with a Biomolecular Sciences Division under the Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy that tries to discover new drug targets, and develop new drug therapies and new methods for diagnosing diseases.

Completion of the program in this discipline faces careers in scientific and research institutions, pharmaceutical and biotechnological sectors, management positions in industries and government organizations, consulting groups, medical product manufacturing entities, science journalism and university lecturing assignments.

Study Biopharmacy

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A substance that has medicinal components is regarded as pharmaceutical. Pharmaceuticals are products expected to heal illness or promote wellness. Pharmacology is the field of science that studies how drugs and natural chemicals interact with human’s biological systems or how the body reacts to it. Pharmacologists are responsible for studying the composition of drugs and how the body would react to it. A drug can heal or kill a sick or healthy person. With that said, a pharmacologist is responsible for making judgment of the drug’s suitability to the disease it is tested for. This makes pharmacology an integral player in promoting overall health. Pharmacology and Pharmacy are often mistakenly seen as similar fields, but they are not. Pharmacy is the field focusing on safe use and dissemination of approved drugs. Biopharmacy, on the other hand, is the study of biopharmaceuticals or those medical drugs produced with the aid of biotechnology or derived from life forms. These include proteins and nucleic acids that are used for therapeutic purposes among others.

Pharmacology courses are offered worldwide, where students are trained to research and study the effect of substances to human’s body system. Outcomes of researches lead to modification of existing drugs or discoveries of new ones. Pharmacology graduates are expected to work in clinical laboratories, especially during their early years of employment. This will expose them to different walks in this field, which may eventually turn them to leaders in the business – as member of top management in clinical laboratories or even as owner of clinical laboratory. They may also opt to be employed in hospitals, where they can play an integral part in clinical trials. Drug enforcement agencies are also a good venue for career seekers in this field. These agencies need pharmacologists to test and approve drugs for commercial sales and distribution. Pharmaceutical companies employ pharmacologists to work on product registration and patenting, and this is also a good career line for pharmacology graduates.

There are subspecialties under Pharmacology. These include (but are not limited to) Clinical Pharmacology, which deals with the effect of drugs on humans; Pharmacogenetics, which is responsible for testing genetic variable that may potentially lead to different responses of body to drugs; Pharmacoepidemiology, which studies the effect of drugs in large scale; and Toxicology which deals with research and study of harmful effects of drugs.

One of the major challenges in pharmaceutical industry is the compliance to quality standards and protocols. Non-conformance often results to more than just huge monetary penalties and litigation costs, but even to ceasing of operations. Drug administration and regulation agencies around the world are meticulous about following quality systems and procedures. This is in view of ensuring welfare of consumers worldwide, since any non-compliance can actually threaten the safety of patients and jeopardize the reputation of the organization. It is utmost important for the management of every pharmaceutical company to follow the set pharmaceutical quality systems and metrics, handle any requested changes or customization properly, effectively handle the communication and dissemination of any updates down the ranks, and impose constant quality consciousness to quality control departments through defined metrics. Since pharmaceutical companies provide drugs for patients’ health, they are responsible not only in making money for their private companies but for promoting real health to their country or area of responsibility.

Study Biophotonics

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Study Biophysics

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The dictionaries and encyclopedias have their definitions of biophysics, quoted as follows: (a) an interdisciplinary science that uses the physical science to study biological systems, (b) science that deals with the application of physics to biological processes and phenomena, (c) discipline concerned with applications of the principles and methods of the physical sciences to biological problems, (d) application of physical techniques and physical methods of analysis to biological problems, (e) application of various methods and principles of physical science to the study of biological problems, and (f) an interdisciplinary science that uses the methods of physical science to study biological systems.

From these definitions, you will know that this discipline involves the physical sciences such as chemistry, physics, geology or astronomy, and any of the natural sciences dealing with inanimate or lifeless matters, and with energy that has something to do with non-living materials, but not biology that is concerned with the study of living organisms, or with life itself. Biophysics, however, does not have a department of its own in many universities, making its presence only in various departments or institutions of learning such as molecular biology, chemistry, bio-chemistry, mathematics, computer science, physics, medicine, pharmacology or neuroscience. In Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, the oldest institution in the United States being 375 years old as of 2011, a 6-year graduate program in biophysics is offered under a biophysics-related department with such areas as structural molecular biology, molecular genetics, cell and membrane biophysics, physical biochemistry and neuroscience. Prior to the awarding of a Doctor of Philosophy degree to a student, the University requires the student to undergo a period of intensive research on his area of concentration.

The John Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, US, offers a course in biophysics under a Molecular Biophysics Program, integrating various aspects of molecular biophysics with an intensive laboratory work. In this program, students are trained in both the fundamental principles and contemporary advances in the science, x-ray crystallography, statistical mechanics, thermodynamics, biochemistry, biophysical chemistry, molecular biology, and optical spectroscopies. In the Temple University in Philadelphia, a biophysics undergraduate program is under the College of Science and Technology with course works in various physical sciences. The University of Illinois has a 2-year Doctor of Philosophy program on a combined discipline of biophysics and computational biology, with coursework in physical sciences or biophysics, individual research and final examination, involving the defense of the student’s thesis before a panel of judges and professors. The Department of Molecular and Cell Biology of the University of Connecticut in Connecticut, offers graduate, undergraduate and Master’s degree programs in biophysics in combination with structural biology. Biophysics is a major in the undergraduate program, while the Master’s and Doctoral degree programs deal with the foundations of structural biology and the structure and function of Biological Macromolecules, and other subject areas.

Study Biopsychology

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Study Biosciences

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Study Biostatistics

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Study Biosystems

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Study Botany

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One of the first sciences to be developed is the study of plants which is more commonly called Botany in modern times. In fact, around 300 BC, a Greek botanist named Theophrastus wrote two large treatises about plants. Not only that, but the Romans, the Chinese and Indians also had some form of documented studies of plants during ancient times. These accounts from ancient past were more or less a listing of plants that were used as medicines, plants that are edible and plants that are poisonous.

Presently, the scope of Botany is a very broad one; it studies all species of algae, fungi, lichens, mosses, ferns, herbs, shrubs, trees and just about anything that are not classified as belonging to the animal kingdom. The study of plants usually looks at the structure, metabolism, growth, reproduction, development, diseases, chemical properties and their relationships with other living organisms.

It cannot be stressed enough how important it is to study plants.

First of all, humans get sustenance from plants. In fact, most staple foods eaten by humans are all plants. Truly, by studying plants as a source of food, botanists can identify which plants pack the most nutrients, which plants can be easily grown and which plants or its parts are not to be consumed. Aside from food, humans also use plants for its medicinal value. How many people get relief from aspirin?

Probably millions. Thanks to this field of study, humans were able to extract salicylic acid from willow trees which is the pain killing ingredient of aspirin. Usually, most active ingredients of medicines are extracted from plants. Another notable contribution of Botany to mankind, but has only been felt in the last few years, is the recognition of the role of plants in the overall equilibrium of the planet’s ecology. When trees were indiscriminately being cut down by illegal loggers, the results were unheard of catastrophes. Those people living near the foot of the mountains were just shocked by flash floods, landslides and mudslides. It was found out later on that the trees’ root systems were the one actually holding the soil and water content in the soil together and so when they were cut down by profiteering loggers, naturally, the soil had no choice but to be eroded downward where incidentally people are living. Apart from extreme erosion, the problem of air pollution has become one of Earth’s cancers and it seems the field of Botany is the only one offering solution.

Botany, being a broad branch of science has many sub-disciplines under them. Those who are fascinated with plants can specialize in agronomy, the application of plant science to crop production, bryology, the study of mosses, liverworts and hornworts, ethnobotany, which studies the relationship of humans and plants, forestry, the study of forest management, lichenology, the study of lichens, paleonbotany, the study of fossil plants, horticulture, the study of cultivated plants, palynology, the study of pollen and spores, phytochemistry, the study of chemical processes in plants, phytopathology, the study of plant diseases, plant ecology, study of role of plants in the environment, plant genetics, study of plant genes, plant morphology, study of structure and life cycles of plants, plant physiology, life functions of plants, plant systematic, classification and naming of plants.

Job positions for Botany:

Plant Pathologist

On a typical science class when getting to the topic of sickness, typically, kids would ask their teachers when humans get sick, they go to a doctor and animals go to a veterinarian but where do plants go when they get sick? Is there such a thing as a plant hospital? Do plants get sick at all? Perhaps, those kids were asking the wrong person as probably their teachers would dismiss those questions as kids’ babble. Perhaps, if those kids have asked a Plant Pathologist, they would have slept out of boredom right on their seats from hearing countless scientific names of fungi, viruses, oomycetes, bacteria, protozoa, phytoplasmas, nematodes and other pathogenic agents.

Plant Pathologists are botanist but they specialize in diseases that affect plant health caused by pathogens and their agents. Studying plant diseases is important because humans depend heavily on plants for food, medicine and raw materials. Like humans, plants give telltale signs that they are sick. Plant infestation comes in many forms and one of the jobs of Plant Pathologists is to lookout for these symptoms because some pathogens can be treated if detected and identified at the first signs of infestation.

Like for example, the pathogen that causes the so-called late blight, a water mold that feast on potato plants, are hard to detect because they usually attack the potato tubers which are buried underground. If the pathogens would become visible on its leaves, it means that the microorganisms have already done its damage. For the plant that was Infected, no amount of treatment can save it but for the rest of the crops not yet infected, the pathologist in charge would know how to quarantine and minimize damage, if and only if, detection was found before a full-blown epidemic erupted. Like in this case where the infesting agent is an already identified pathogen, more or less, the pathologist treating the blight already knows what to do depending on how far out the plague has spread. However, if let’s say, the microorganism causing the blight turned out to be a new strain and did not respond to known effective treatments, the Pathologist would study the pathogen inside the laboratory to take a closer look at the pathogen. The Pathologist would naturally identify what kind of microorganism it is. This kind of study could take years as so many tests are needed to fully comprehend the nature of a newly discovered pathogen. To give out a complete study, Pathologists would need to culture the pathogens so they would not run out of test subjects. To know how to treat and fight these microorganisms, a pathologist would need to study how these microorganisms propagate, what environment do they thrive in and their thresholds, how long is their life span, what inherent quality of the plants have that make them susceptible to these organisms, how they react to changes in the environment and most of all, the damage they do to their hosts. When they have finished what is there to learn about their subject, they then document these findings and publish them.

In almost any scientific community, publication of one’s findings is essential to let their peers know what has been done, however, for Plant Pathologist and other disciplines studying pathogens it is doubly essential to let other pathologists know of their findings so that in cases of an epidemic outbreak, other scientists would have immediate sources of reference.


Commonly, there is a notion that Botanists only study plants that have stems, roots, flowers and leaves but it would also fall on the domain of Botanists to study lichens, molds, protozoa, fungi, algae and everything else not classified under the kingdom Animalia. Botanists, in general, study plants and everything else that has a direct contact with plants like climate, soil conditions, pathogenic agents and their relative environment. Specifically, they study the structure of plants from the root system to the stem up to the canopy of the leaves. To classify a newly discovered plant, Botanists need to completely map out the plant from the apex of the leaves down to its roots. Let’s say, if the plant is a shrub, has a fleshy fruit, has pinnate leaves and everything else resemble a common tomato except that the fruit has a somewhat elongated shape, most likely, the Botanist studying this newly discovered plant would classify the plant as belonging to the family Solanaceae but would assign it a different scientific name.

Nothing thrills a Botanist like discovering an unclassified plant. Apart from assigning a scientific name to the new plant, it would give the Botanist to exercise his scientific nature and on the side achieve fame and glory. Discovering a new plant would mean years of research so that the plant would be fully understood and assess if the plant will have an impact to man and the environment and maybe that’s why these scientists continue to embark journeys on the Amazon or other dense forests just to get the credit of naming them.

There are many kinds of specialization in studying plants. Truly, there’s not one Botanist who can boast that he mapped out a single plant completely from the plant’s anatomy down to its cell membranes and diseases and other factors that may affect them. Probably, a botanist, depending on his field, would limit his study to his area of expertise. Some Botanists are interested only on plants used as commercial plants either for food or for industrial use, some are interested only on pathogens attaching themselves to plants, some are only interested in environmental factors that affect plants while some are interested only on the genetic mapping of plants but whatever interest they have, a working knowledge of plants can only be beneficial to man.

Botanists are among those scientists that have contributed so much to the good of mankind. Although, there has been botanists studying plants for hundreds of years, all the species of plants would perhaps never be completely studied as some plants would just get extinct without being probed and for sure there would be new plants that would evolve for study, as like humans and animals, plants can adapt to environmental changes too.

Botanist for some time became a not so popular course as computer science and robotics took the world by storm and are currently the best paying jobs but until recently, a few years back, interests in botany and plant science sparked anew as biotechnology is churning out useful innovations in the field of nutritional supplements and medicines.

Study Bromatology. Food Technology and Toxicology

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Bromatology, food technology and toxicology are all specific, but closely related scientific fields regarding the effects of foods and chemicals. While bromatology examines the nutritional content, man-made additives and group characteristics of food and drink, food technology focuses on the processing, storage, packing and other systems involved with food production. Toxicology covers the types and effects of poisons or other harmful chemicals found in food, fluids or the environment.
Universities, colleges and technical institutions are highly sought locations for this course. This is mainly because these three fields of study are often included under a ‘food science’ degree, so each branch may be studied alongside one another. A double major in toxicology and food science is also an option, while degrees in bromatology alone are becoming less and less common. A degree in food science, whether at a bachelor, master or doctorate level, is the most commonly achieved degree for individuals pursuing these studies.
Secondary schools often provide very basic courses in this science, focusing mainly on nutrition. Sections of this study are also available through different educational means, such as online programs or workshops offered by government agencies, health institutes, food-marketing organizations or even culinary schools. Some parts of this food science study, especially in the toxicology field, are more difficult to find in alternative means of education.
Skills, Qualifications, and Prerequisites for Studies in Bromatology, Food Technology and Toxicology
To study a post-secondary education program, students must meet the admission requirements of their school of choice. This almost always means a secondary school completion certificate and a passing score on a standardized aptitude test or entrance exam. A master’s or higher degree will require a previously earned degree in food science, or a similar field.
Online programs may have similar requirement to post-secondary programs, though some do not have any prerequisites. Workshops can be offered either to the public, to current college students or to applicable business employees. The prerequisites – from some required post-secondary education to work experience – will vary accordingly.
A passion and aptitude for the maths and sciences is essential to success in this food science course, since bromatology, food technology and toxicology all use advanced chemistry techniques. A fluency in technological programs and functions is also preferred. It also helps greatly is candidates love food, nutrition, exercise or healthy living.
Skills and Qualifications Acquired from Studies in Bromatology, Food Technology and Toxicology
Students may specialize in one of these three areas, but a basic course of study in this food science
  • Basic biology and chemistry.
  • Laboratory techniques, tests and procedures.
  • Laws and regulations surrounding food production.
  • Packaging, storage, testing and other food production equipment.
  • Food production integrated systems and computer technology.
  • Food groups and their corresponding properties (bread, meat, etc.)
  • Nutritional content of different foods and fluids (protein, etc.)
  • Effects of foods and fluids on the human body.
  • Types of toxins (pesticides, etc.)
  • Effects of different toxins on the human body.
  • Processes of detoxification.
Careers for Studies in Bromatology, Food Technology and Toxicology
Almost all individuals choosing to study this area of food science are guaranteed careers in the food industry. These graduates find employment as salesmen, managers, quality assurance monitors, technicians, food researchers, food testers, production coordinators and food and health officers (which monitor the safety standards of the food). Alternative areas of employment include the culinary arts, microbiology, nutrition, health science and education.

Study Cartography

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The European powers from around the 15th to 17th century, the time when exploring the globe and making colonies out of civilizations still wearing g-strings was the fashionable thing to do, maps were considered to be a well-kept secret by governments’ military and traders. Those possessing the more accurately charted maps of the seas got more influence and, of course, more territories to explore and claim.

Generally, a map give a representation of a given terrain or land. It could be represented in any kind of medium like in a flat paper, by a sphere or a diorama. In making a map, the general considerations are always the information to be derived from a map, the process on how the map will be made and the media to be used.

The information to be found on a map may vary accordingly. Some maps may show the world as a whole, a particular country or a city with basic information on road and highways and waterways and may even include famous landmarks. Some maps may have themes like showing a city with its sewerage system or may show icons indicating a local town’s famous product like, for example, in a thematic map showing America, the State of Idaho would be shown with an icon of a potato indicating that potatoes are produced there. So generally, mapmakers would consider if a map would be a simple or standard one or it would be like a thematic map intended for a particular audience. More or less, a legend is usually included to say what those lines and icons represent including the scaling used.

The process to be used in making a map pertains to the processes cartographic companies use in mass producing maps. Since commercial maps are usually printed on paper, commercial maps needs to be sturdy and strong so that folding the map and moisture won’t easily subject the map to wear and tear. Advances in lithographic and photochemical processes have made possible current commercial maps to be of stronger constitution and at the same time gives them higher profit margins as it also allowed them to churn up maps in shorter amount of time.

With the onset of mobile phones and the Internet, maps now are downloadable and appear in electronic form. The electronic form usually is more detailed than the paper version. Because the electronic form is paperless and can allow showing more details, it can show buildings, restaurants and even alley ways, things that would never be seen in a Mercator Projection or any traditional map.

Cartography or mapmaking is one of those industries that are both art and science. Almost everyone uses a map from students to tourists to generals and admirals. The landscape is always changing and so need for update in maps is a constant endeavor. Although, it may look like pictures to those who look at it, mapmaking is as a complicated and an exact science to those who make it, as knowledge in surveying methods is a necessary skill that needs to be learned by aspiring cartographers.

Study Cellular and Molecular Biology

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Scientists who examine biological functions, characteristics and changes at a microscopic level are experts in the cellular and molecular biological field. This course of study examines cells, molecules and other particles in order to: observe their functions; define their genetic codes; track biological changes and understand various cellular and molecular systems. It is only concerned with biological or living systems.
Cellular and molecular biology is a course of study that requires a significant background of scientific knowledge and training. It is a course not typically available anywhere aside from a post-secondary educational school. Therefore, interested individuals will need to attend a college, university, technical school or acclaimed science institute for this study. Some medical schools also offer courses in this field. Any cellular and molecular biology course will also require laboratory experience, an internship or work experience. There are also some online courses available to students not seeking a traditional post-secondary educational experience.
Cellular and molecular biology is often offered as a single course of study or college major, but there are some exceptions. In cases where the unified course is not available, candidates will still be capable of taking a double course of study or double major in molecular biology and cellular biology.
Skills, Qualifications, and Prerequisites for Studies in Cellular and Molecular Biology
Due to the fact that almost all courses in cellular and molecular biology will be at higher education levels, applicants must meet the admission requirements outlined by their school of choice. The basic requirements of most institutions include the acquirement of a secondary school completion certificate, along with a passing score on a standardized aptitude test or entrance exam.
Students should already show a heightened interest and aptitude in the maths and sciences prior to study, as this course reaches advanced levels in both subjects. Dedication is key, as the course typically requires at least four years of focused study.
Other key skills a future cellular and molecular biologists include:
  • Close attention to detail and patience.
  • Great communication and team-working skills.
  • Passion for learning.
  • Developed problem-solving skills.
Skills and Qualifications Acquired from Studies in Cellular and Molecular Biology
A competent course in cellular and molecular biology will provide individuals with skills in the following areas:
  • Advanced chemistry and biochemistry.
  • Types of cells, cellular structure and characteristics of cells.
  • Advanced genetics study (chromosomes, etc.)
  • Composition and functions of genetic material (DNA, etc.).
  • Tools and techniques in molecular study (cloning etc.)
  • Tools and techniques in cellular study (microscopic, etc.).
  • Biological technology.
  • Laboratory regulations, safety procedures and ethical standards.
Careers for Studies in Cellular and Molecular Biology
A large percentage of cellular and molecular biologists enter the field of medical research. Here, they study diseases, genetic disorders and medical treatments at a cellular or molecular level in order to produce vaccines and antibiotics. Others work alongside doctors and other physicians to diagnosis individual patient disease or consult families with genetic disease.
Some graduates work for environmental programs, solving environmental contamination or other issues. It is also possible for these scientists to develop new products for manufacturing companies, oil corporations, government agencies or in food production. Still others return to school as secondary school teachers or professors.

Study Chemical Biology

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Biology is a natural science which deals with the study of life and living organisms. When you pair it with the term chemical as in chemical biology, it becomes as a branch of life science concerned with the study and manipulation of so-called biological systems by applying chemical tools and techniques. The State University of New Jersey says that as a study, chemical biology examines how chemicals interact with biological systems, especially of the human body. According to the Harvard University’s Harvard Integrated Life Sciences (HILS), as a program of study, it focuses on biology which is distinguished from traditional chemistry as it uses chemical tools. Biological chemistry or biochemistry is different because it refers to the study of life processes at the molecular level with the application of chemical techniques.

As a program of study, chemical biology is offered in various institutions of higher learning. The University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States, offers this program under the Department of Chemistry with courses leading to the graduate and undergraduate degrees. The program covers the fundamental chemical principles governing biological systems, and is composed of synthesis, measurement, and theory of biological molecules. Among the courses are Biological Catalysis, Bio-molecular Structure and Function, Chemical Genetics, Chemical Imaging and Sensors, Metallo-Biochemistry, Nanobiology, and Biochemistry training in chemistry-biology interface. The University of Oxford in South East England, offers research programs for Doctor of Philosophy and Master of Science degrees in chemical biology based on the concept of applying chemical principles and techniques in order to understand biology, or using this natural science to solve problems in chemistry. The research areas which students can conduct their study include fundamental studies of Protein Function, Protein Structure and Dynamics, Protein Engineering, Chemical Genetics, Chemical Synthesis, Single-Molecule Approaches, Biotechnology, and Applications in Medicine. The Pennsylvania State University operates the Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences, offering also graduate research program in chemical biology to equip students with the appropriate approaches through experiments and theory in the development of chemical tools in order to understand biological processes. With its concept of chemical biology centering on the scientific discipline at the crossroad of the physical sciences and the life sciences, the program presents research areas that include cellular responses to Chemical Stress, Drug Discovery, Enzyme and Receptor Chemistry, Proteomics, Chemical Synthesis, and Structural Biology.

The University College London has established a UCL Center for Chemical Biology to provide academic and technical support to biomedical sciences in the United Kingdom, with proposals to develop an integrative center for chemists and biologists alike, who are working on certain problems that need chemical biology. The Chemical Biology Consortium Sweden, a government-funded agency, provides resources for academic researchers throughout Sweden, and provides expertise for the development of written materials related to chemistry-biology interface.

Study Chemical Ecology

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Study Chemical Physics

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Study Chemistry

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Have you ever wondered what goes on inside a stick of dynamite before it explodes? Or how the body breaks down food and metabolizes it so that we can use it? These are the sort of phenomena studied by Chemists. Chemistry is a broad discipline examines the properties and characteristics of chemical substances, and applies knowledge of such substances in practical fields ranging from engineering to medicine. The 1st chemists were the ancient metallurgists of Greece and Egypt, who used something like the modern scientific method to find ways of improving the medals they worked with, and making them more useful.
Personal Qualities
  • A strong scientific mind: ability to think problems out systematically, come up with a hypothesis, and find ways to test that hypothesis
  • Diligence, patience, and conscientiousness – you will need to be very careful when working as a chemist!
  • Fascination with matter and materials
  • Willingness to spend long hours in the laboratory doing painstaking work without getting too bored
Study Options

Because it is the field that bridges the gap between physics and other sciences such as biology and geology, chemistry is known as the “central science.” Areas of study within chemistry range from the very small scale to the very large scale, and often cover the overlap between chemistry and at least one other science. Examples include biochemistry, which examine the chemical reactions that go on inside the bodies of living organisms, and geochemistry, which is the study of the chemistry of our planet. In addition, some knowledge of chemistry will be essential to a course of study in other sciences, such as engineering, physics, and biology.
Career Options

Careers for students of chemistry fHimall along a spectrum: at one end are highly theoretical and academic jobs, such as teaching chemistry or working in a laboratory; at the other end are applied fields in a number of industries. Chemists are an integral part of the design and manufacturing process in numerous sectors, such as cosmetics, food and nutritional supplements, and of course pharmaceuticals. Positions at the applied end of the spectrum tend to be more lucrative, but people who are genuinely fascinated by chemistry itself often find them unsatisfying, because they are not free to study and think about whenever they want.

Study Climate, Energy and Environmental Risk

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Study Climatology

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Study Clínical Biopathology

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Study Clínical Biotechnology

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Study Clinical Laboratory Sciences

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Are you a high school or university student currently exploring some of the degree and career options in the Clinical Laboratory Sciences?  Do you have questions regarding the details of this degree program and the types of career positions for which your studies will prepare you?  If so, you may find the following information quite useful.

 Clinical Laboratory Science, also known as medical technology, is rapidly becoming a very popular degree option among college and university students.  This bachelor degree involves elements of both biology and chemistry, with classes that help prepare students for exciting and rewarding professional careers in places such as hospital laboratories, veterinary clinics, forensic labs and labs dedicated to industrial research and molecular biotechnology.  Qualified graduates in this field are in extremely high demand and the growth potential for those with a Clinical Laboratory Sciences degree is virtually unlimited, providing employees solid job security for the foreseeable future.

The majority of students who graduate with a Bachelor’s of Science degree in Clinical Laboratory Science will go on to take the national certification examination.  Those who earn a passing score on this battery will be awarded the title of Medical Laboratory Scientist or MLS.

Careers in the Clinical Laboratory Sciences

After earning the title of MLS, graduates have an unlimited number of career options available to them, including employment in a hospital or other type of medical laboratory—the path taken by nearly 70 percent of graduates.  Commonly referred to as “disease detectors,” the work performed by medical laboratory specialists is an invaluable part of the medical process.  When working in a hospital laboratory setting, employees are responsible for analyzing blood, urine, tissue and other body fluids.  These tests, which help pinpoint the cause of patient complaints, are invaluable to medical doctors, allowing them to detect illnesses and diseases, make the proper diagnosis and recommend an appropriate course of treatment.

Many medical laboratory specialists opt for employment in the various specialty areas of laboratory medicine; fields that include hematology, pathology, clinical chemistry, clinical immunology, transfusion services, clinical microbiology and the budding filed of molecular diagnostics.  These fields have all evolved rapidly in the past several years, and with the manifestation and adoption of complex analytical tools, the Clinical Laboratory Science specialist must now make educated decisions regarding the soundness of data—data that will be utilized by doctors when making medical diagnoses and decisions.  Today the laboratory specialist must be well-versed in both normal and abnormal physiology, the connection between data and specific diseases and the instrumentation used to analyze the data.

A career as a medical laboratory scientist offers a number of advantages, including:
  • An ever-growing number of employment opportunities (voted by the Wall Street Journal as one of the top 20 careers in the U.S. and the third-best career in the medical field).
  • High demand—in the United States there is currently a 12 percent vacancy rate for medical laboratory scientists.
  • Rapid advancement within the field.
  • Excellent compensation, with six-figure salaries for those at the top of their field.
Because of the high demand for medical laboratory specialists, most major colleges and universities, including many foreign universities which offer study abroad programs for interested students, now offer a bachelor degree program in the Clinical Laboratory Sciences.  Most graduates with this degree tend to find gainful employment within six-months after graduation, and many are recruited for career positions while still earning their CLS degree.

Study Comparative Politics

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Study Computational Biology

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Study Computational Mathematical Sciences

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The term computational mathematics is used to describe the application of computer methods while simulating mathematical models that arise in a wide range of fields; these include engineering, science, medicine, weather forecasting, business and finance. This discipline is perceived to be a revolutionary one, because until recently models and corresponding software were mainly developed by engineers, scientists and researchers with expertise in the practical side of things. However, the use of computers has grown to such extend, and the models complexity has increased so much that the demand for specialists, who understand well the theoretical issues in computational mathematics has significantly risen.

If you get involved in computational mathematics, you would learn about the use of mathematical ideas and analysis in problems in the social or management sciences. You would definitely need to gain a core of mathematics basic to all the mathematical sciences as well as learn how to apply the concepts and techniques of automatic computation, optimal decision making, probabilistic modeling, statistical inference, etc.

Personal Qualities

The discipline is a complex one, and an aptitude for both mathematics and sciences would apply if you decide to embark on such a degree. Further qualities include:

  • Excellent programming and computer skills
  • Able to research and carry out the following analysis
  • Good problem-solving skills
  • Excellent communication skills
  • Able to concentrate well and work both independently and as a part of a team

Study Options

Computational Mathematical Science is an interdisciplinary degree, which can be found in a number of universities at the undergraduate level. Regardless of the institution you choose, the degree is most likely to integrate the faculty and courses of the departments of Computer Science, Mathematics, Management Science and Engineering, and Statistics. In any case, the program should be well-rounded in order to provide you with a broad and deep understanding of mathematical issues in the information sciences. The course truly covers a variety of topics, and expertise in a wide selection of subject disciplines is required – for this reason, it would be a good idea to check the university’s overall ranking, rather than focusing only on the rankings or performance of the departments of computer science and mathematics.

Besides, this is a discipline that often suggests further study, and it would be smart of you to check what other graduates have gone into after they completed this degree. The best schools would be able to provide you with a diverse pool of graduates, who have managed to either secure a postgraduate position, or get employed by various corporations or academic institutions.

Career Options

There certainly has been an increased demand in academic institutions and industry for employees trained in mathematics and operations research. Students who complete a degree in computational mathematics would be able to find employment in a wide range of jobs, related to aerospace research or pure mathematical research. Examples of potential employers also include Goldman Sachs, Solomon Brothers, and Pacific Bell. Finally, you could decide to advance in a Ph.D. program in disciplines like Biostatistics or Computational Biology and Econometrics. Other fields of study you might wish to advance into are bioinformatics, biophysics, economics, engineering, medicine, statistics, and even law.

Study Computational Methods

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Computation is an act of computing or calculating with the use of computers. Thus when you say computational methods, you are referring to a set of methods or procedures in scientific computing. In computational linguistics, for instance, you will find that this is a linguistic research and application that involve the use of computation or computers, with methods that include new programs or methods of computational analysis that may facilitate the interpretation of obtained data.

The birth of computers has given rise to programs of study on computational methods in various educational institutions. These are mostly offered under their departments for engineering, economics, finance, or statistics. The University of Leicester in the United Kingdom offers a postgraduate diploma program in Advanced Computational Methods for one or 16 months, focusing on the design, analysis and engineering of algorithms or the step-by-step procedures for solving or modeling real problems. The core courses of the program include algorithms for bioinformatics, programming and advanced algorithm design, game theory in computer science, personal and group skills, discrete event systems, and networking and distributed computing. In Norway, the Norwegian University of Science and Technology offers a doctoral degree program for computational methods specific to structural dynamics under the Department of Structural Engineering. A part of the program content includes a description and modeling of the structures’ dynamic properties, analysis of vibrations, the methods for the calculation of dynamic response, and dynamic stability.

A module on Advanced Computational Methods is offered by the School of Engineering Sciences of the University of Southampton in the United Kingdom for students with a good understanding of modern high-performance computing, who want to be familiarized with high-performance computing techniques, and who want to know how high performance can be achieved on modern computer architecture. After completion of the module, students are expected to understand software development processes, the so-called parallel programming, writing parallel algorithms, with the use of industry-standard programming, and different methods of computation in relation to parallel programs.

The other programs on computing include a graduate level program in Computational Biology under the Center for Computational Biology in the University of California in Berkeley, which concentrates on molecular and cell biology, concepts in computing with data, and statistical computing, along with other courses, a Master’s degree program in Financial Software Engineering, under the Department of Computational Finance and Economic Agents of the University of Essex, also in the United Kingdom, that enables students to attain a high level of competence in software development, and a program for Computational Methods for Commodities in the Department of Economics, Mathematics and Statistics of the Birkbeck University of London. The course helps students acquire a critical understanding of the results of scientific researches, and a thorough review of recent developments in commodities modeling with the needed methods of computation.

Study Computer Science

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What Is Computer Science?

Computer Science is a universal field of study and employment that has reached its zenith in the economies of numerous countries across the world. Computer Sciences (in its numerous sub-categories) have become the driving forces of various economies, and knowledge of this subject is a helpful addition to your roster of knowledge. A person with a computer science degree is usually employed to be a part of developmental researches and work for the improvement of various sectors
Qualifications Required / Acquired

To be able to pursue computer science at a university, an applicant will need to have a good grip on the subject of mathematics and physics, capable of applying logic and must have a functional knowledge of basic computer languages like C. There are multiple computer science educational packages offered, and you can choose the boundaries of your knowledge of the subject by taking a one year diploma course that will make you proficient in any particular computer language like C, C++ or Java script, or in other program writing and designing. You could also choose to expand your horizons by opting for a 2 or 3 year courses where you will get to dapple in all the fields of computer science.

Personal Qualities to Study This Course

If you are a person who sticks to the book, then this may not be a satisfying job for you. Computer Science calls for innovation and creativity, the ability to conceive ideas for progress and use available resources to create something new. You must be tuned to the needs of the world and possess basic knowledge of various events that affect common and esoteric lives so that you can spot and work on areas of development.

Career Opportunities

As mentioned earlier, computer science is a subject that will fetch you a job in literally any country across the world as the applications of the subject are far reaching. The work of a computer science professional can be broadly divided into three categories:
  1. Designing and building software to meet the requirements of your workplace. This could be writing programs to facilitate web up linking, create in office work logs, facilitate the calculation or storage of information at a research centre, and a plethora of other demands. This is the band where most jobs lie, and depending on the capability of the employee, pay packages can vary from basic to atrociously high.
  2. Finding efficient ways of solving computer problems like overcoming road blocks that hinder storage of information, improving the security walls around databases and the like. Job opportunities in this application, too, are pretty wide spread.
  3. In sectors like computer vision, digital forensics and robotics, computer engineers are required to help develop better ways of making things work. To be a part of such ambitious and futuristic projects, you will need to e a the top of your class in terms of being able to tweak your knowledge base to create new methods of using the technology at hand.

Study Condensed Material Physics

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Study Conservation

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Study Criminology

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If you were thrilled reading Agatha Christie’s, Ellery Queen’s (pseudonym of two American writers: Frederic Dannay and Manfred Lee), Arthur Conan Doyle’s, Wilkie Collins’ breath taking stories, you are a potential learner of Criminology, the scientific study of criminals and criminal behavior. If you were engrossed to the intertwining events that puzzles you up to the end, it is no wonder that you would be absorbed more when you are in Simon Fraser University School of Criminology, or at the Institute of Criminology at the University of Cambridge, UK, or at the California State University, Department of Criminology, or some other universities around the world offering the Criminology Program or Bachelor of Science in Criminology.

You would be a full time student acquiring the skills of solving the intrigues that surround the subject matter. In school, you study thoroughly the Development of Criminology with three phases under it: classical criminology; modern criminology; and the independent criminology. You study more about the objectives of Criminology; the Biological Theories of Crime where two phases come under it – the Genetic Factors, and the Neurological Abnormalities.

In school, you were taught the Psychological Theories of Crime that has: 1. Moral development theories; 2. Social learning theories; and 3. Personality theories. Near the later part of the course you learn about the Environmental and Social Theories of Crime that discuss the social causes, and the economic causes. Under the first cause are the study of Social-structural theories, and the Subcultural theories. In the last part of the study, the learner would know the Theories of Criminal Opportunity.

In school of criminology where more than one branch of learning is concerned, the student strides into the realm of sociology, the social anthropology, and the books of law. The student continues researches on subjects such as: incidence; forms, reasons and effects of crime, the social and administrative rules, and the response to the offense. There are disciplines (branches of knowledge) that are covered by Criminology: psychology and sociology; design and systems analysis; and decision theory. Inasmuch as criminology is experiential and theoretical subject, it progresses in the environment of additional learning of social sciences.

There are areas of learning in criminology such as: prevention of crime; crime statistics; criminal behavior; criminal careers and desistance; family cruelty; assessment of criminal justice agencies; apprehension of crime; survey of victims of international crime; criminal behavior of youths; prison and punishment management (penology); and sociology of law. In the outcome the student would acquire BS in Criminology or BS in Criminology and Criminal Justice.

Some of the schools in criminology are the Regis University’s Bachelor of Science in Criminology; Eastern Michigan University; Drury University; University of Maryland; University of Cincinnati; Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey; University of California; University of Missouri; and universities in every state in the U.S. Many criminology schools are found around the world: in Asia, Africa, and in Europe where students could take the course.

After the studies, the graduate can pursue different career opportunities such as: youth counseling therapy; drug or alcohol abuse counseling; law enforcement; criminal investigation; imprisonment as corrective measure and release. He can also work in work in public defender’s office; police departments; juvenile court; coordinator on crime prevention; law reform researcher; consumer advocate; crime intelligence analyst; community corrections coordinator; police officer; advisor on drug policy; analyst on environment protection; and criminologist consultant. Some related jobs are: security guards; private investigators and detectives; and investigation officers. The wide career spectrum fleetingly engages graduates in Criminology for a much brighter outlook.

Study Crop Science

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Crop Science is the course of study that seeks to ascertain what manner plants spring up, flourish, prosper and thrive; propagate, struggle against different kinds of plant diseases and insect pests; how they interrelate and concur with the forces of nature and the environment.

It is where in Crop Science the student learns how to use the technique of biological, chemical and the principles of plants for yield enhancement. The discipline teaches the methodology of transforming light to make it as generative force for food, supply, or related economic good, for example flowering plants. It is in school that provides him the whole knowledge of crop science. He learns to carry out research and make tests and trial runs to achieve what aims he has toward the discipline. The aim is the end result for management of crops and the ultimate goal: successful produce.

The student has career areas to engage with, and these are some of them: Production of horticultural crops; Promoting and selling the produce; Agronomy; Selling chemicals for farming; and Plant breeding. Standard modules are taken by students of the course. In the first year, the student has the theory of crop science, which includes biochemistry, plant biology, genetics, and entomology. Whereas agriculture and food industries have close harmonic relations with the commercial application of biology, crop science course straightened the attachment.

The next two years that follows shift the subject from theory of crop science to employment and application. Investigations and inquiries into the system of design were conducted to prepare for the start of some research projects being carried on by the biosciences (anatomy, biochemistry, biology, ecology, genetics, microbiology, molecular biology, physiology, and zoology).

In the region of agroecology (study of the relation between agriculture and the environment), biotechnology (use of biological processes in industrial production), field crops, administration of business and application of the principles of economics, there are extensive line up of modules to be used. As it were explained visibly in school that crop science is engaged with crop production, despite this, the protection of the wide portion of the ecosystem and the support and handling of the recreational environment were not neglected.

At the end of the study, the student should have a deep knowledge of the principle and practical facet of the course. He can translate into concrete form the analysis, presentation, study and communication for practical use. He can be an M.S. in Crop Science, or a Ph.D. in Crop Science, or Agronomy and Crop Science Degree holder depending on the level of learning he has chosen.

Schools for Crop Science degree course are available in universities and colleges around the world. Some of them are: University of Vermont Agronomy and Crop Science, Burlington Colleges, California Polytechnic State University, Iowa State University, Mississippi State University, Missouri State University, New Mexico State University, North Carolina A & T State University, North Carolina State University at Raleigh, North Dakota State University, Northwest Missouri, State University, Ohio State University, Oklahoma Panhandle State University, Oregon State University, Pennsylvania State University, Purdue University, and many more in the U.S.

There are some top universities around the world that offer the degree Crop Science, such as the University of London; University of Nottingham; University of Georgia; University of Edinburgh; in Southeast Asia are: West Visayas State University; and UP Los Baños Laguna, Philippines.

Career in Crop Science degree is extremely wide: Agribusiness, Education, International Agriculture, Production, Public Service, Research, Agricultural Consulting, Farm Management, Fertilizer or Chemical Sales, Private Enterprise, Agricultural Advisor, Industrial Representative, Commodity Inspector, Land Use Planner, Researcher in Universities and Industrial Businesses, and many more.

Study Crystallography

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Study Cultural Anthropology

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Study Cuneiform Studies

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Cuneiform Studies is a graduate degree that tenders a gratifying higher level course of learning in the languages, culture, and history of old Iraq and adjoining regions. It is the learning where a student acquires the knowledge of the method and material of writing thousands of years B.C. which was probably invented by the Sumerians (people that created the non-Semitic element in the civilization of Babylonia).

The Sumerian language was formerly co-ordinated with Akkadian (inventors of the pictorial hieroglyphics which was afterwards developed into the cuneiform system of writing) as a related dialect, but the later applied to Semitic Babylonian. Cuneiform Studies as it is being taught in different schools in the U.S. and other countries around the world, conveys the Akkadian language as the international communication for diplomatic correspondence in the regions of Iraq, Syria and Asia Minor.

The cuneiform of writing has more 600 signs that is a mixture of logograms (sign or character representing a word) and syllables (minute details of language or statement). The student learns that the earliest writers of cuneiform are the people of Mesopotamia who now live in a part of the present-day Iraq. The student earns in school degrees in Cuneiform Studies such as Master of Philosophy (M.Phil.) and Bachelor of Arts (B.A./A.B.). The degrees are on the study of advance research of two of the oldest civilizations in the world that focus on the body of words and of methods of combination of words used by the nation, its people, and race (languages); and type of intellectual development, the civilization, customs, artistic achievements of the people, particularly at a certain point of development or history (culture).

The Master of Philosophy in Cuneiform Studies is taught for two years as graduate course. The Master of Philosophy and the Bachelor of Arts degrees are distinctive regions of study that focus on research. Both prepare the students for doctoral research in their selected sphere. The areas of specialization are: Cuneiform Studies (including Assyriology, Hittitology, and Sumerology); Classical Hebrew Language and Civilization; Egyptian Languages and Civilization; Islamic and Modern Middle Eastern Studies (including Arabic, Armenian, Modern Hebrew, Persian, Turkish, and Uzbek); and Near Eastern Judaica.

The student starts with academic works, lectures, seminars, and tutorials. Classes are given on Akkadian grammar and cuneiform handwriting, some particular Laws of Hammurabi, Descent of Ishtar to the Netherworld, Assyrian Royal Annals, and the Flood Story in the Epic of Gilgamesh. In the later part of the study, the student develops skills in unprepared translations, and rigorous study of Sumerian grammar. Lectures and seminars in expansive scope of subjects such as literary, culture, and history are given to students, after which thesis is granted on the final year of the course.

Schools where the student can choose his studies are: University of Michigan, Chicago University, Florida State University, University of Groningen, University of Pennsylvania, University of London, Cumhuriyet University School of Medicine, Turkey; Divinity School Vanderbilt University, Tenn.; University of California; Oxford University; Yale University; University of Michigan; University of Minnesota; University of New York; Leiden University; Cambridge University; University of Arizona; University of North Carolina; University of Connecticut; Yeshiva University; University of Queensland; Mosul University; University of Texas; and the University of Helsinki.

After studies of cuneiform, the student can pursue the career in schools, museums, libraries, and in private and government institutions as writers, and researchers, among others.

Study Demography

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Demography is the study that involves two or more different areas of knowledge regarding people or inhabitants occupying a specific geographical locality such as institution, or country. Students of Demography learn the typical social character of the populace and their progression through the scope of time. Demographic factual information is: 1. examination of the inhabitants based on parentage, physical condition, ethnicity, age, occupation and civil position, giving the size and density of each composite part; 2. adjustment in the number of residents due to births, weddings, and fatalities; 3. Data on migrations, the consequence and the relative effect to the economic aspect and situation; 4. collection of quantitative data on lawlessness and offenses; children born out of wedlock, and taking one’s own life; 5. Economic and social data, particularly that relates to insurance.

Students in Demography learn in school data gathering so as to be able to analyze births, deaths, wed locks, and percentage of divorces; study the movement of humans coming and going out of a country. He takes subjects on the theory of population, policy on the maintenance of good health; universal progression; and ways of researching. In school the students learn problems on universal impoverishment, effects of diseases, and laws on reproduction. Subjects include Computer Science, Mathematics, Sociology, Psychology, Sociological Principles, Economics, and History. Course works are: public health, public policy, statistics, computer applications, and social research method. Syllabus includes Anthropology & Demography; Anthropology & Epidemiology: Anthropology & Genetics; Genetics and Society; Race and Adolescent Health; Aging; Anthropology of the Body; and Ethnicity.

The students take degree courses like Ph.D. in Demography, Ph. D. in Economics and Demography, or Sociology and Demography, or Public Affairs and Demography. There are added disciplines such as anthropology, biology, geography, economics and sociology. There are programs granted to students such as the Program in Population Studies that offers Certificate in Demography, a non-degree course for those who took a four graduate course in population studies.

A student can take up Doctor’s degree in Demography and Population Studies that focuses on the learning of the reality of population explosion, and population models. Schools where students can take up the course in Demography are: University of St Andrews, a top ranked university in UK; Columbia University; Yale University; the Social Science Institute at the University of Stockholm, University of California at Berkeley; Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania; Georgetown University; Ashford University; Princeton University; Florida State University; Auckland University of Technology; University of Canterbury; Massey University; University of Waikato; and Victoria University of Wellington.

Career of a graduate in Demography has a wide scope. To be a demographer, he should have the degree in Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science or Bachelor of Social Sciences particularizing in the field of demography (statistical study of human populations), human geography (economic, social, cultural, political and historical geography), mathematics (elemental practices of counting, measuring, and describing the shapes of objects), economics (production, distribution, and consumption of wealth), or statistics (collecting, analyzing, presenting, and interpreting data). The graduate can practice his career in government and private agencies, in universities, colleges, foundations, independent consultant, statistical researcher, school or college teacher, researcher, HR Advisor, Library Assistant, and many others.

Study Earth & Space Exploration

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Are you looking to study in a field that could open up countless numbers of career opportunities in the fields of space and/or earth exploration?  Have you considered pursuing a Bachelor of Science degree in Earth and Space Exploration—a degree seen as the first step towards entering into and flourishing in one of these exciting careers? If so, the following information may be quite useful.  Below we will discuss some of the specifics of the Bachelor of Science Degree in Earth and Space Exploration, and introduce you to a number of occupations currently open to qualified graduates.
The Bachelor of Science Degree in Earth and Space Exploration
Students pursuing a Bachelor of Science degree in Earth and Space Exploration can choose between four main concentrations:  Geological Sciences, Astrophysics, Astrobiology and Systems Design, each of which strongly emphasizes the integration of engineering and science.  For students, the program, which spans roughly four years or eight full semesters, is seen as fantastic preparation for graduate and doctoral programs in the physical sciences, as well as in a variety of engineering disciplines.
Incorporating essential quantitative preparation and a learning community that includes both engineering and science students, the Bachelor of Science Degree in Earth and Space Exploration aims to promote a new generation of explorers who are part scientist and part engineer.  The course of study, which culminates with a collaborative senior exploration project, will prepare students to identify basic science questions—questions that can ultimately lead to great discoveries—and design instrumentation that will allow them to answer and solve these queries from a learned perspective.
The coursework for the program will naturally consist of several hours of study in fields such as chemistry, mathematics, and physics, but also in disciplines such as the geosciences, astrophysics and exploration engineering.  Other courses included the program collectively endeavor to ready students for strategic roles in space research and industry; environmental and geologic engineering; earth resources and exploration; and water and environmental use policy.  These courses may include:
  • Introduction to Exploration
  • Earth, Solar System and the Universe
  • Engineering Systems
  • Concepts of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering and Design
  • Intro to Planetary and Stellar Astronomy
  • Essentials of Astrobiology
  • Mineralogy
  • Petrol ogy
  • Geophysics and Geochemistry
  • And many more…
Careers in Earth and Space Exploration
The number of potential careers available for those with an Earth and Space Exploration degree is virtually limitless. Due to the profitability of the field, an estimated one quarter of all graduates will go on to work in the petroleum industry, with opportunities throughout the globe.  Others will accept a variety of scientific and engineering positions, including:
  • Rocket Scientist.  Experts who design rockets have strong backgrounds in fields related to Earth and Space Exploration, including physics, astronomy and aeronautical engineering.
  • Astronauts.  When you hear the words “space exploration” you no doubt think of astronauts.  However, few people with this degree will actually leave the ground.  A Bachelor of Science degree in Earth and Space Exploration will allow you to be involved with experiment apparatus and orbiting systems, and prepare you to host public events and public speaking forums regarding space exploration.
  • Geologist.  Geologists study everything earth-based, so it only stands to reason that individuals with an Earth and Space Exploration Degree are highly sought for these types of positions.
  • Astrophysicist.  An employment opportunity in astrophysics demands a deep knowledge of the physical properties of the universe, including its density, luminosity, temperature and chemical composition. Astrophysicists collect, analyze and interpret enormous volumes of complicated data and consistently formulate educated theories based on those interpretations, which ultimately permits the science as it relates to these subjects evolve.
Careers for those who have earned either an undergraduate or graduate degree in Earth and Space Exploration are currently in very high demand with unlimited growth potential in the foreseeable future.  Due to their complexity, the collective careers in this industry offer superior compensation, with six-figure salaries common for those at the top of their field.

Study Earth Sciences

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Earth sciences, as suggested by the name, deal with the scientific study of the planet Earth. This discipline comprises all sciences examining the Earth – physics, chemistry, biology, geology, geography, meteorology, and mathematics. The Earth sciences ‘divide’ the Earth into four spheres of study: the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, the biosphere, and the lithosphere; these correspond to air, water, life, and rocks. People dealing with Earth sciences are able to make some crucial discoveries. Examples of important facts about the makeup of our planet include the chemical composition of air (nitrogen, oxygen, etc.), as well as the planet’s diameter and mass. Earth scientists have also estimated the path of the Earth around the sun as well as what it means for seasonal variations in temperature and weather.

Furthermore, earth scientists constantly study the relationship between the biosphere (all the Earth’s life) and the rest of the planet – for instance, plants convert carbon dioxide (concerning the atmosphere) into oxygen, while animals do the opposite. The photosynthesis is an important process, allowing human beings to exist on this planet, and it is one of the factors earth scientists examine. Finally, one of the most significant findings of Earth science was in the 1950s, when it was proved that the continents actually are large rock plates, floating on a liquid mantle underneath.

Personal Qualities

To be involved in Earth sciences, you will most likely need to have an aptitude for sciences and an explorative nature. Here are some other skills and qualities you might wish to consider:

  • Enjoy research
  • Able to work with accuracy, attention to detail, and prepare error-free records and reports
  • Interested in examining rocks, fossils, minerals, and basically all components of the Earth
  • Willing to work outside and travel to remote locations
  • An excellent team player
  • Physically fit

Study Options

Because Earth sciences include so many disciplines in them, it can be guessed that a degree in this discipline would be a very broad liberal arts major, which can prepare you for a wide range of career options. It is not uncommon that students decide to give a better direction early on in their education by combining Earth Sciences with other disciplines like mathematics, industrial technology, computer science, anthropology, geography, biology, chemistry, and other related areas.

Furthermore, this is the kind of subject that you would need to have extensive practical experience in, for which reason the institution you choose should be able to offer excellent opportunities for research, getting in touch with top professionals in the field, and a lot of on-hands experience. Not surprisingly, the discipline also suggests that many students decide to do a postgraduate degree or a Ph.D. in a more specific field of their choice. In any case, all disciplines involving sciences and research can be highly demanding, and it would be best for you to look for a number of sources from which you can learn – school classes, seminars, specialized magazines, and any related internships (both paid or unpaid).

Career Options

Career Options for Earth sciences graduates are very wide, and their career path would mostly depend on their eagerness and preferences. Earth scientists are often employed by large companies and organizations in the exploration and construction fields. There is also the possibility to look for a job in smaller organizations in the environmental field. If you decide to specialize, here are some job roles you might wish to consider: Atmospheric scientist – you would be studying weather processes, the global dynamics of climate, solar radiation and its effects, and the role of atmospheric chemistry in ozone depletion, climate change, and pollution; Economic geologist – you would be exploring and developing metallic and nonmetallic resources, and you would study mineral deposits and find environmentally safe ways to dispose of waste materials from mining activities; Engineering geologist – you would apply geological data, techniques, and principles to the study of rock and soil as well as ground water; you would be responsible to investigate geologic factors that affect structures such as bridges, buildings, airports, and dams. As a final point, with a degree in Earth sciences you can even work for NASA, teach at a university, or write articles for magazines like National Geographic.

Study Ecology

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Ecology in the area of study that looks at populations of plants and animals and the interactions within and between those populations Of all the biological sciences, is perhaps the one that operates on the largest scale, observing trends over large areas of space and time, and in some cases encompassing the entire world as an object of study. In this sense, is the opposite of cell biology and biochemistry, which examine life at the smallest scale. Topics within ecology include evolutionary biology and competition, animal social behaviors, plant and animal reproduction, and environmental studies.
Like many of its related disciplines–of which the most famous is environmental science–ecology combines pure science with current political controversies, activism, and advocacy. The ecology often feel passionately about the need to preserve natural ecosystems and protect the earth. In this way, their study of ecological science is informed and complemented by a desire for passionate engagement with nature.
Personal Qualities
  • Genuine passion for nature, especially plants and animals
  • Love of working in the outdoors
  • Desire to help promote conservation and respect for the natural world
  • Physical fitness (for some careers)
Study Options
Any course of study in ecology will necessarily include a significant amount of coursework in biology, but beyond that the study options in this area are fairly broad. Some programs will focus more keenly on the scientific aspects of ecology–preparing students for a career in research and teaching–while other programs are more geared toward getting the students out into the field as conservation experts, park rangers, and policymakers. In addition, ecology is often seen as one branch of the interdisciplinary field of environmental studies, which may affect the required coursework.
At the graduate school level, it is often possible or even necessary to specialize in a particular subfield of ecology. Typically, this means either focusing on a specific kind of biome (such as forests, deserts, or shallow seas) or on a theme, such as evolution or the impact of human beings on ecological systems. Finally, there are some ecology programs that are geared toward specific career paths–ecology and conservation, for example, would be a perfect area of study for someone interested in becoming a ranger or tour guide in a national park.
Career Options
Ecology majors can go on to pursue careers in a wide variety of different lines of work. In broad terms, these can be separated into scientific and nonscientific categories. The 1st category is for people who want to become professional biologists specializing in ecology and biological phenomena at the scale of populations. These careers will require many years of schooling beyond the college level, and the on-the-job experience is usually composed of some combination of research and teaching.
Nonscientific careers in ecology, on the other hand, do not involve original research and can usually be pursued without an advanced degree. Some of the most popular options in this category include Park Ranger, private naturalist, and nature writer/photographer.

Study Econometrics

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Econometrics is a very challenging discipline, which combines the study of economics with mathematics to analyze information; mathematical models are employed to explore various scenarios and theoretical situations.

Econometrics is used in a great number of situations, and for example banks and governments adopt econometric models to help them make changes in interest rates or wages. With this in mind, an econometrician could help the government with monetary policies, taxation, expenditure, budget controls, and give predictions on how these would affect the economy in the future. Econometricians can also provide management with various analysis and forecasts, or study issues like the effect of industrial disputes on the economy.

Personal Qualities

A natural feel for mathematics and economics is a good personal attribute that can help you with such a degree. A further list of qualities includes:

  • Logical and analytical thought
  • Ability to carry out research and present results in a clear and concise way
  • Good at statistics analysis
  • Convey ideas to different audiences

Study Options

If you wish to become an econometrician or an economist, you should definitely gain a bachelor’s degree, together with some research experience and an internship, and possibly explore options for a post-graduate degree as well.

Subjects you should focus on in high school are mathematics, statistics, and economics, as both undergraduate and postgraduate degree options would be looking for high performance in these areas. You could also consider undertaking a degree in economics or business, with a focus on econometrics. If you are physicist or an engineer, your skills are also easily transferrable to a study program in econometrics and related fields.

Career Options

Econometricians who have just graduated often start their careers as junior analysts or statisticians, as for these jobs they would need to apply the same forecasting, regression analysis, and stochastic tools.

The demand for econometricians in financial firms is constantly on the rise, because these companies aim at building stronger credit and risk-management programs, for which job they require quantitative analysts. There are the more traditional jobs of forecasting prices of financial assets, too, which are open to entry-level candidates.

As discussed earlier, you could also be hired to work in government, where forecasts and historical data provided by such professionals support future decisions on minimum wage levels, interest rates, and so on. Furthermore, governments and government agencies often target economic students who want to be involved in econometrics and forecasting, which means you could start researching such opportunities early in your career, or even do a summer internship.

Finally, if you decide to go further with your education and earn a PhD, academia and consulting are career options you might wish to pursue.

Study Ecosystem Science and Policy

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Study Electromagnetics

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Study Electrometallurgy

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Study Electronic Science

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Are you a college or university-level student who has always been fascinated by and/or curious about how certain products operate and are built, especially electronic-based products?  Have you considered pursuing an undergraduate degree in Electronic Science?  The Bachelor of Science degree in Electronic Science is the perfect program for the science and math-inclined and for anyone who enjoys the challenge of studying, building, troubleshooting, maintaining and repairing electronic products.  To give you an idea what this program entails, below we will briefly define the discipline and the content of the course, provide an outline of some of the more common core classes and highlight some of the requirements for admission into the program.
About Electronic Science
Electronic Science is a degree program offered at colleges and universities throughout the world, typically through the departments of physics, engineering and technology.  The discipline is a branch of science that deals directly with electrical circuits that involve active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes and integrated circuits.  Students in the program will be introduced to the behavior of these active components and their ability to control electron flow, as well as the ability for electronic devices to act as switches, thus making digital information processing possible.
Electronic Science is not to be confused with electrical and electro-mechanical science and technology, as these disciplines deal primarily with the generation, distribution, switching, storage and conversion of electrical energy to and from other energy forms using wires, motors, batteries, switches, relays, transformers, resistors and other passive components. 
The distinction between active and passive components, thus differentiating Electronic Science from Electrical Science, is thought to have started around the turn of the century, specifically in 1906 when Lee De Forest invented the triode.  This device made electrical amplification of weak radio signals and audio signals possible with a non-mechanical device.  From that point forward, until around 1950, Electronic Science was called “radio technology” because the principal application of the discipline was the design and study of radio transmitters, receivers and vacuum tubes.  Today, however, because most electronic devices use semiconductor or active components to perform electron control, the field has expanded considerably and now bears the name Electronic Science.  The reason that both the physics and engineering departments offer a degree program in Electronic Science is that the study of semiconductor devices and related technology is a branch of solid-state physics, while the design and construction of electrical circuits to solve practical problems comes under the field of electronics engineering.
Electronic Science:  Course Offerings and Eligibility Requirements
The Bachelor of Science degree program in Electronic Science is typically a four to five-year course of study.  It involves core coursework in the discipline (both theory and methodology), as well as a number of general education classes required by the college or university.  General education requirements usually include a cross-section of fine arts and humanities, including English composition; mathematics and natural science, including introductory courses in Physics and Technical Mathematics; social and behavioral science; and, in a select number of institutions, speech and physical education.  The core courses for the B.S. in Electronic Science, although their exact titles will vary from one institution to another, include:
  • Logic Circuits I and II
  • Electronic Design Software Tools
  • AC circuits
  • DC circuits
  • Troubleshooting and Repair of AC and DC Circuits
  • Introduction to Electronics
  • Electrical Devices I and II
  • Programming Logic Controllers
  • Biomedical Electronics
  • Network + Certification
  • Introduction to Photonics
  • Geometrical Optics
  • Introduction to Robotics
  • And many more…
Students who plan to enroll in the B.S. degree program in Electronic Science must possess a high school diploma or its equivalent and have a strong background in mathematics, science and technology, demonstrated by above average marks in these areas.  Many institutions will also require a passing score on an entrance examination prior to admission.

Study Energy Sciences

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Energy Sciences is a discipline bringing together a number of academic fields, and is usually a program aimed at creative young individuals who wish to make a difference in the development of various energy sources. Energy and environmental conservation are issues, crucial to the sustainable development of human beings, so an Energy Sciences program would not simply focus on the development of energy technology, but also on economics, law, agriculture, and other related disciplines. Energy scientists are usually individuals, who strive to contribute to the transition towards sustainable energy systems by carrying out research, giving consultations, and providing strategy and policy advice. Such specialists are also trained in energy systems analysis and energy modeling. They are very well-acquainted with energy economics as well as energy and climate policies. Furthermore, energy sciences are closely related to natural sciences like chemistry and physics; examples are the fields of photovoltaic cells, thermodynamics, and the production of bio-based chemicals. On the other hand, they are also linked to biology and engineering; i.e., the use of biomass as a renewable energy source and energy conversion technologies. Finally, energy sciences are closely related to earth sciences, as they explore issues like resource scarcity, geothermal energy and effects of climate change.

Personal Qualities

To be involved in energy sciences you need to be a well-rounded individual with a variety of interests and talents. An aptitude for sciences definitely is a prerequisite for following such a degree, along with some other qualities you might wish to consider:

  • Excellent written and oral communication skills
  • Very good at research
  • Creative and imaginative nature
  • Interested in innovation and development
  • Interested in technical work
  • Able to accept responsibility
  • Good at working individually and as a part of a team.

Study Options

A degree in Energy Sciences is usually offered as a master’s degree or higher. It is normally aimed at students, who have a BSc degree in natural sciences (e.g. physics or chemistry), engineering (e.g. mechanical or electrical engineering), or programs with a sufficient science or engineering component, like environmental sciences or science and innovation. When embarking on such a program, the educational format that it offers is crucial. This means that you should be looking for a good balance between theory and the opportunity to observe real life examples and develop your ideas and talent. Group work, projects, and individual assignments all should have a practical orientation. Check opportunities for research, field work, and simulation games. Finally, make sure you will be given the chance to do an internship or a placement during your studies – this will not only enhance your knowledge, but it will also greatly improve your future career prospects.

Career Options

The demand for energy sciences specialists is definitely growing, considering the fact that a lot of existing and new companies are taking up the challenge to develop new businesses in this area. Consequently, energy sciences graduates can seek employment in the private sector (e.g. Shell, Nuon, Essent, Eneco), or for consultancies. They might also continue with research at various universities, or start teaching the subject. Other opportunities are available in the public sector – for example, as a policy maker or policy advisor for a local, national or international (e.g. EU) government and as a campaigner in environmental organizations like Greenpeace and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF).

Study Entomology

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A branch of zoology which deals with the study of insects is known as entomology. Entomologists are the scientists who specialize in the field of entomology. Entomologists carry on collecting facts about insects. They work in areas namely pest control, beekeeping and insect diseases; pest control; the effects of pesticides on mammals, insects and birds, and mammals; and the teaching and classification in areas of biology such as morphology, behavior, physiology, ecology and life history.

Entomologists are primarily engrossed in how each and every kind of insect which are either harmful or beneficial to humans. They study the insects’ origin, maturity, composition, distribution and habits. They also work in various universities, as well as for private industry and government agencies. They also provide assistance to chemists developing different insecticides, livestock pests, farmers control crop and researches on various diseases caused by insects.

The insects together with their relatives like the mites, spiders and ticks play outstanding representation systems for the comprehension of the world of biology. Entomologists are studying the insects from the cellular level and reaches to their life when it comes to the ecosystem level of organization; this study comes in areas of ecology, evolution, morphology, physiology, genetics, behavior and toxicology. There is also a considerable functional element to Entomology which concentrates on imperative environmental, public health, economic collisions of insects. The major of Entomology provides the students with a foundational background in biological sciences as well as with an intensive applied entomology and insect biology study. Within the Entomology major, there are numerous opportunities for the students to take specializations in areas like systematic entomology, apiculture, acarology, pest management, toxicology and arthropod physiology.

The Entomology major provides a superb and exceptional background in the field of biological sciences for the students who desire to finish and practice a professional degree in veterinary medicine, medicine, and education. Students of Entomology regularly prefer careers as college professors or research scientists. For such careers, the students as a requirement must first obtain their Ph.D. degree. Most of the Ph.D. students, serve as teaching and research assistants as part of their initial training, and in this manner make a large part of both their educational and living expenses during their stay in graduate school. In the private sectors, a masteral degree may suffice for a position on product development or research.

Moreover, the courses of Entomology combined with the real life experiences in laboratories, fields, museums, and actual scenarios qualify the students for focused positions in public service and industry. Students who have completed a B.S. degree in Entomology usually take positions in institutional, agricultural, governmental agencies which focus on pesticides and pest control as well as with the urban pest management.

As Entomology professional the salaries ranges according to the area of interest, placement and background of the student. Students who have completed graduate degrees can anticipate earning to a large extent compared with students who have completed a bachelor’s degree. The salaries in general depend upon a range of market trend changes and economic factors.

Study Environmental Agrobiology

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Study Environmental Biology

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Environmental biology is defined as the study on how plants and animals live and interact with their environments and their relationships with each other and with the other species. It is part of environmental science that integrates such physical and biological sciences as physics, chemistry, soil science, biology, geography and geology to the study of environment. Environment biology also includes biodiversity which deals with the entire range of plants and animals in an area, conservation biology, and ecology, which examines the interrelationships between organisms and their environments.

As a course of study, environmental biology is offered under a department in many institutions of higher learning. The Columbia School of General Studies of the Columbia University in New York City has an environmental biology program offered under its Department of Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Biology, which is a consortium of New York City-based science and research institutions including the University, New York Botanical Garden, American Museum of Natural History, Wildlife Trust, and the Wildlife Conservation Society. The principal mission of the consortium is to educate new scientists and practitioners in the theory and practice of evolution, ecology and population biology, with the study also covering the evolutionary, ecological and genetic relationships among the living things on earth. The courses offered under the program include Plant and Animal Systematics, Evolutionary and Population Genetics, Demography and Population Biology, Behavior and Community Ecology, Epidemiology, Ethno-botany, Ethno-biology, Public Health and Environment Policy. The St. Mary’s University of Minnesota’s environmental biology program is suited for students who desire to enter the areas of aquatic biology, water quality management, fisheries biology, environmental toxicology, wildlife ecology, conservation biology and environmental planning. The program also prepares its graduates for careers as environment consultants, fisheries biologists, field biologists, water resources technician planners, wildlife biologists, and/or high school teachers.

The Ultrecht University in the Netherlands, which is one of the largest institutions of higher learning in Europe, offers a master’s degree program on environmental biology based on the following subject areas: (a) Introduction to Bioinformatics for Molecular Biologists, (b) Plants in their Environments, (c) Ecology and Natural Resources Management, (d) Molecular Plant Physiology and Biotechnology. (e) Extreme Climate Transitions, (f) Oceans and Climate Change, (g) Project Management Proposal, and (h) Quantifying and Interpreting Environmental Change. The University foresees career opportunities for its graduates in the government or private nature protection and restoration agencies, plant breeding and biotechnology companies, and zoos. The University of California has a newly established Center for Environmental Biology and a school of biological science that facilitate research, education and outreach in biological science, and help in the development of innovative solutions to the problems of environment.

Study Environmental Chemistry

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Study Environmental Geoscience

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Study Environmental Sciences

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Environment-related studies are a very wide subject area that generally involves the interaction between human beings and their natural environment. The array of concepts covered ranges from geology to philosophy, while one of the biggest aspects in environmental studies is the sciences – biology, chemistry, and even engineering. Other subjects incorporated into the study of the environment are economics, psychology, ethics, law, and politics, as they support the aim of students to understand why and how humans use and form a relationship with the environment.

Some real world application of the study of the environment include the research and employment of new, environmentally-friendly materials (i.e. replacing plastic bags with ones that are more easily recycled); consult companies and governments on issues like environmental ethics and sustainability plans (i.e. working with the management of a large corporation on the decision whether to build a plant in a certain area, and what measures can be taken to prevent negative environmental effects); or develop conservation plans, conduct research, run community education programs, etc.

Personal Qualities

Genuine interest in the surrounding natural environment and real commitment to environmental issues are pre-requisites for you to look for such a course. Other qualities that would help are:

  • Good presentation and communication skills. Strong persuasive skills
  • Logical thought and problem solving abilities
  • Detail-oriented
  • Patience and ability to work within a team

Study Options

Various degrees are available, the most general of which is Environmental Studies; there are also environmental science programs, environmental health specialist programs, the option to specialize in pollution, or environmental law. The choice is varied, but in all cases you should look for accreditation, a distinguished faculty, and graduate and research opportunities at the institution which you are considering. The program you are looking for should most likely be in the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, or the Faculty of Environmental Studies.

Absolutely crucial are the research opportunities that the university offers when embarking on an environmental program. If you are able to take part in current ongoing research on environmental issues, this is going to greatly enhance your knowledge and your employability. There are schools where students do play an important role in collecting data and participating in research, which would definitely add value to your university experience.

Last but not least, do consider postgraduate study, which is a common choice in a relatively young but constantly growing field like environmental sciences.

Career options

An array of opportunities is opened to those with an Environmental Studies degree or similar. Some of the most common professions are biologists, geologists, environmental engineers, environmental consultants; you could also specialize in areas like environmental law, hazardous waste control, or water resource management.

There is also the opportunity to work for the government, as there are departments who employ specialists to carry out inspections at business sites for violation of environmental guidelines, to check water quality, take soil samples, or evaluate risks of the spread of contagious diseases.

Study Environmental Studies

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Environmental Studies is a very broad academic field, examining the interactions between human beings and their surrounding natural environment. It definitely is an interdisciplinary option that encompasses a number of different concepts like geology, biology, chemistry, engineering, and even philosophy. Although there are many specializations within this area of study, here are some of the tasks that an environmental scientist can carry out in real life: plan and undertake research into the physical and biological nature of the environment; evaluate the environmental impacts of various activities; investigate and report on various violations of environmental guidelines; organize community education programs; evaluate the effects of pollution and suggest innovative measures; provide support, while also negotiating with industry and government. And finally, environmental specialists often assist in the development of policies, strategies, and codes of practice concerned with environmental management.

Personal Qualities

To be involved in environmental studies, you should have a genuine passion for environmental issues, nature preservation, and nature exploration. Further qualities are:

  • Ability and aptitude for the carrying out of research
  • Problem solving skills, combined with analytical thinking and a logical approach to various cases
  • Technical skills
  • Excellent communication skills, and sometimes very good persuasion skills
  • A team-player

Study Options

When choosing an environmental studies program, you should have in mind that most of these have a very strong science component within them, and are likely to require good academic achievements in biology, chemistry, and physics. You can easily prepare for that in high school, but what is more important is that the institution you choose also has a strong tradition in research and the sciences. The program has to give you the opportunity for hands-on experience in the field, developing analytical qualities and leadership skills that will prepare you for your future career.

The best programs offered in this area of study give students the opportunity to take part in collaborative environmental research and projects with government agencies, non-profit organizations, and local businesses. There is also the option for postgraduate study that further encourages innovation, creativity, and interdisciplinary work.

Career Options

With a degree in environmental studies, you have a wide variety of options. A challenging and exciting one could be to go into the field of environmental law, and study to become an environmental attorney. Another opportunity would be to seek to become a consultant on issues like environmental ethics and sustainability plans. A popular path many environmental studies majors also take is to work as biologists, environmental engineers, geologists, and so on. This can normally happen after completing a postgraduate program in a specific field.

Finally, a very rewarding profession can be such of an educator. This may not simply include teaching at schools or universities, but also work for resource centers and organizations, providing seminars on environmental issues. Writing about this subject is also very popular, as there are many new books covering this field coming out every year. With your writing, you can encourage the public to lead a more environmentally friendly way of life, while giving them a deeper perspective on environmental issues.

Study Environmental Toxicology

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Environmental toxicology is a multidisciplinary field within the area of toxicology, dealing with the harmful effects of various chemical, biological, and physical agents on living organisms. To further elaborate, environmental toxicologists concentrate on the study of natural and man-made pollutants and the way they influence humans, wildlife as well as whole ecosystems. Environmental toxicologists collect various types of samples (living and nonliving) from an area of interest, aiming to examine their physical and chemical composition, and therefore determine the degree of contamination. The soil, water, and air samples are also tested with the purpose to determine the source of pollution, which would give a better understanding on the health impacts on the species living there.

It is very common that a professional in this field specializes into a particular type of ecosystem, species, or pollutant. For instance, a researcher can concentrate their studies on the impact of an oil spill on marine life, and then organize results into an official report that can be reviewed by other toxicologists. Furthermore, the findings of these researchers are often used by government agencies, who use them to set new pollution control standards; non-profit conservation groups consult with environmental toxicology experts, too, as do land development companies.

Personal Qualities

Environmental toxicologists sincerely care about the environment and the preservation of human and living organisms’ life and health. Further qualities include:

  • Enjoy research and science-based work
  • Aptitude for sciences like biology and chemistry
  • Excellent analytical and problem-solving skills
  • Very good communication skills – both oral and written
  • Willing to work outside and be physically fit

Study Options

At least a bachelor’s degree is required in order for you to pursue a career in environmental toxicology. A four-year study in the disciplines of environmental science, biology, or chemistry is usually sufficient for you to become a field researcher. On the other hand, if you are aiming to design and lead independent studies, you would typically need a PhD in environmental toxicology, combined with a number of years of postdoctoral fellowship training.

You should be prepared to embark on a variety of disciplines, including molecular biology, biochemistry, environmental chemistry, geochemistry, social sciences, computer science, etc. You should also be seeking for your program to address current environmental toxicology issues, and having this in mind you might check the additional seminars and guest lecturers they have been inviting. Finally, the ability to gain on-hands experience is crucial in this field too – carefully research universities that offer plenty of such opportunities.

Career Options

As an environmental toxicologist, you would have a good variety of exciting and challenging career options. If you join an academic or non-profit institution you would most likely be involved in research – discovering new knowledge on how toxic substances produce their effects. There are many subspecialty areas in toxicology research: chemical carcinogenesis, reproductive and developmental toxicology, neurotoxicology, immunotoxicology, inhalation toxicology, risk assessment, and many others. What is important to keep in mind is that often research involves the use of lab animals, and you should be OK with that. As mentioned earlier, you could also assist government agencies or non-profit groups, helping them find the best way to analyze the severity of damage on ecosystems as well as developing the best way of cleaning it. Land development companies may also work with environmental toxicologists to make sure that construction efforts are as environmentally-friendly as possible.

Study Equine Science

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Do you dream about a career working with horses?  Would you be interested in a degree program that would help you prepare for one of these exciting and very rewarding careers?  If so, you should definitely look into the Bachelor of Science degree program in Equine Science.  To help you get started, below we have provided some basic information regarding this degree, including a brief course description, a sample of some of the coursework involved, the outcomes predicted for graduates, and the eligibility requirements for admission into the program.
Bachelor of Science in Equine Science:  Course Description
The Bachelor of Science degree in Equine Science is a four-year undergraduate program offered by most major colleges and universities throughout the world.  It is designed for students who seek a career in the equine industry, working in fields such as management; riding instruction; training and showing; breeding and reproduction; feed production and sales; sales of equestrian equipment; pharmaceuticals and health care products; and veterinary technicians.  Students learn through classroom instruction and practical hands-on experience, with an emphasis placed on the business and management aspects of the equine industry.  Curriculum deals with topics such as communication and sales training, nutrition, breeding, health and disease, along with the latest riding and training techniques
Bachelor of Science in Equine Science:  Coursework, Student Outcomes and Eligibility Requirements
The coursework for the Bachelor of Science in Equine Science includes general education classes and courses that are directly related to equine management, horses and their care.  Core coursework for the program may include titles such as:
  • Introduction to Animal Science
  • Feeds and Feeding
  • Animal Breeding
  • Applied Animal Nutrition
  • Animal Anatomy and Physiology
  • Reproduction, AI, and Lactation
  • Animal Health and Disease
  • Principles of Genetics
  • Equine Careers and Husbandry Practices
  • Equine Evaluation
  • Horse Production
  • Equine Exercise Physiology
Students in the B.S. program in Equine Science will learn to understand and meet the daily care, nutrition, healthcare and exercise needs of the horses in their care.  They will be armed with the essential knowledge and skills needs to excel in equine-related employment and will have the management and business training required to operate an equine or equine-related business. 
The goal of the Equine Science program is that graduates will be able to:
  • Demonstrate theoretical knowledge and practical experience with regard to equine physiology, nutrition, health and reproduction.
  • Display a working knowledge of equine ownership responsibility and husbandry.
  • Apply management theories, marketing strategies and software programs to equine-related industries.
  • Master horsemanship and equine training skills in a number of disciplines.
  • Explore and find employment in the equine industry.
To be eligible to participate in the B.S. degree program in Equine Science students must possess at least a high school diploma or its equivalent.  They should also have a basic familiarity with horses and a desire to pursue employment in the equine industry following graduation.  Note:  Some of the upper-level courses in the program may have prerequisites, so it’s very important that students include these required classes as part of their general education curriculum.

Study Ergonomics

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Study Ethnology

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The world that we know today is made of people from different cultural backgrounds. Communication tools, like the internet and TV, have provided an easily accessible platform to share each others culture and beliefs across huge distances. Various corporates like banks and service sector companies have recognized the need to understand the local culture.  All these have resulted in Ethnology being a popular stream among the younger students. The study of Ethnology means understanding the broader range of general, social and cultural anthropology. 

The study will facilitate students with a unique opportunity of staying rooted to traditional and cultural anthropology.  It also covers the study of various races – their language, the ethnic beliefs, geographical and political influences, religions and the socio – economic aspects. The course will cover the introduction of ethnological analysis and also explanation on the society past and present. 

On completion of the course, the students would have understood the various dimensions of the cultural environment that we live in. These include - the ethnological research, the methods and the perspectives on the society and its culture; the various forms of culture prevalent; the various processes of cultural transformation, the nation building and the modernity in the current society in various geographical regions; the processes of globalization and the multiculturalism as political idea; the organization of heritage and culture in select areas; development of languages and the reflection of influence; rituals and rites practiced by various races and ethnic groups; the influence of social and economic conditions across various regions and the evolution of modern times; the development of a political outlook; the cuisines and flavors of various regions; the festivities and cultural events; the global communal integration; cultural and geographical boundaries – development and changes caused through the various ages; tools and technologies; methods and techniques to measure development and progress; extinct races – a study; various case studies

Career options:

Career options are plenty, and an ethnologist is expected to perform comparative studies of diversified cultures or certain specific aspects of cultures of people who are alive and also of those people who existed in the past, so as to determine the historical relations, arriving at typological classifications, and making generalizations which is typically concerned with various cultural processes and different human behaviors, undertaking studies of various cultures of societies, specifically the societies which are not westernized and preindustrial which includes political and social organization, economics, religion, traditions and mythology, artistic and intellectual life.

Formulating general laws related to cultural development, rules which are generally required for both cultural and social behavior.
Skills & Experience expected:

Applicant should have completed education of at least secondary level or should have completed standards of matriculation/intermediate. They should have taken subjects such as mathematics, arts, and languages and also should have a score in the subject based on an approved test.


Organizing and retrieving of information in a logical and systematic manner, integrating information from sources which are multifaceted, conducting both internet and library research, working in teams,  especially in laboratory and fieldwork situations, using statistics for analyzing  and interpretation of data,  effective communications  of ideas and data, scheduling of time effectively .

Study Ethology

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Study Expert in dementia and Alzheimer\'s disease

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Study Farrier Science

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Study Financial Mathematics

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The simplest explanation of financial mathematics is the concept of a compilation of mathematics techniques that find application in finance. This suggests that a person involved in financial mathematics would be working with terms like asset pricing, derivative securities, hedging. They would also be able to manage and evaluate the risk of these assets and securities. Furthermore, such a person could be responsible for the optimization of a portfolio of assets –the portfolio of a company, or an individual. This also relates to developing lists of appropriate investments for clients, planning the buying and selling of assets, and calculating the costs of a transaction.

Personal Qualities

If you are very much drawn to mathematics, statistics, finance, and other related fields, you would definitely enjoy the subject. Other qualities are:

  • Ability to make accurate calculations in a short time
  • Ready to work under pressure
  • Feel at ease when having to work independently
  • Excellent communication skills
  • Good IT skills
  • Ability to think logically and analyze
  • Interested in finance and the financial market

Study Options

There are many options to study Financial Mathematics, and these range from undergraduate to postgraduate degrees, to advanced courses within a related degree program. Often majors in Financial Mathematics are combined with statistics, economics, and other similar subjects. Students embarking on the study of such a degree will examine areas like the pricing of securities, pricing of bonds, all of which can be challenging material. For this reason, it would be smart of you to explore whether the university you choose offers enough practical experience, like a simulated electronic trading project, the opportunity to do an internship, or the opportunity to regularly attend lectures with specialists who can provide a pool of real world examples.

The entry into such a degree program is normally very selective, for which reason you should strive for excellent academic record, and in particular high exam results in mathematics and statistics. For entrance into a postgraduate course, the requirement usually involves previous studies in engineering, science, mathematics, economics, or computing.

Career Options

The study of Financial Mathematics is usually closely related to pursuing a career in investment banks or other financial institutions. Some of the specializations in this field that you may wish to consider are the following: commodities trader – a person bringing together buyers and sellers, while initiating a negotiation; financial planner – providing financial advice to clients, covering all areas of finance (taxation, retirement, insurance, etc.); financial market dealer – buys and sells securities within the financial market on behalf of financial institutions; investment banker – such a person offers financial products and services, operates large financial transactions, and acts as an intermediary between the commercial and professional sectors of the finance industry. Investment bankers also deal with corporate lending and the money market.

All of these career prospects have a very good potential to become well-paid jobs, and a good option would be to pursue internship options that can lead to a permanent job before you graduate.

Study Fire Science and Technology

Choose where you would like to study Fire Science and Technology:

AustraliaCanadaChinaIndiaSpainThe United KingdomThe United States

The tragedy brought about by fire is indeed one of the worst things that could happen to anyone. Not only does it destroy properties in a snap but it could also claim lives in the harshest way possible. Because of this, safety standards have been set in such a way that fire is prevented in every possible way. However, because fire, now and again, still happens despite safety precautions, a course program called Fire Science and Technology was instituted just so to further the science of preventing, managing, controlling fire as well as creating underlying technology that goes with it.

In taking this course one should be prepared to the risks involved in this field as fighting fire would mean putting one’s life at risk as going into the thick of the fire to save lives and stop fires. Not only the mental preparedness of facing the fact that this is one of the most dangerous jobs in the world but one should also be ready on the physicality of what the job may entail. This physical fitness preparedness is a prerequisite for higher fire science modules. So it is imperative that one passes any cardiovascular endurance, muscle strength endurance, flexibility, agility tests that one may be subjected to. Physical fitness training for Fire Science students has three levels. First is basic physical fitness training and then the other two modules are advanced physical fitness preparedness lessons which may utilize C-PAT equipments. C-PAT is the standardized physical training approved by the IAFF or International Association of Fire Fighters.

After passing the battery of physical fitness subjects, the next things to be taught is basic fire prevention. Knowing what causes a fire and identification of conditions that causes this would be discussed in detail as well as corrective measures and cooperation abilities between fire departments and other branches of the government like the Office of the Mayor and disaster-related agencies.

Another important thing that will be broached on this course is hazardous materials awareness and operations. This is the part of the course where handling of hazardous materials especially in emergency situations is taught.

As with any battle, strategies and tactics are needed to be employed to totally douse out a fire. It is not just a simple directing of pressurized water hoses at a burning structure. This is one of the most important things that are needed to be learned by any students of Fire Science and Technology Students. Like some fires are complicated as it looks as there may be an adjacent gasoline station or hospital and that the primary steps is to not let the fire spread on that direction. This is also where utilization of available resources is thought as every fire is a unique situation.

Another important subject to be thought is disaster management. Earthquakes, floods, and storms all spell F-I-R-E if not planned ahead. All these natural calamities have always been a precursor to fires and so it is important that the students know what to do in case these natural calamities occur.

The course will also update students on the current technology available in combating fire and how to use them to their advantage. These technologies may be detection systems, extinguishing paraphernalia and other gadgets that will be operated by firemen.

Of course, as with every unit of the government, knowing the law is essential. Fire departments have been involved in legal proceedings over the years. Lawsuits are just as exhausting as any fire so if it can be avoided then understanding the Fire Service Law subject would really come in handy. As they say, ignorance is no excuse.

Opportunities for graduates of this course are not that many as being a fireman is perhaps the usual profession of those who finishes this course. Of course, once accepted by any fire bureau, there are always continuous learning programs that are offered. There are also private enterprises like oil rigs, power plants and other industrial plants that are in need of fire marshals.

Study Floriculture

Choose where you would like to study Floriculture:

ArgentinaIndiaThe United States

Choosing a subject area to study is not as difficult as it seems. The most important consideration here is your interest to learn in a specific field. If you are particularly attracted, then be a part of the thriving floral enterprises, then you can take up Floriculture. By definition, this is a program concerned with flower cultivation and ornamental plants that are often used in gardening as well as floristry. Floriculture is a discipline under the Horticulture subject.

The Floriculture curriculum entails the preparation for individuals in operating and managing contract and commercial florist industries, supplying and delivering for clients along with providing for flower catering services. Other included instructions are the application of plant science principles as well as storage, purchasing, delivery, designing and arranging systems. Hence, this is a good preparation for those who want to start a floral business.

As some of us might know, the operations of the floriculture industry have contributed about $10 billion to the U.S. economy. This production involves developing, growing and utilizing cut and potted flowers. There are certain colleges, universities and even online schools that offer programs for Floriculture. Here, one will be able to learn how to create gorgeous floral designs, arrangements and other related activities. Some schools provide courses such as horticulture business management, biology, greenhouse crop production, interior plantscaping, plant entomology and even the essential of accounting. There are also some colleges that offer associate’s degree so that the prospective students will be able to apply for jobs in greenhouses, farms and floral shops as an addition to their experiences. Select universities, on the other hand, offer bachelors, masters or doctorate degrees, which are helpful trainings for those who are willing to get engaged in large commercial floral operations.

The Floriculture students will receive in depth practical guidance with regards to floral design, identification and caring for plants, managing of small businesses, production of greenhouse crops and plantscape design. There are actually a lot of employment opportunities once you have graduated from this course. If you do not like the idea of being employed by other people, you can start your own business since you have an adequate knowledge about managing and operating your own floral company.

Most experts consider this area of study as flower cultivation for marketable purposes so if you would like to become a successful florist someday, you will need to make a comprehensive research on developing and improving varieties of flowers, which have high resistance in diseases plus those with high yielding properties. It is also important that you check how these species adapt to soil and climatic conditions. With this course, you will learn that quality control is the prime aspect that you will always have to bear in mind.

To study this subject, a potential student should have finished 10+2 eligibility including Botany as the option. To be admitted in an agricultural university, you should be able to pass their entrance examination, which is required by the staff. The Bachelors degree for floriculture may have varying periods depending on the institutions.

Job positions for Floriculture:

Landscape Designer

So you are through with your Floriculture studies and requirements and now, you are wondering what occupation you will go for. Try being a landscape designer, which you will find as a very wonderful career. It may be a hard job to accomplish but at the end of the day, you will discover that you are enjoying being involved in the field of artsy elements, which is highlighted with the color and correct placement of flowers and plants.

Most professional landscape designers are expected to assist their clients when they want to make certain changes in their large garden since this will require a huge amount of planning to enable them to achieve the look they are going for. Your knowledge and experience in creating a garden with a particular style, such as English or Japanese is required so that your customers will be happy with the results.

Being a landscape designer, it is essential that you are equipped with proper skill in designing and maintaining horticulture, sprinklers, night lighting and others. As a graduate of the Floriculture course, you should have the necessary education so that homeowners will truly be impressed at your work and insist that you will be their personal designer. Once your clients have made up their minds on what they would like their garden, backyard or front yard to look like, they would be relying on your expertise and capability in working your magic in the area.

In order for your landscape designing business to thrive, you should know the certain aspects that will affect the overall appearance and style of the garden. Know the climate, the desired design, development and other related matters such as the space, neatness and efficiency of the task. Here, you will not only be doing arrangements and designs for flowers but also for trees, bushes and other constituents of nature. The plants you choose should be able to tolerate pests and are easy to maintain so that the owners will appreciate your choices.

Due to the fact that landscape designers are considered as modern environment professionals that represent the amalgamation of arts, technical and science philosophies or practices. Your main goal here is to create earthly landscapes that are holistic, imaginative and yet sustainable for a very long time. It is your duty to create a master plan for the site, restoration for the environment or town and design for urban areas, parks and other recreational areas.

Landscape designers are also called landscape engineers, scientists, architects, managers or technicians. Usually, you will be designing gardens, which will involve green planting spaces. Your acquired knowledge on the natural environment will aid you in your quest to find a job because there are several companies who are looking for skilled individuals who have a broad understanding when it comes to plants. You will most likely be working under horticulturists, estate managers, foresters, nature conversation employers and agriculturists.

Most landscape designers are sought for their specialized skills in soil sciences, hydrology and botany since they will be able to relate the problems in landscaping.

Floral Designer

After facing the tough challenges they went through in their college years, the Floriculture graduates are about to encounter another difficulty, which is searching for the right job suitable for them. In reality, there are a lot of employment opportunities for the graduates and one of them is being a floral designer. As a matter of fact, there are about one third of the florist populations who are self-employed.

Being a floral designer may sound plain but this is not true since it does not just involve arranging flowers by simply throwing a bunch of flowers in the way you would like them to appear. You will need to know the right color combinations as well as the special flowers that will perfectly go with certain educations. There are actually some flowers that greatly symbolize the overall arrangement you will make. To become one of the most successful floral designers in the world, you have to be aware of the facts from simple ones to the significant details.

Now that you have decided you want to become a floral designer, you have to bear in mind that this is not a glamorous job. There are a lot of things to do such as delivering flower arrangements for your clients. Since your customers may not necessarily be informed about flowers and their related activities, you should be able to make appropriate suggestions. There are several occasions when some people may need your assistance such as weddings, funerals, birthday parties, get together and others.

There are numerous duties that a floral designer must perform in order to help the shop to thrive. You should unwrap the stock of flowers, spray them and condition them when needed as well as attending to the needs of the customers and the calls made by them. To gain more clients, you will need to provide the prices for the merchandise you offer and make sure that they are worth the value of their money you are asking. You should also display your products in a visible place and attractive manner. It is also the responsibility of the florist to complete and deliver the orders in addition to designing the flowers and the shop, keeping it clean and orderly. Having a work record is also a part of your daily duties.

In line with your acquired knowledge from studying and completing the degree for Floriculture, you will also need to the passion and a thorough experience. Flourishing floral designers have first started as apprentices in shop after shop as this will eventually enrich their learning. Aspiring florists can earn a certificate from the American Institute of Floral Designers that states their Accreditation in floral Designing. If you are interested, you can submit pictures of the flower arrangements you did in the past or you can take them and demonstrate your collections live in front of judges.

Typically, floral designers are owners of small floral businesses. They usually help out people in their party and wedding designing together with landscaping and gardening.

Study Food Sciences and Technology

Choose where you would like to study Food Sciences and Technology:

AlgeriaArgentinaAustraliaAustriaBangladeshBosnia and HerzegovinaBrazilCanadaChileColombiaCosta RicaCroatiaCubaDenmarkEcuadorEl SalvadorEthiopiaFijiFranceGermanyGreeceHondurasHong KongIcelandIndiaIranIraqIrelandItalyLebanonMexicoNetherlandsNew ZealandNicaraguaNigeriaOmanPeruPortugalPuerto RicoQatarSaudi ArabiaSouth KoreaSpainSri LankaSwedenSwitzerlandThailandThe United KingdomThe United StatesTurkeyUnited Arab EmiratesVietnamZimbabwe

Food science and technology is involved with the study of the processing, packaging, selection, preservation, and distribution of food. Food scientists spend a great part of their careers studying the chemical, microbiological, and physical aspects of food. They make sure that all hygienic conditions are met during the processing, storage and packaging of food. Furthermore, food technicians develop new products and explore various techniques of producing and maintaining the quality of these foods. They also examine raw ingredients and processed food for their nutritional value and microbiological quality. Finally, technicians and scientists in the food field check foods for color, taste, and flavor, developing quality control procedures and analyzing results and experimental data.

Personal Qualities

  • Enjoy food and examining food’s ingredients
  • Aptitude for research and other scientific activities
  • Be very accurate and have great attention to detail
  • Have great observation skills
  • Work well as a part of a team
  • Have good physical health

Study Options

Food Science and Technology degrees are offered at numerous universities and in various forms, at the undergraduate level as well as many postgraduate options – most students in this area decide to continue their education after they have gained a bachelor’s degree. The course you choose is most likely to be a multidisciplinary one, involving application of the basic sciences (chemistry, nutrition, engineering and microbiology) and the latest developments in the handling, processing and packaging of foods from the farm to the consumer's plate. The degree should be a good mix of lectures, tutorials, laboratory classes, industry site visits and research projects in order to ensure that you gain considerable knowledge and hands-on experience in the field of food science. Overall, the institution has to have a good tradition in sciences and an innovative approach to research and technology.

Career Options

Food scientists have various employment options, and these include universities, industries that are concerned with food processing, and some government organizations. One can become a technician in agro-food companies and industries or in public organisms related to different  aspects of food, such as  analysis and quality control of foods;  economic management and markets;   Food Safety and Hygiene; food legislation, documentation and normalization; raw material, ingredients and food additives; post-processing operations and processing systems in the industry; dietetics and human nutrition.

As a food scientist, you can also decide to specialize: plant scientists study the ways that industrial plants can prevent food contamination; crop scientists study how food is grown, while soil scientists pay attention to the soil that food is grown in. Finally, animal scientists observe safer methods for processing all foods that come from animals. All of these professions can be considered part of Food Sciences and Technology, as they study food in one form or another.

Study Forensic Psychology

Choose where you would like to study Forensic Psychology:

IndiaPortugalThe United States

Study Forensic Science

Choose where you would like to study Forensic Science:

ArgentinaAustraliaAustriaCanadaIndiaIraqIrelandNepalNigeriaPortugalRussiaSpainSwedenSwitzerlandThe United KingdomThe United StatesUkraine

Forensic science is a profession that is unusual to numerous people. Partly, this is because to its remarkable and uncommon combination of investigation, criminology, law and laboratory science. It is chiefly regarding with application of scientific rules for investigation of lawbreaking or crime. It is utilizes science to help in law enforcement and in this activity forensic scientists work to provide neutral scientific evidence which may applied in criminal investigations and courts of law. Forensic scientists are implicated and interested in gathering evidence. Some of the evidence materials and substances that are usually examined are saliva, blood, hair, fibers from clothing and bodily fluids. They also do analysis on tissues or drugs for poisonous materials. After gathering the evidences from a crime incident, a forensic scientist may be able to examine the said evidence in the laboratory and search for links between the crime victim and the suspect.

Forensic scientists play a significant part in any investigative team. They must be logical, analytical and exploratory type of mind.

Communication, report writing and computer skills are also important in line of this field. They must be also meticulous and detailed oriented in analyzing the evidence. Some of the responsibilities of forensic scientist include collecting evidence at crime scene, examine the said evidence, making reports confirming the findings and submit or present them to investigators and imparting testimonial as an expert spectator in court cases.

Numerous forensic scientists work in laboratories, though some field agents are required going to courtrooms or crime incidents. Working long hours is not unusual for this kind of field particularly if evidence is necessary to be examined quickly for essential court case. Other forensics scientistss may work occasionally as a consultant.

The required education for this kind of profession is a Bachelor Degree in forensic science or associate degrees. But occupation possibilities are more favorable or advantageous for those who graduated with a four year degree.

Other opportunities for forensic science career include Computational forensics (refers to the development of algorithms rules and software program to help forensic examination), Criminalistics (application of a variety of science to respond inquiries regarding to examination and comparison of evidences use in criminal investigations), Digital forensics (application of tested scientific techniques to retrieve data from digital media), Forensic anthropology (application of physical anthropology), Forensic archaeology (combination of archaeological methods and forensic science application), Forensic DNA analysis (cope in finding out the maternity/paternity or identifying a suspect at a crime incident), Forensic entomology (cope with testing of insects to help in finding of place or time of death), Forensic geology (manage to discover or locate evidence in the form of petroleum, soils and minerals), Forensic interviewing (method of communicating planned to bring out data and evidence), Forensic odontology (study of teeth), Forensic pathology (principles of pathology and medicine are used to detect the cause of accidental injury or death in the circumstance of a legal investigation), Forensic psychology (analyze the mind of a person and find the situation backside a criminal’s behavior), Forensic toxicology (examine the consequence of drugs and poisonous substance in the human body) and Veterinary Forensics (useful to crimes relating to animals).

In Britain, the starting salary for forensic scientist trainee is usually £16,000 to £18,000. The starting salary for a graduate degree is considerably higher in forensic science. The salary for senior positions is around £45,000 and above.

Job positions for Forensic Science:

Forensic Pathologist

Forensic pathology is an area of pathology, which pertained in finding out the cause of death through analysis and examination of the dead body or corpse. The forensic pathologist is in charge in autopsy and to examine the dead body to find out the mode and cause of death. Violent death such as accidents, suicides and homicides are under the legal power of the local coroner or medical examiner, while the institution handle the unanticipated and expected deaths, death of infants, children, prisoners and suspicious deaths. Other tasks and responsibilities of a forensic pathologist include working with medical examiner and assist to resolve the cause of unexpected and suspicious deaths; and function as an expert observer in the court of justice, attesting in a form of criminal and civil cases regarding accident injury or death.

A Forensic Pathologist is a particularized type of physician, who analyzes a huge kind of natural diseases and operates in a laboratory, hospital or private location. The primary types of pathology are clinical and anatomic. Clinical pathology includes the several laboratory sections such as clinical chemistry, hematology, immunology, microbiology, pharmacological and blood transfusion medicine. Anatomic pathology includes autopsy pathology, diagnostic cytology and surgical pathology.

Aside from medical personnel, the profession also gives the chance of working with lawyers and police.

Any pathologist employing for forensic pathology outlook will be required to have the necessary training and experience in the field. It considers lots of patience, determination and hard work in order to become a Forensic Pathologist. The required educational attainment for Forensic Pathologist is a 4-year college degree and after that you need to accomplish a 4-year medical degree. The residency training program is necessary in general pathology which takes 3 to 5 years. The whole period of the said residency will rely on whether the program is in both clinical and anatomic pathology or in anatomic pathology. Once the residency is accomplished, it should be followed by a 1 year area of expertise training program in this kind of field at the medical examiners or corner’s office, commonly in metropolitan area.

The required individuality traits in order to become a Forensic Pathologist include interest in science such as biology, chemistry, physics and the social sciences; oral and writing abilities; knowledge in law and particularly moral rules of medical practice. Forensic Pathologists work under pressure. Approximately, they work 10 hours a day, though there are times when they are “on call” perhaps to go to death scenes. There is no definite working hours in area of forensic pathology due to the unpredictable work.

The salary of a Forensic Pathologist in Denver is ranges from $60,000 to $80,000 per year according to the salary survey report in United States. But it also depends by the company, area of the country, duties and responsibilities, projects and level of expertise. The cost or fees for a forensic consultation is depend on the particular nature of the query and the level of experience or expertise of the pathologist.

Forensic Science Technician

Forensic science technicians look into criminal offense by analyzing and gathering physical evidence. They normally concentrate in areas such as firearm or DNA test, executing tests on tissue, hair, glass, fiber, bullets, fingerprints and weapons to find out their meaning or implication to the investigation. Proper compilation and storage techniques are significant to defend the said evidences. They use the evidences to provide a connection between the victim and the suspect.

The typical tasks of Forensic Science Technicians include analyze and examine the physical materials, chemical substances, sample tissue and ballistic trajectory evidence by using testing, measuring, and recording equipment; protect and collect criminal evidence; understand the findings of laboratory and test outcome to recognize and categorize materials, substances and other gathered evidences at crime scene; consult to specialists in handwriting, fingerprinting, documents, medical, electronics, chemical with regards to the interpretation of the evidences; prepares report of findings, laboratory or investigative methods used; give opinion and information to investigators and provide evidence as specialist witnesses on laboratory or evidence methods in hearings.

The required skills for Forensic Science Technician include knowledgeable in finding and recognizing necessary information, ability in searching ways to categorize or sort out numerous pieces of information, proficient in chemistry, reading comprehension, critical thinking, ability in distinguishing the nature of problem, knowledge in inductive reasoning, public safety and security, communication, oral expression and computer skills.

Most Forensic Science Technician work within the building or indoors, generally in crime laboratories and during regular hours. But sometimes they require working beyond regular hours to observe and finish their research at crime scene. They are dealing with physical evidence as a result they are open to odors, chemicals, fumes and diseases. Hence, they must follow the right safety procedures for instance wearing gloves, eyewear, paper shoe and paper suits for their own protection. They are invited oftentimes to court to give expert testimony concerning their methods and findings. Gathering evidence from crime incidents can be painful and horrible.

There are numerous ways to meet the requirements for an employment as a Forensic Science Technician. Most employers give preferentiality to applicants who accomplished at least 2 years of particular training or an associate degree which related in science and technology. Others finished a bachelor’s degree in biology and chemistry. Forensic Science Technician normally requires hands-on training either on the work or in school. They can obtain good job preparation by experiencing or possessing 2 year training programs related to teaching of technical principles and theory with functional applied application in a laboratory determining with the latest equipment. Those who have substantial experience in laboratory and accomplished internships are well eligible or entitled for science technician rank and preferred by other employers.

Other possible designations or titles for Forensic Science Technician profession include Crime Lab Technician, Crime Laboratory Analyst, Crime Specialist, Criminologist, Forensic Ballistics Expert, Fingerprint Expert, Forensic Investigator, Forensic Scientist, Evidence Technician, Lie Detector Operator, Ballistic Technician, Polygraph Examiner and among others.

Most Forensic Science Technician specifically in California has salary ranges from $21 to $26 per hour and the average annual salary is ranges $40,000 to $50,000.

Study Forestry

Choose where you would like to study Forestry:

AlgeriaAmerican SamoaArgentinaAustraliaBangladeshBermudaBosnia and HerzegovinaBrazilBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaChileColombiaCosta RicaCroatiaCubaCzech RepublicDenmarkEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorFijiFranceGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGreeceGuyanaHaitiHondurasHungaryIndiaIndonesiaIranIraqJapanKenyaKyrgyzstanLaoLebanonLesothoMacedoniaMadagascarMauritiusMozambiqueNamibiaNetherlandsNew ZealandNicaraguaOmanPalestinePolandPortugalSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSouth AfricaSouth KoreaSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSwazilandTanzaniaThe United KingdomThe United StatesTrinidad and TobagoTurkeyUgandaUnited Arab EmiratesUruguayVietnamZambiaZimbabwe

For the last decade or so, the interests of students to take up Forestry courses has not really been picking up as computer programming and related courses have been luring students like a mouse to a cheese. Also, on the last decade or more, illegal logging has heightened that it really threatens the last vestiges of virgin forests in the world. But because science has found out that the trees and forests do indeed play a vital role in the ecology of a place or the planet per se, Forestry courses has suddenly become a course that could make a difference in the world. Because of the damages being done to the environment due to forest denudation, grants have suddenly become available to those serious in this field.

Basically, the undergraduate course of Forestry will equip students with necessary skills to understand how forests thrive as an ecosystem and the underlying wild life that depends on the forest for the purpose of preserving them and as benefitting from the available resources they may provide.

Once enrolled, students will become immediately become a warrior on the side of the environment as all the issues, legal and moral will be brought forward to attention from Day 1 of classes. The course of Forestry is actually a multi-discipline course as students will be exposed to concepts from botany, zoology, chemistry, economics, agronomy and a little bit of computer science as there is actually software now specifically designed to aid Forestry professionals.

Forestry normally has different majors students can pursue. The majors are Forest Biological Sciences, Forest Environmental Resources Management, Silviculture and Agroforestry, Forest Products, Social Forestry and Forest and Natural Resources Governance.

Forest Biological Sciences will deal mainly with the flora and fauna in a forest environment from insects to fungi to the trees themselves which is indeed a very big subject matter on its own. Perhaps, a scientist of the forest would be occupied in his lifetime to cover a major forest on lichens alone.

Forest Environmental Resources Management is the major that will be more focus on how to utilize the forest as a source of raw materials, a wildlife park or as an integral part of the area in a sustainable capacity.

Silviculture and Agro-forestry is another branch of Forestry that is equally important because it deals with the control and growth of specific species of trees and studying of the quality of soils that supports the trees. There are some trees that may not grow as they should because the type of soil may not be able to hold them up as they grow too tall or that some trees if left to grow on its own will promote the growth of specific insects or fungi which might alter the balance of the ecology.

Forest Products is another major that is more on the processes involved that forest products might be subjected to. Kiln drying and other drying methods were more or less developed using concepts from this branch of Forestry science. Construction of wood bridges, paper making would be a cinch for majors of this course because timber mechanics, wooden structural analysis and wood chemistry are among the subfields of studies they would be delving on for the purpose of discovering more forest-based products.

The last major study for Forestry science is Forest and Natural Resources Governance. Land and natural resources are always a hot political topic and so Forests as a natural resource and governments are always closely associated. This is the area of study that will deal with project planning, community development and dealing with appropriate government agencies.

Opportunities for graduates of this course have actually jumped back to the limelight as more research grants are investing on researches on understanding forest wildlife and biodiversity. There have also been a number of adventure tourism spots that is currently very popular and bringing in money to the economy. To those who really are after the big bucks in this field, earning a PhD degree is a must in order to land those million-dollar research grants.

Study Gardening

Choose where you would like to study Gardening:

ArgentinaIndiaIrelandSpainThe United KingdomThe United States

Gardening is the natural action or activity to develop and preserve the garden. Some of the garden produced useful plants are for economic consumption such as fruits, herbs and vegetables, while some serves for aesthetic purposes. Gardening is performed by a professional or expert gardener. Gardeners are usually working in tree farms, greenhouse or plantation, indoor gardens, retail gardening and botanical centers, government departments, landscaping and grass care offices. They can apply their skills in botany, plant materials, landscape facility and soil science to build or make a tremendous garden. Machinery and tools needed of a gardener are loaders, tractors, trowels, etc. Other gardeners improve their ability or expertise through proper training and experience. This kind of profession is constantly in demand, especially now people are looking for the services of experts in planning, preserving and designing their business gardens.

The different types of gardening are Residential (the space is usually located near a residence), Indoor (pertaining to the growing of pot plant within a building, conservatory and residence), Water (related to growing plants to match or suit ponds), Container (plants that grows in any kinds of pot or hanging baskets either indoors or outdoors), Community (gardened by a group of individuals to supply plants in order to improve the vicinity or area) and Garden sharing (shared gardens are usually in front or back yards and used to make or raise food). Other type of gardening includes butterfly zoo, greenhouse, forest, botanical, cold frame and zoological garden.

There are numerous artistic or style of gardens including Japanese garden (can be created at city parks, private homes and historical sights such as old castles and Buddhist temples), Chinese Garden (was made somehow as a mixture of landscape and paintings along with poems), and Persian Garden (the Taj Mahal is one example). Other style includes Zen garden, Roman garden, Mughal garden, Terrarium, Tropical garden and Water garden. Some of the famous gardeners or garden designers in early 20th century include Ian Hamilton Finlay (Scottish artist and gardener), Gertrude Jekyll (British garden designer) and Geoffrey Smith (English gardener).

The required qualities and skills for gardening include love for nature, hard working, physically fitness, artistic style, good eyesight and knowledge or expertise in plants. Those who are interested in this kind of profession may take associate or college courses. Some of the related subjects are horticulture, biology and botany.

Gardening is a difficult task demanding a creativeness and expertise in plants. Some of the opportunities for this kind of field include Senior Gardener (oversee, plan and take part in gardening work in a conservatory at a publicly owned property), Landscape Gardeners (perform to develop messy areas into attractive or pleasant gardens), Tree Surgeon or Arboriculturalist (managing and preserving of the decorative or shade trees and also concern bushes and vascular plants) and Horticulturists (study the fields of plant propagation, plant breeding, crop production, cultivation, plant physiology and biochemistry).

Salary or earnings for this particular field is depends on location, employer and expertise or experience

Study Geobiology

Choose where you would like to study Geobiology:

IndiaThe United States

Study Geochemistry

Choose where you would like to study Geochemistry:

IndiaThe United States

Study Geodesy

Choose where you would like to study Geodesy:

AustriaCanadaEthiopiaGermanyIndiaThe United States

Geodesy and Geophysics is "that branch of applied mathematics which determines by observation and measurement the exact positions of points and the figures and areas of large portions of the earth's surface, the shape and size of the earth, and the variations of terrestrial gravity" as Webster dictionary defines. In short, geodesy and geophysics is about the complex and elaborate study of our planet earth’s figure and scope as a whole.

Since the beginning, hundred of years ago, we all have been curious and interested in studying the “real” size and shape of earth. There was a time when we thought the earth was flat with an end and there was the time when we started traveling by ship, making maps, constructing globes and then finally discovering the truth. Early Greek mathematicians and scholars had an idea what the earth really looked like, some just by studying the movements of the body of stars at night and others calculated it. Most suspected that it was “spherical” in form, and they was right.

But knowing that the earth is round in shape is not enough; we should also get the exact size of it. That was what Eratosthenes (pronounced as era-tos-da-nees) thought, who was a Greek mathematician, and so he needed to prove that the earth was round first. He stuck two sticks in the sand and believed that if the second one casted a shadow too, that will prove that the earth is spherical in form. So he stuck a stick in the sand in one place and moved to Alexandria and stuck another stick, then studied and compared it. He got his computation of the earth and he only missed 99 miles of the exact actual size.

Geodesy and Geophysics has helped us a lot in terms of traveling, locating and even in scientific studies of earth.

It helped a lot of ship captains and pilots in traveling, advancements like GPS has been very powerful in moving huge ships and airplanes from place to place. In terms of locating, it gave people the power to go to different places without being confused. It has been highly beneficial to shipping companies that send packages, letters and more to faraway places and other countries.

There are non-governmental organizations like the IUGG (International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics) that uses the technique of geodesy and geophysics in studying earth. Their goal is to research about the earth endlessly and inform people of what geodesy and geophysics is and involve them.

The Institute of Geodesy in Helsinki in Finland, National School of Geographical Sciences in France, The University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB in Canada, The University of Nottingham which are located in three different countries: United Kingdom, China and Malaysia, are some of the colleges and universities offering courses in Geodesy and Geophysics.

The average salary companies pays to geodesy/geophysicist is $92,508 in the USA. Salary depends on where you work for. U.S. Dept. of Navy pays the highest, they pay up to $108k. The U.S. Dept. of Navy pays $104k, the U.S. Dept. of Interior and U.S. Dept. of Air Force pay $88k and U.S. Dept. of Army pays $82k.

Study Geodynamics

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Study Geography

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In the most basic terms, geography refers to the study of maps. However, modern geography is a much larger and more complex field than this simple description would suggest. Geographers today  study the distribution of people, animals, resources, and various other things across the surface of the earth. In addition, they draw on emerging technologies to create exciting and dynamic representations of their findings. They play an essential role in helping us understand our own world and everything it contains.
Personal Qualities
  • An interest in maps and charts and desire to make them
  • Ability to work with sophisticated computers
  • Independent, creative thinker
  • Quick spatial reasoning skills, sense of direction are helpful as well
Study Options

Because geography is a rapidly-evolving field, growing and changing at the pace of technology, there are a vast array of specializations and sub-fields to choose from. Options range from creating the next generation of up-to-date roadmaps to plotting the movements of migratory birds across vast differences. If you’re interested in using computers to create dynamic digital maps, look into GIS (Geographic Information Systems), a new field that uses computers to generate, process, and present geographic data. GIS is making in-roads in industries as diverse as city planning, economics, biology, and environmental science. Although it is not offered as an undergraduate major at many institutions, there are several excellent graduate programs in GIS that will provide ideal training for turning your love of geography into a career.
Career Options

Any information that can be put on a map is likely to be of value to someone, so there are many jobs for geography majors and GIS students. Some involve working out in the field – surveyors and surveying technicians are the men and women who go out and actually collect data about the world and what’s in it. If you like spending time outside, working with your hands, and handling advanced technology, surveying is an excellent job option. At the other end of the spectrum,  GIS analysts take the data collected by surveyors, taggers, and even ordinary people with smartphones, and try to interpret it in a way that is valuable in the real world. They may use maps to help guide the decisions of policymakers, or advise businesses in the private sector.

Study Geography And Geospatial Imaging

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Study Geohazards

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Study Geology

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Geology, a term derived from the Greek words ge meaning “earth” and logia which means “knowledge of”, is the science that focuses on the planet we live in. Geology is concerned with the planet Earth’s origins, its material composition, the forces around it, and its possible future. It belongs to the group of related fields commonly known as the earth sciences. What sets geologists apart is mainly the fact that they are primarily concerned with materials that comprise the surface of the earth, such as rocks, fossils, among others. This is actually why geologists integrate physics, chemistry, and the other natural sciences into their studies; hence, there are geological fields such as geochemistry, geophysics, just to name a few. Although the earth sciences have separate focal points, they all, naturally coincide. Apart from Geology, there are fields like Hydrology, which concentrates on the earth’s waters; Cartography, which involves plotting and measuring the earth’s surface; and others more.

The Geology program does not only involve training on the different techniques for the study of landforms and other features of the earth, but also its intrinsic and interior characteristics. Geology, like a lot of other sciences, actually developed from the many Grecian and Roman philosophers and their respective schools of thought. Just to illustrate, many of the mythological gods are actually associated with geological concepts, like Hephaestus or more commonly known as Vulcan.

The Geology course also includes the history of the earth, the origins of planet itself and the life that is found only in it. Graduates of the program have the option to specialize on any of the various physical or historical subfields of Geology.

Physical Geology revolves around the processes and physical forces that affect the earth’s surface as well as the internal characteristics and activities that also play a part in shaping its exterior. On the other hand, Historical Geology studies the earth with respect to time, including its origin and evolution. Some branches are:

Geochemistry is primarily concerned with the origins and progression of rocks, minerals, water forms, and, generally, the earth’s elements, just to cite a few. Mineral Exploration is the emerging field of application of this body of knowledge.

Petrology is involved with practically anything about rocks, predominantly those of the igneous and metamorphic nature. Petrologists observe a diverse range of phenomena like the melting of rocks, sedimentation, igneous processes, re-crystallization of minerals, weathering and erosion, and various others. This is why Petrology branches out to other subjects as well, such as Sedimentary Petrology.

Mineralogy, as the name implies, deals with both with the minerals found on the earth’s surface as well as those outside its boundaries (atmosphere). Objects of study in this science include origins, composition and properties of not only the common elements such as nickel or silver ores, but also lunar samples and meteorites. Economic Mineralogy, one of the emerging fields of study, links this science with practical and industrial importance.

Structural Geology was originally concerned with evaluating and analyzing the changes in sedimentary strata and other deformation phenomena. Nowadays, this subject is generally concerned with formations and deformations of rocks. This field has several other branches, and likewise approaches, that focus only on certain occurrences. These include Comparative Structural Geology, which uses a macro point of view in observation and analysis; and other theoretical approaches that use the micro point of view, going down to the details and the microscopic levels of rocks and minerals.

Sedimentary Geology, from the name itself, deals with sedimentary deposits, terrestrial deposits or fossils of plants and animals, minerals, and the like. Sedimentary Geology is closely linked with other fields of study such as Marine Geology, Environmental Geology, Mineralogy, among others.

Paleontology, also associated with Anthropology, is the practically the study of prehistoric life. This field deals with the remains of plants and animals, which are more commonly recognized as fossils. This field has a lot of influence on Geomorphology or the roughly, the earth’s evolution of form.

Graduates of the Geology program specialize in one or more of the abovementioned fields and apply their collective knowledge in various areas. One of the emergent career areas is Engineering Geology, where geologic principles are utilized in investigating and afterwards, improving environmental conditions.

Study Geometry

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Geometry is a branch of mathematics that is concerned with size, shape, relative positions of figures and the properties of space including lines, points, planes and curves. Briefly, according to mathematicians, it is all about shapes and their properties, and can be classified as plane geometry and solid geometry. Plane geometry pertains to flat shapes, like lines, triangles or circles which can be drawn on a sheet of paper, while solid geometry, to objects such as prisms, pyramids and cubes. The basic concepts in geometry include line, which extends in both direction; point, which has neither length nor width and is just in exact position; intersection, where a line, line segment or ray and figure meet and share a common point; line segment, that has two distinct end points but does not extend; ray, which is a line that begins at a point and extends in one direction; end point, which defines a line segment or ray; and parallel line, which consists of two lines in the same plane which do not meet or intersect.

Geometry can be studied in many schools under a mathematics degree program. It is important to remember that there is no such title as a degree in geometry except when it is taken as an integral part of mathematics course that covers such other subjects as trigonometry, algebra and calculus. If you are interested in geometry, therefore, you will enroll in a mathematics course and be required to have skills in problem solving, critical reasoning and analytical thinking. A major in general mathematics or mathematics education covers all major branches of mathematics such as geometry, algebra, calculus and trigonometry. Other possible courses include lineal algebra, statistics, linear programming, and mathematical ideas.

In the University of the South in Tennessee, a mathematics course concentrates on one or more areas of mathematics but has specific topics of geometry, calculus, probability, group theory, number theory, international methods in physics, and linear algebra. The Eastern Michigan University also offers courses for the degree in mathematics that include geometry and algebra. A graduate study program at the University of Illinois offers courses in geometry and topology, an another branch of mathematics, with specific subjects in Differential Geometry, Global Analysis, Differential Topology, Algebraic Topology, Geometric and Polyhedral Topology, Algebraic Geometry, Computer Geometry and Problems in Classical Geometry. A non-degree course on geometry at the University of Carolina allows learners to perform operations to solve problems with real numbers, and the use of geometric and algebraic properties of figures, and teach them how to transform geometric figures algebraically. Geometry can also be studied online through programs sponsored by universities like the University of Wisconsin, University of Illinois, University of Houston, and the University of Idaho. These are designed for students pursuing engineering courses or who want to learn geometric theories and applications.

Mathematics graduates with geometry as a concentration face bright careers in business, finance and engineering as actuary or registrar, financial analyst, business consultant, operations research analyst, and teacher.

Study Geophysics

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Study Geosciences

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Earth sciences, earth science, or geosciences are the field of sciences that exclusively explore the different systems on earth, together with their specific functions. This suggests the studying of the atmosphere, the ocean, the plant and animal life. Although a geoscientist could take a multidisciplinary approach, most people wishing to study this discipline concentrate into one field, like geology for example. Geology is crucial for understanding the Earth, as it explains phenomena that affect the earth structure. Other subdivisions of geosciences are geochemistry and geophysics.

Some examples of what geoscientists do in real life are: collecting samples of minerals and sediments for research and analysis; or, measuring the amount of magnetism or seismic activity in an area, using specific equipment. This means geoscientists could predict where an earthquake is likely to happen and how often this may occur. Geochemistry experts, on the other hand, study the structure of rocks to possibly discover any pollutants, and stratigraphers try to determine the age and structure of the earth. Engineering geologists examine buildings to evaluate their stability, petroleum geologists try to define the location of crude oil, while oceanographers explore ocean tides and seafloor spreading.

Personal Qualities

This is a discipline which requires early preparation, so a zest and understanding of subjects such as biology, chemistry and physics is a good starting point. Other qualities, relevant for the subject area are:

  • Accuracy – specifically important for the preparation of records and reports
  • Like outdoors activities and prepared to work in all kinds of environment
  • Excellent physical condition
  • Work well both individually and as a part of a team
  • Ability to carry out research and the corresponding analysis

Study Options

As mentioned earlier, geosciences are a vast study field and preparation could start as early as high school. It would be a good idea for you to look at some books and web sites, introducing yourself to the subject, in order to start forming an idea of which area you wish to specialize in.

In general, most geoscientists own at least a Bachelor of Science degree, or the equivalent, and it is crucial to choose an accredited institution in order to ensure a successful career in the future. There is also an option for you to take an introductory course in the university you have chosen, so that you can decide what specific area interests you most.

It is also important to be aware that there are schools that do not have a geosciences course, but rather offer courses in the sub-disciplines, like geology. For this reason, it would be smart of you to research the university’s background in geosciences, its faculty members and instructors.

As a final point, many geoscientists go on to postgraduate study, as this will provide them with the in-depth knowledge and expertise they wish to gain in order to thrive in this profession. Not to forget that employability options are also highly enhanced in such a case.

Career options

There are a number of career options for geoscientists, but let’s stress again that a lot of employers prefer at least a master’s degree for this profession. Another common practice is that recently graduated geoscientists assume fellowship, working together with experienced professionals, and after a period of a couple of years, they could be allowed to conduct a research of their own. It may also be required of you to pass a licensing examination if you will be involved in engineering or architectural geology. Here are examples of other career paths you might wish to pursue: environmental geologist (studying the effects of pollution, mining, etc.); hydrogeologist/hydrologist – concerned with water resources; mine site geologist; petroleum geologist; structural geologist.

Overall, most geologists work in engineering and architectural firms, or for oil and gas exploration and extraction corporations. The government also employs geologists to conduct an analysis of the environment and natural resources of a country. As a geologist, work hours can be long and you might also be required to spend long periods of time away from home.

Study Geotechnology

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Study Geothermal Energy

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Study Home Science

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Home Science is a study about everything domestic. It is a study about household and everything connected to it. For many years, we have been evolving vastly in different aspects of this field.

It all started in the 19th century, because they wanted young women to be ready to their future duties as a wife, they started to put-up a school and they called it home economics. Home Economics and Livelihood Education were first presented in the United States, Canada and Great Britain, followed by Latin America, Asia, and Africa.

Home Science’s widespread throughout other countries and continents made it clear of its importance. Home science actually derived from the word home economics or more so likely it evolved to it. But some remained to calling it “Home Economics” and others preferred “Home Science”.

Home science has a lot of different topics of this field to offer. They have interior designing, child development, fabric and apparel, money managing, household interactions and development and more.

Because we practically “live” home science everyday, job-landing after graduation is not as hard as you think. The salary they pay is reasonable too, depends on what kind of field in home science you chose.

Interior designers in the United States are being paid $30,000 to $60,000. But then, salary is still based on skill and experience. Handicraft, soap-making, fabric and clothing, dairy are some that are being studied seriously and directly sold to the market. Commercial cooking or the food service industry is an example of one that employs a lot of people. Fast food chains such as McDonald’s and KFC (Kentucky Fried Chicken) hires contractually.

Day Care Centers (Child Development) or personal babysitting is mostly needed nowadays by busy parents. One of the first jobs adolescents apply for.

Treasurers (money managing) are needed in companies, movie productions, factories, etc. to list all the money needed and money being spent.

There are a lot of universities and colleges throughout the world with home science as a college course. Examples are: Punjab Agricultural University in India, The University of Delhi, and University of the Philippines, Home Economics College Dhaka Bangladesh and College of Home Economics in Egypt.

Today, government also provides vocational courses in handicrafts, sewing, haircutting, weaving cloths and rugs, baking bread, food-preserving and cooking. These are very helpful to those who did not have a chance to get into college.

Because families are the basic foundation in our society and meanwhile domestic or household knowledge is the basic foundation of a good and balanced family, it is obvious why people took courses like this and still taking it.

Knowledge in fabric-making, pottery, dairy, etc. that is being passed and perfected generation to generation will always be the only way to preserve our connection to the past and most especially the market industry of our economy.

Study Homeopathic Medicine

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In 30 years, since 1790 to 1820, Homeopathy and the exercise of using homeopathic medicine as a remedy has been discovered.

A German physician named Samuel Hahnemann first introduced homeopathy officially in 1796, when he expressed his basic principle for homeopathy which is the "law of similars" or “like cures like” (or let like be cured by like). Hahnemann himself invented the word “homeopathy” meaning “similar sufferings”. Homeopathy (also spelled as homoeopathy) is a practice of healing people using diluted form of medicine that has the same content that would manifest the same symptoms you experience to a healthy person.

Homeopathic medicines (also called “homeopathic remedy”) are based on natural elements or beings like minerals, animals and plant extracts. Homeopaths prepare these medicines by the process called dynamisation or potentisation through which they dilute the substance with alcohol or distilled water and then aggressively oscillate it by ten hard strikes against an elastic body, this process is called succussion. They dilute them then adjust the amount of concentration. They do this to keep off from wrong and undesired results or bad side effects.

v Homeopathy has its own list of medicines for different kinds of illnesses. They also sell online.

As to the homeopathic belief, the more a homeopathic remedy is diluted, the more efficacious it will be. But not all the homeopaths support this kind of belief in using tremendous amount of dilutions. The early homeopaths were originally doctors and conventionally used lower dilutions; they worry about pathology and have a strong attachment to conventional medicine. While those who exercise prescribing large amount of dilutions stresses about vital force, miasms (is an obstacle and is Hahnemann’s theory in fighting organisms like virus or bacteria that cannot be eliminated) and a spiritual interpretation of disease.

Many are against homeopathy and believe it as a sort of quackery because it lacks positive scientific evidences. All the scientific evidences of this practice can be hypothesized to no more than a placebo. One even said that “if the theory of how homeopathy might work is flawed, homeopathy itself can't work at all”. But then, all of the people who involve themselves in homeopathy or being healed by it have testaments about how effective it really is. They stated that “science” (particularly in medicine) was never about certainty of any element or entity, but more likely a probability.

There are over 26 known colleges all over the world for homeopathy. Some of which are, The Lakeland College of Homeopathy and North West College of Homoeopathy in UK, Los Angeles School of Homeopathy and Centre for Homeopathic Education New York in US and S.I.M.O.H. Italian School of Hahnemannian Homeopathic Medicine in Italy.

Homeopathy is often just a 3-year-college-course and job-hunting for the said profession is easy especially to those within a country open to homeopathy. Homeopathy is said to be the second most widely used system of medicine in the world. The research in growth field in the number of homeopaths between 2006 and 2016 is expected to grow by about 28%.

Most homeopaths are self-employed and the salary is based on the number of patients they treat. Salary ranges from $32,530 to $65,890 to $97,880+.

Though many might not believe the practice and profession of homeopathy, it is still widely studied as a college course worldwide.

Study Horticulture

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Horticulture program lets students study both the theoretical and practical areas of knowledge about plant life, soils and nutrition, ecological principles, taxonomy, nomenclature, plant culture, ecological relationships and topics that deal with sustainability. Naturally, Horticulture graduates are qualified to work in organic farming, plant breeding, zoo horticulture, research, flower production, parks and garden management, landscape design and construction, wholesale nursery, tree management or arborist, environmental planning, conservatory management and other self-employment opportunities that provide real experiences to achieve career satisfaction.

The areas included in Horticulture program are certainly worth exploring and exciting. Completion of the degree means an opportunity to become part of a rapidly growing green industry. The study is exciting because you could be traveling long distance to look for a rare plant to conduct research studies. On the other hand, it is worth exploring since every undertaking is a means to improve plant’s life and the environment in its entirety. Horticulture degree holders are the future leaders who recognize that plants are linked to humankind. Every student is encouraged to play their respective roles in every aspect of Horticulture studies to support and uplift the way of life.

The common notion that Horticulture studies is simply about gardening is certainly distorted because the degree is a multidisciplinary study that provides students with quality education and learning opportunities that equip them in contributing to achieve quality lifestyle in the community from which they belong, at home, and even abroad. Internationally, there is a huge industry that demands professionals with Horticulture degree and the jobs that await them are directly connected to commercial and environmental sectors. The horticultural qualifications and fundamental background in Horticulture science acquired by the students through the program prepare them to pursue careers that require such area of expertise. As future horticulturists, they are also wired with ideas and marketing skills needed to become competitive professionals in organizations that require their services and talents.

Employment and job opportunities overflow for graduates of Horticulture degree as managerial positions are also in store for them especially if their education, skills, and level of expertise promise huge developments and changes. To make your employment outlook completely assured and to achieve long-term objectives that stimulate career growth, take the program. Getting interested in nature, ecology, plants, and how they grow is a worthy endeavor. This is because Horticulture studies pose varied challenges to every student as they tackle issues and topics that deal with nursing, management, floristry, landscape design, pest control, urban forestry, park, landscape installation and maintenance among others. Though the job can be physically daunting and demanding—it requires a great deal of strength and stamina—the end results are truly uplifting and life-changing.

Finally, Horticulture degree holders are qualified to apply for the following positions: agricultural business consultant, urban forester, tree service technician, botanist, educator, business sales representative, enologist (winemaker), floriculturist, florist, floral designer, landscape architect, greenhouse manager or worker, horticultural therapist, landscape designer, and researcher among others. As you will see the scope of careers is wide enough.

Study Human Biology

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Human Biology is an interdisciplinary academic field, encompassing the studies of biology, biological anthropology, nutrition, and medicine. The main focus is on human beings, and a major challenge is to address certain social issues from a scientific and social perspective. This discipline is a relatively new one, founded in 1970 by a group of Stanford faculty members.

In general, human biologists explore the concept of a healthy body and the mechanisms needed to keep it this way; they formulate and evaluate health. Furthermore, human biologists explore the way interrelated communities and ecosystems function in relation with their environment. They also deal with environmental and other public policy issues affecting welfare. Therefore, they provide advice to managers, politicians, health care workers, and the general public.

Personal Qualities

Personal qualities required for this discipline relate with the ability to draw from various academic fields and draw conclusions in a scientific and precise manner. A fuller list includes:

  • Have an aptitude for sciences
  • Able to carry out extensive research
  • Ability to concentrate and carry out accurate work
  • Logical and analytical thought
  • Flexible and able to work as a part of a team

Study Options

Human biology programs are available in various universities, and usually are inter-departmental and inter-disciplinary ones. They normally integrate topics from medical sciences, biological and social sciences, as well as humanities. The goal of any Human Biology program should be to provide a broad education focused on an area of biological science relevant to humans. Students embarking on such a degree will receive a solid foundation in life science courses, together with some insight from humanities and social sciences.

Some universities only allow entrance into human biology courses into the second or third years of study, and a sound foundation in the sciences may be required. Entry can be quite competitive, and you should be prepared to be faced with some challenging study material. It is also worth noting that you would most likely need a Ph.D. degree if you wish to carry out independent research, industrial research, and college teaching, or, if you wish to advance in administrative positions. A master's degree would probably be sufficient for some jobs in basic research, applied research or product development, management, or inspection. As far as the bachelor's degree is concerned, it would be relevant for certain non-research jobs.

Career Options

It is evident that the career in human biology one wishes to pursue is highly dependent on the degree they have gained. However, because of the broadness of the field, Human Biology graduates have a very wide range of career options. Some of the more exciting prospects include the biotechnology industry, bio-medical industry, and so on. Another possibility would also be to enter a more general career – in business, management, accountancy, etc. Human biologists can work in education, food and beverage, health organizations, and government agencies. Examples of jobs are: Bioinformaticist; Biotechnology laboratory assistant;  Blood bank technologist; Cardiovascular technologist; Geneticist assistant; Health administrator; Home care worker; Nursing assistant; Medical laboratory technologist; Personal trainer; Physician assistant; Science technical writer. Not to exclude the possibility to teach and work in an academic setting.

Study Human Ecology

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Study Human Genetics

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Study Human Sciences

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Study Hydrobiology

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Hydrobiology is for the most part viewed as a discipline brought out from the world of ecology. However, it encompasses a far broader spectrum of its own. Its studies include the disciplines of morphology, taxonomy, physiology, among many others. The distinguishing aspect being that Hydrobiology studies all of these disciplines with respect to the life processes of aquatic or water dwelling organisms. It can also be divided into two major areas of study: lotic system ecology, which is the study of hydrobiology in flowing waters such as rivers and streams, and lentic system ecology, which is the study of hydrobiology in still waters such as a lake or a swamp.

Hydrobiology lends itself to many areas of research. Of particular interest to many hydro-biologists for research are the fields of ocean acidification and Paleolimnology. Ocean acidification researches the phenomena of the continuous decrease of the pH levels of the world’s oceans. On the other hand Paleolimnology is a study that is concerned with the construction of the paleoenvironments of inland bodies of water such as lakes and rivers. Climate change and the impact of human intervention are also major concerns of the research.

Students of Hydrobiology can expect to learn about all of the basic principles of hydrobiology including ecology and watershed management which deals with creating and processing projects, plans, and programs to deal with the sustainability of the function of a watershed as it affects both aquatic and human life alike. In depth understanding will be cultivated regarding health and medicine of aquatic animals, management of fisheries and techniques for fisheries, aquatic insects, aquaculture, and the ecology of freshwater animals and invertebrates. Furthermore, aspects of fisheries science, aquatic microbial ecology, wetland microbial biology, and environmental analysis are also heavily discussed.

The study of hydrobiology also takes into account the principles of aquatic genetics, aquatic plant ecology, the science of environmental systems, and oceanography. Oceanography encompasses a wide range of subjects which include ecosystem dynamics, marine plants, animals, and organisms, ocean currents and even waves. Aquatic genetics meanwhile tackle subjects which affect the variations in aquatic organisms. It also studies the genes and hereditary characteristics of these organisms. Plant ecology deals with the many varying interactions between and among different plant species along with the interactions of these species with their immediate environment. It further touches on ecologies of plant population, community, landscape, and ecosystem.

Although much of the content deals with the main disciplines of hydrobiology, there are also other relevant course requirements that are added. Subjects such as applicable natural sciences and mathematics, latest computer applications, communications proficiency, and personal growth as well as professional development are incorporated into the course as well. These subjects would be very advantageous for the future hydro-biologist in succeeding in a career in hydrobiology.

Graduates of hydrobiology have many career options to choose from. Many opportunities can be found as specialists in environmental concerns, facilitators for wildlife companies and fisheries, and aquatic environment educators. Work is also available as zoo and marine life biological experts and specialist officers for conservation offices. For those with entrepreneurial skills, fish farming and other marine based businesses are a good option.

Study Hydrogeology

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Study Hydrology

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Study Industrial Biochemistry

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Do you have a strong interest in the biological sciences, but want to delve deeper than what a typical undergraduate biology program would allow you?  Are you curious about how living things work, evolve and function on a molecular level?  If you answered yes to these questions, Industrial Biochemistry may be for you.  Earning a Bachelor of Science degree in Industrial Biochemistry—a degree program now offered by hundreds of colleges and universities throughout the world—will prepare you for a rewarding and often lucrative future in the Biochemistry industry, one that centers directly on the study of molecular biology and the nature in which living things are created and function.  To help you become more familiar with this degree track, below we will provide a brief synopsis of the B.S. program in Industrial Biochemistry, including a course description and the types of classes you will need to take as you make your way through this exciting course of study.
Bachelor of Science Degree in Industrial Biochemistry:  Course Description
The Bachelor of Science Degree in Industrial Biochemistry is a three to four-year undergraduate course of study in biotechnology.  The program places emphasis on the study of living cells and/or their components and the medical and industrial applications of such substances.  The course is designed to prepare students for career positions in biotechnology and related industries, careers that have grown rapidly over the past several years.
Students pursuing a B.S. degree in Industrial Biochemistry will learn and master the traditional biotechnological processes, which include the use of microorganisms to produce alcohol or antibiotics.  Students will also acquire advanced knowledge and skills in some of the more modern biotechnological processes, including the use of genetic engineering to produce protein-based drugs, such as Interferon; engineered plants which are drought or pesticide resistant; and/or transgenic animals—animals with novel and very special characteristics, including a faster growth cycle.
Bachelor of Science Degree in Industrial Biochemistry:  Coursework
Like all undergraduate degree programs, the Bachelor of Science Degree in Industrial Biochemistry includes both core and elective coursework in addition to the general education requirements of the specific college or university.  General education requirements typically include classes in subjects such as the natural and physical sciences; social and behavioral sciences; English composition; communications and speech; foreign languages; and mathematics.  These general education classes can be taken either prior to commencing with the program’s required coursework or concurrently, the latter of which is recommended.
The core courses for the B.S. program in Industrial Biochemistry include:
  • Introduction to Biochemistry—a field that deals with the biological function of cellular molecules.
  • Principles and Applications of Industrial Biochemistry—the study of the applications of biological molecules for medical and industrial purposes.
  • Microbial Technology—a biology course that concentrates on the various uses of bacteria, fungi, yeast and viruses.
  • Genetic Engineering—the identification, isolation and engineering of genes in order to gain insight into gene function.
  • Bioprocess Technology—a course that focuses on the aspects of industrial-scale biotechnology manufacturing and processing.
To qualify for admission into the Bachelor of Science Degree program in Industrial Biochemistry you must possess at least a high school diploma or its equivalent and have an above-average aptitude in the subjects of science, mathematics and technology.  This proficiency will usually be tested via an entrance examination prior to being considered for admission.

Study Industrial Biotechnology

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Study Industrial Chemistry

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Industrial chemistry is a special field of chemistry which works with the industrial use of raw materials. Specifically, it deals with the analysis of problems related to the procurement of industrial raw materials, the creation of solutions for these problems, and the development of better production techniques. It is a practical combination of both science and technology that aims to help the human society to make the most out of the natural resources that are available to them. Thus, industrial chemistry not only finds ways to obtain and procure natural resources, it also deals with developing these raw materials into improved and more useful products.

Historically, industrial chemistry has been made up of two major branches: Organic Industrial Chemistry and Inorganic Industrial Chemistry. Organic Industrial Chemistry focuses on raw materials such as rubber, cellulose, and natural fibers. It uses these materials to compose products such as diesel fuel, soaps, sugars, and fats. It also tries to obtain other compounds from these raw materials such as hydrogen and sulfur.

On the other hand, inorganic chemistry focuses on raw materials such as water, uranium, and phosphates to produce other products such as glasses, cements, and ceramics. It is also the branch of industrial chemistry that produces metals, alloys, pigments, and even fertilizers.

In recent years however, the distinction between these two branches of industrial chemistry has slowly blurred because of their common goal of creating new and useful products out of natural raw materials. The trend is pointing to a probable scenario where organic and inorganic industrial chemistry will eventually merge into one big scientific field of industrial chemistry.

Industrial chemistry makes full use of natural resources found on land, in the atmosphere, and in the ocean as well. Metal and non-metal elements are excavated and mined from the earth’s land masses; gases such as nitrogen and oxygen are extracted directly from the atmosphere; and salt and water are taken from the wide oceans. Aside from these, industrial chemistry also takes resources from the biosphere of the earth such as plants and animals. Essences, saccharides, and cellulose are abundant in plants, while animals are very good sources for enzymes.

A course in industrial chemistry would involve subjects that take up the fundamentals of chemistry such as chemical reactions (stoichiometry and reaction yields), equilibrium, rate expressions, catalysis, and temperature effects. It is also common for subjects in commodity chemicals, gas processes (methanation and shift reactions), and chemical plant operation to be included. Metallurgy and research on the petrochemical industry are also major subjects of study.

Industrial chemists have many career fields that they can pursue. Many industries have a high requirement for industrial chemists from agriculture to medicine to energy and environment protection. In the academe, industrial chemists are sought after by universities for their expertise in problem analysis and solution creation which are important skills that they can teach to future industrial chemists. Industrial chemists with writing skills are also in demand in the education sector as technical writers who can produce relevant articles and journals about the field of industrial chemistry. Other career opportunities available for the industrial chemist include research and development in pharmaceutical and electronics companies, quality control for chemical plants and manufacturing factories, and supervisory positions for laboratories and production facilities.

Study Industrial Electricity

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Study Industrial Microbiology

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Are you looking for a graduate program in which you can build upon the knowledge and skills you acquired while pursuing a bachelor degree in one of the biological or physical sciences?  Have you considered earning a Master of Science degree in Industrial Microbiology?  The Master of Science degree in Industrial Microbiology is an ideal program for students who wish to study and learn the various real-world applications of the Microbiology field.  It is also a great step for any student in terms of employment prospects, as qualified graduates are consistently in high demand, both here and abroad.  To help you become more familiar with this degree path, below we will discuss the program in a bit more detail, including the course description and content, as well as the eligibility requirements for admission.
Master of Science Degree in Industrial Microbiology:  Course Description and Content
The Master of Science Degree in Industrial Microbiology (also called Applied Microbiology) is a two to three-year graduate-level program that is currently being offered by many colleges and universities throughout the world.  The course is designed to show students how microorganisms are detected and removed—and often used—in the manufacturing of food and/or industrial products.  Topics covered under this degree may include biochemistry, immunology, industrial and food microbiology, microbial physiology, Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic microorganisms, and environmental microbiology.   Students will gain the theoretical and academic depth in areas such as cell and molecular biology, biochemistry and microbiology, while also undergoing an invaluable practical and applied experience.
Although the exact titles of the required courses may vary from one institution to the next, some of the courses students are likely to encounter include:
  • Microbiology Basics.  This course covers the basic principles of microbiology, including the study of microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, etc.); the isolation, cultivation and identification of microbes; and host parasite relationships as they relate to disease.
  • Microbial Techniques.  Microbial Techniques is a course that deals with the practical applications of the many concepts covered in Microbiology Basics.
  • Food Microbiology.  This course, which features a theory and laboratory module, is an introduction to the most important microorganisms encountered in the food and dairy industries.  Students will study topics such as the various quality control techniques with regard to raw materials and finished products, microbial metabolism, food and drug regulations and guidelines, and the theory of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) for food distributors.
  • Pharmaceutical Microbiology.  This course focuses on the practices of quality control and quality assurance as they apply to the pharmaceutical industry—practices that are based on the current governmental regulations.  Students will also learn, through practical experiments, how to evaluate the anti-microbial effectiveness of disinfectants, food additives and preservatives, and antibiotics.
Master of Science Degree in Industrial Microbiology:  Eligibility
In order to be eligible to pursue a Master of Science degree in Industrial Microbiology students must possess, at minimum, a Bachelor of Science degree, preferably in the field of biology, chemistry, biochemistry or microbiology.  U.S. students will also need to achieve a passing score on the Graduate Record Examination (GRE), and depending on the institution, all students may be required to undergo an interview with the program faculty prior to admission.

Study Industrial Plantation

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Have you recently earned an undergraduate degree in the field of forestry or environmental sciences?  Are you seeking to continue your education in a relevant graduate program that matches your key interests?  If so, you may want to consider the Master of Science degree program in Industrial Plantation.  To give you a clearer picture with regard to the specifics of the M.S. degree in Industrial Plantation, below we will provide a brief description of the program, including the course content students will encounter and the eligibility requirements for program admittance.
Master of Science Degree in Industrial Plantation:  Program Overview
The Master of Science Degree in Industrial Plantation is a graduate-level program offered by a select number of universities throughout the world.  The program spans two academic years or four full semesters and is open to all graduate-level candidates who possess a relevant bachelor degree.  Students will be asked to complete approximately 36 hours of coursework in the program, coursework that includes classroom lectures, outside group projects, independent research and a completed thesis or comprehensive examination prior to graduation.
What is Industrial Plantation?
So what exactly will students study in the M.S. degree program in Industrial Plantation?
For those of you not familiar with the term, “industrial plantation,” refers to an enterprise established for the sole purpose of producing high volumes of wood in a short period of time.  These plantations can be grown and managed by a number of different entities, including:
  • State Forestry Authorities—such as the Forestry Commission in Britain
  • Paper and Wood Industries
  • Private Landowners—such as Weyerhaeuser, Rayonier and Plum Creek Timber in the United States, and Asia Pulp and Paper in Indonesia
The growing of Christmas trees by a private landowner is a prime example of an Industrial Plantation, as these trees have but one purpose and are rarely permitted to grow to their full potential.
Most industrial plantations are large-scale operations that are actively managed for the commercial production of forest-based products.  During the process, individual blocks of trees are even-aged and often consist of just one or two species (such as fir trees that serve as Christmas trees).  These species can be either indigenous or exotic, but despite their origin, the plants are often genetically altered for desired traits, including growth and resistance to pests and diseases.  An example of this is the timber species, which are altered for stem straightness and the ability to produce voluminous wood.
Master of Science Degree in Industrial Plantation:  Eligibility Requirements
To qualify for admission into the Master of Science degree program in Industrial Plantation, students must possess, at minimum, a bachelor degree in forestry, forest management, environmental science or a related degree with a 3.0 grade point average (GPA) in all core and elective coursework.  Students in the United States may also be required to sit for the Graduate Record examination (GRE), on which they must earn a combined score of 1000 on the verbal and quantitative components of the exam.

Study Infectious Diseases

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Study Information Science

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The field of information science is different from information theory. Information science is the field that is primarily involved with the collection and classification, analysis and manipulation, storage and retrieval, and dissemination and distribution of information. Information theory on the other hand is a division of the applied mathematical sciences and of engineering which is concerned with quantifying information.

Information science is also often mistakenly thought of as a division of computer science. This is not accurate however because information science is a very broad interdisciplinary field which include not only computer science but also social sciences, management, communications, philosophy, and public policy.

Practitioners of information science study the usage and the application of knowledge (i.e. information) within organizations and various other groups of people. Alongside this, they also study the interaction between and among organizations and groups of people, including any applicable system of information that exists within these groups. From the results of these studies, practitioners of information science aim to improve these information systems or to create and provide new and better ones.

Practitioners of information science also focus more on understanding the problems that are at the system level rather than the problems within the individuals that make up the system. They look at the difficulties that are occurring by using the point of view of the stakeholders and then try to come up with solutions based on the information that they have gathered and analyzed.

To become more familiar with the field of information science, one can take a course in a university. These courses usually dwell on three general areas of concern: the foundations of information science, the cognitive area of information science, and the systems and technologies involved in information science.

The foundations of information science provide a general overview of the history of information science and conceptual structures, the academic roots, and the methodologies involved in this field. It explores the principles and the concepts that underlie the information science, which include studies on information systems analysis, information storage and consequent retrieval, and information systems design and development.

The cognitive area of information science deals with the principles and techniques that are used in information science to study the relationships between cognition, artificial intelligence, and even neurobiology. It gives a deeper understanding of the computational approaches involved in language processing and the issues in language architectures which include semantics, syntax, and pragmatics.

The systems and technologies area of information science meanwhile tackles the data structures and the client-server systems involved in communications systems. Information systems design is also adequately covered along with information systems analysis, software engineering, network stability and security, and web or internet technologies and standards.

A host of career opportunities await the practitioner of information science. Any organization in almost any field will have a great need for the services of the information scientist. For example, the health care industry has a need for practitioners of information science to manage computer based digital libraries of medical records and other patient information.

Study Inorganic Chemistry

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Inorganic chemistry is the area of chemistry which studies the properties, characteristics, and behavior of inorganic compounds, that is, compounds that are generally considered to have mineral origins. It is a vast field that encompasses most chemical compounds that are not carbon-based and do not contain C-H bonds. Most of the work in inorganic chemistry is based on comprehending the behavior of inorganic elements and understanding how these elements can be modified and adapted into useful modern day purposes. It is very much like materials science and physics in this regard, but what separates inorganic chemistry from these two fields is the fact that inorganic chemistry tackles these properties very keenly on the molecular level.

Inorganic chemistry also involves other functions such as developing ways to get back most of the metals that are present in waste streams; analyzing ores that have been mined from different areas; and researching on methods for treating soil using inorganic chemicals.

Inorganic chemistry has many applications across many aspects of chemical commerce and industry. It has much to do with the production of catalysts, pigments, coatings, microchips, and medicine. It also finds various functions in the fields of materials science, petroleum or fuel, agriculture, education, mining, and environmental science.

Courses in inorganic chemistry can be found in many different colleges and universities. These programs focus on the scientific examination of inorganic elements and their derivative compounds not including the hydrocarbon elements. They also include studies on the characterization and amalgamation of molecules with non-carbon bases including their structure, their conductivity, and their bonding and reactive properties. Research techniques are also given emphasis with subjects such as x-ray diffraction, photo electron analysis, and spectroscopy. In most universities, some transition metals and other specific compounds with inorganic molecules are also given some attention.

Graduates of inorganic chemistry courses can expect to find employment in a variety of positions across different fields of commerce. In the mining industry alone, inorganic chemistry majors can be hired as analytical chemists who specialize in the evaluation of ores and other mining products; they can be hired as supervisors who will oversee the quality control and the productivity of the laboratories, and they can also be hired as research staff who will be responsible for exploring new processes that can make the mining industry a lot more positive for the environment.

Inorganic chemists can also work for government agencies that have an interest in environment oriented endeavors. With their knowledge in inorganic chemistry, they are very much needed in recommending ways on how to recycle products contaminated with chemicals in order to make the most out of these. Even industries such as transportation and agriculture have a great need for this kind of work.

Furthermore, inorganic chemists can find jobs in the manufacturing industry. Analytical coordinator positions are held by inorganic chemists who are responsible for monitoring the manufacturing processes. Inconsistencies in the materials used in the process, the means of measurements, and other variables are all analyzed by the inorganic chemist.

Study Intelligent Embedded Microsystems

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Study Irrigation

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Are you a student who is considering earning either an Associate’s Degree or Bachelor of Science Degree in the interesting field of irrigation?  Have you researched the various degree options available to you and what they entail?  Irrigation is a very important field of study, one that teaches students the methods and principles behind water architecture.  Planning, developing, managing and evaluating irrigation systems for natural and man-made habitats are the primary skills students will learn while pursuing one of these degrees—degrees that are now being offered by colleges and universities throughout the world.  Below we will take a closer look at two of these degree programs:  the Associate’s Degree in Irrigation Technology and the Bachelor of Science Degree in Irrigation Engineering, providing a brief description of each of these programs.
Associate’s Degree in Irrigation Technology
The Associate of Applied Science in Irrigation Technology is a two-year program that is typically offered by junior and community colleges.  The program involves both classroom lecture sessions and practical outdoor experiences in which students gain valuable insight into the agricultural and turf industries.  Graduates of this program will acquire valuable knowledge and skills related to the various irrigation practices, water and energy consumption rules and the variety of installation methods for irrigation programs.  Students will learn skills such as basic electricity, motor control, and irrigation control wiring, and will use technology regularly during the program as a way to aid them in the analysis and understanding of the relationships between water and communities.
To be eligible to participate in the Associate of Applied Science Degree program in Irrigation Technology students must possess at least a high school diploma or its equivalent and remain in good standing with the junior or community college throughout the duration of the program.
The Bachelor of Science in Irrigation Engineering
The Bachelor of Science degree in Irrigation Engineering is an undergraduate-level program that typically spans three to four years depending on the institution.  The course involves both core and elective courses, along with the general education classes required by the college or university.  Some of the topics and areas of study the program covers include:
  • Integrated Water Management.  This course focuses on the use of treated wastewater in irrigation, concurrent use of surface and ground water, water laws and policy, training tools for improving water management, and others.
  • Crop Water Requirements.  Students studying crop water requirements will typically focus on the evaporation-transpiration (ET) of agricultural crops and other vegetation based on weather station instrumentation and or flux systems, such as eddy covariance and Bowen ratio. It is important to estimate ET to understand water requirements and to lead to improvements in water management. This sometimes also includes measurements and/or estimations of crop production.
  • Irrigation System Operation and Maintenance. This area of study centers around the operation and maintenance of irrigation systems, which sometimes includes organizational development and institutional strengthening of water users' associations. Topics include specific procedures, operational plans, maintenance plans, and irrigation system administration.
  • On-farm Irrigation Methods. Students will learn to design and evaluate on-farm irrigation methods, including surface (furrows, borders, and basins) and pressurized (sprinkler and micro-irrigation) methods. This may also include other topics, such as pressure regulation, water application uniformity, and water filtration.
To be eligible to participate in the Bachelor of Science degree program in Irrigation Engineering students must possess a high school diploma or its equivalent and maintain a 2.5 grade point average or better in all coursework.  Many institutions may also require students to take and earn a passing score on an entrance examination prior to admission.

Study Library Science and Documentation

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Cleopatra wept as she watched the library of Alexandria burn to the ground – the depiction of Cleopatra when the Romans under Julius Octavian Caesar assaulted the city of Alexandria.

Why she cried is literally no mystery because it is known to some of the greatest minds that libraries hold the epitome of the world’s knowledge no matter how boring most people think about such places. In the course of the study the students would be initiated into different types of documentation systems. The stage usually begins in the most basic and traditional forms of documenting books such as the index system which can be seen in some of the older libraries which still have yet to adapt into the computerized forms of system documentation. The basic stages of the curriculum also include teaching the students a variety of techniques and processes regarding document preservation and maintenance specifically for specialized collections. The perfect example of such processes can be seen in the film Angels and Demons starring Tom Hanks. The audience would be shown the Vatican’s collection of ancient journals, books and essays made by the majority of intellectuals during the renaissance where is kept in an airtight room in which oxygen is regulated in order to prevent damage to the documents due to the forms of degradation caused by age and other environmental factors such as moisture and molds.

The students would be taught preliminary copyright and intellectual property laws because it is known that no one can really stop the process of decay especially with some specific copies of books or documents that may span to hundreds of years old. That is why some most libraries are forced to make new copies of some of these text and they commonly leave the process to their librarians. Now, in some academic institutions the course also includes the study of specific major languages in their curriculum because there are certain text and documents that are in need of translation for academic purposes.

The rise of Internet and other forms electronic information processing had drastically changed the course. The students are now immersed in studying numerous varieties of electronic documentation such as the upkeep of online journal subscriptions and information filtering or tracking. Ergo in most modern libraries students and patrons no longer have to bear with old index system since all they have to do is log in and search by either title or author. However most of the older librarians consider the new systems as an oversight because a simple routine system crash can disable the library’s operation for days and even weeks at a time. But still the realm of the Internet is considered to be too vast not to be taken advantage off and the growing trend of online libraries have become a new specialization for the course. That is why some institutions have instilled basic information technology subjects to the curriculum in order for the new students to cope with the growing trend.

Study Life Science

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Life Science is a very vast field which includes various topics.  Life science is a study which mainly comprises study of plants & animal, living organisms and human beings.  When we are discussing living organisms it means study of all the required conditions for living beings. Life Science is one of the root fields of science. You can choose from the field of, Biomedical, Biological, biochemistry or genetics for specialization in the field of life science.

Personal Qualities:
  1. In-depth knowledge in Biology.
  2. Curious Nature
  3. Logical flow of thinking
  4. Patience
  5. Aptitude towards field of Science
Study Options:

There are really huge ranges of specialization topics which you can study once you opt of life sciences. But you have to set base right from your high school days by selecting Biology as major subject. At undergraduate level you can select various files such as Biochem, Biotech and Biology etc. Post –graduation specialization can be done in Botany, Zoology or bioinfo. However, getting admission to all these courses is not cake walk as it requires rigorous study for various entrance exams & interviews of various universities, if you goal to get in a good university .As a Good institute is a perfect gate pass to a good career.       & nbsp;   
Career Options:
Life science opens a wide range of avenues to you in field of research and development as scientists, pharmaceutical companies. They can also choose to go into academic field wherein they can become professors in college for their specialised field. Let’s see some examples of important professions which you can choose:
  1. Microbiologist-: Investigate effect of microorganisms on the plants &environment. There are various types of specialization available being a microbiologist. Such as Agriculture, Medicines or organisms.
  2. Pathologist-: Study cause- effect analysis of diseases on living organisms. By diagnosing various body- tissues and fluids they do root-cause analysis of any disease.
  3. Pharmacologist-: Develop various medicinal drugs & study its effects & affects. They closely work with medical practitioners to understand how different diseases react to medicines in different way.
  4. Zoologist -: Study the origin of various behaviours and diseases and varied life process of living beings. Zoology can be classified in various fields for study of birds, mammals and reptiles.
  5. Marine Biologist--: study various functionalities of aquatic plants &animals. They also do research various methods through which underwater crops can be raised.
  6. Anatomist-: Study the complicated structure human bodies. They mainly try to investigate, if any body part gets injured or destroyed how it can be transplanted through various tissues or organs.
  7. Agronomist--: Study to improve quality of crops. By applying scientific methods increasing the resistance capacity of crops against various kinds of pests and diseases.
  8. Botanist-: Study of various diseases of plants & the cure on the same.
Hence we can clearly state that if you really plan to take  up a career in life science sky is the limit as there is wide scope in various fields of life science.Life Science is a very vast field which includes various topics.  Life science is a study which mainly comprises study of plants & animal, living organisms and human beings.  When we are discussing living organisms it means study of all the required conditions for living beings. Life Science is one of the root fields of science. You can choose from the field of, Biomedical, Biological, biochemistry or genetics for specialization in the field of life science.

Study Marine Biology

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The study of Marine Biology deals with understanding of plants, animals, and other organisms in the ocean. At that, Marine biology examines not only the organisms per se but also the organisms’ environment (biomes) and how these organisms interact with their environment. In Marine Biology, marine life is classified based not on taxonomy but according to each organism’s habitat. In this light, the study of marine biology focuses on the analysis of plants, animals, microscopic organisms and their natural environment.

If you choose to build a career in the field of Marine Biology and be employed as a Marine Biologist in the future, you must now familiarize yourself with the following terms and studies so as to ready yourself in studying Marine Biology as a degree program in college: Biology; Zoology; General Chemistry; Organic Chemistry; General Physics; Marine Science; Biological Oceanography; Fisheries; Molecular Biology and Cell Biology; Genetics; Physiology; Organismal Diversity; Mammalian Physiology; Microbial Physiology; Invertebrate Physiology; Cellular Physiology; Phycology; Marine Phycology; Ichthyology; Marine Ichthyology; General Microbiology; Environmental Microbiology; Invertebrate Zoology; Comparative Histology of Marine Organisms; Marine Aquaculture; Population and Community Ecology; and Applications of Biotechnology in Marine Biology. Marine Biology majors mat take electives on specific studies related to Marine biology such as: Coral Reef Ecology; Tropical Marine Invertebrates; Deep Sea Biology; Biology of Algae and Marine Environmental Physiology. Of course, marine biologists need to submit reports as a result of their research which is why studying marine biology also includes taking English course subjects such as Technical Writing, Small Group Communication, and Speech Communication. Strong oral and written communication skills are required of everyone.

Studying Marine Biology does not restrict the students inside the classroom. A lot of field works are done by the students in order for them to fully understand the marine life. Students studying marine biology are taught underwater photography, SCUBA diving, snorkelling, and other water sports and activities which will help them do their field work for research purposes. At that, marine biologists need to focus on observation and research as they have to keep an eye on details when searching underwater.

Marine Biology degree programs are offered in a number of countries around the world, including Australia, United States of America, United Kingdom, Canada, New Zealand, Philippines, and Malaysia. Students who are graduates of Marine Biology are employed as Marine Biologists in a number of institutions such as the government where they can participate in rescue missions for aquatic animals and the whole marine life, museums, aquariums and oceanariums, private research laboratories where they work as laboratory scientists and research for findings for academic purposes, consultancy firms, or in colleges and universities which offer marine biology degree programs. For one to be successful in his/her career as a marine biologist, experience is the key. The more the person has experience in the field of marine biology, the higher his/her salary gets. Marine biologists earn thousands of dollars every year and that will continue to rise as they gain experience through lab and field work.

Study Marine Sciences

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The term “marine sciences” refers to a wide range of different subjects and practices, all related in some way to the study of the ocean and its inhabitants. The most popular form of marine science is the marine biology, the study of all the living things that inhabit the seas and compose fragile and complex marine ecosystems. There are, however, many other areas of specialization within the marine sciences, such as the study of ocean currents, marine weather patterns (including hurricanes and tsunamis), and pollution. Because of the fragility of the ocean and its central role in regulating the health of our planet, marine science is an extremely exciting and important field.

Personal Qualities
  • Interest in the sea, ocean life, and/or the relationship of human beings to the marine environment
  • Analytical, patient, and methodical mind
  • Desire to spend long periods – perhaps as long as weeks or months – out on the ocean.
  • Boating and diving expertise is a plus!
Study Options

Because marine science is such a diverse field, there are many areas of specialization to choose from, and your choice of a sub-field will determine the kind of training and preparation you will need. If you select marine biology, then of course a background in the life sciences is crucial. If, on the other hand, you’re more interested in pollution and man-made disasters such as oil spills, then a knowledge of chemistry and the industrial sciences will be useful. In all cases, you will need a strong grasp of basic biology, chemistry, physics, and environmental science or geology – if possible, begin your preparation early by taking advanced classes in high school so that you will have an advantage at the undergraduate and graduate levels.
Career Options

There are countless careers available for people who have studied marine science. They range from highly abstract research fields such as marine biologist to applied and down-to-earth paths such as working for various industries as a nautical engineer. One of the most lucrative career paths open to people with an expertise in marine science is to work for the fossil fuels industry. Oil companies are in constant need of well-educated employees to find offshore oil, design better tools to get it, and devise best practices for safety and profitability. Those who want to make a strong positive impact on the world may find a job studying methods for protecting and cleaning up the ocean.

Study Materials Physics and Technology

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Study Materials Science

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Materials science is an interdisciplinary field of study closely allied with engineering studies. Basic materials science study focuses on understanding the properties, functions and characteristics of matter, how materials are assembled and how to use this knowledge to engineer high-performing products. It is a fundamental science toward the development of material products, and almost exclusively deals with solid matter.
Materials science can only be studied in its entirety at high education institutions. Colleges, universities and technical schools all provide courses in materials science. It is important to note that many materials science programs will include engineering programs, and graduates will typically receive a degree that includes both these disciplines. This route of education will also include require laboratory sessions along with an internship for a research lab or industrial engineering.
Very few companies will offer an apprenticeship program in this field, and many will still require some level of higher education before offering any form of full-time employment. Workshops are offered in materials science, but often these are for teachers, professors or other employees that already possess some formal higher education training.
Skills, Qualifications, and Prerequisites for Studies in Materials Science
Since almost all material science courses are offered at higher education institutions, students must meet admission requirements for universities, colleges and technical schools. These requirements can range from secondary school certificates to entrance exams, but differ by country, state and individual institution. To pursue a master’s or doctorate in materials science, students must first possess a bachelor’s of science degree.
An aptitude towards the maths and sciences is essential for any degree of success in materials science. Students should have a solid foundation in basic math, physics and naturals science before considering this course of study. As this study typically leads to a wide range of work, possessing a complete fundamental knowledge by the end of secondary school will better prepare candidates for all educational and employment opportunities.
Material scientists or material science engineers will need persistence and confidence, as they often undertake scientific projects where achieving the desired experimental results is difficult.
Skills and Qualifications Acquired from Studies in Materials Science
Since a study in materials science goes hand-in-hand with engineering studies, students will often study materials science along with another specified area – such as electrical, mechanical, production or technical engineering. An overall basic course in materials science, specifically, will provide skills and knowledge in the following areas:
  • Advanced physics, including atomic structures and bonds.
  • Advanced chemistry.
  • Ceramics, metallurgy and polymerics.
  • History of material production (stone age, bronze age, etc.).
  • Material properties, types and classifications.
  • Matter transformations, systems and phases.
  • Structure, diffusion and imperfections of solids.
  • Problem-solving strategies.
  • Types of structural modification.
  • Laboratory and engineering technologies.
  • Specialized engineering studies.
Careers for Studies in Materials Science
There are innumerable jobs available to materials scientists and engineers, as much of their work includes researching, developing and improving materials important to society. Whether employed by an oil company, production plant, international corporation, government program, research facility or university, materials science graduates can expect to work in the development of nuclear materials, catalysts, batteries, fuels, metals, plastics and countless other materials.
Some materials science graduates work in forensic sciences or healthcare associations, either identifying important materials, developing new technology or inventing new material combinations for specific purposes. They can also work as professors, metallurgists, welders, technicians, analysts, writers and chemists.

Study Mathematical Biology

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Study Mathematics

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The study of Mathematics involves the manipulation of numbers, variables, and abstract concepts in equations and theorems. These mathematical concepts can be applied in all areas of sciences, technology, business, industry, and commerce.

Mathematics indeed is a very wide and diverse degree option, which may be useful in so many fields of life! Mathematics has helped people understand the changing of seasons, perform everyday tasks, and even build skyscrapers.

Mathematics is widely applied in Business – from helping you calculate your monthly income and expenses, to building complicated financial and statistical models to analyze profits, strategy, and so on. It represents the background for developing products for financial risk management, estimating insurance risks, and analyzing financial markets.Mathematics is also much used in architecture, computer robotics, and robotics – various objects or buildings are designed and constructed through the use of geometry and calculus.

Mathematics is also responsible for the design of computer programs to create security codes, develop communication technologies, airline routes, and so on. Mathematics undoubtedly is everywhere!

Personal Qualities

If you wish to study Mathematics at a degree level, an important quality surely is a love of numbers. Mathematicians are also known for their intelligence, precision, and analytical thinking. On top of these, personal skills, suitable for a degree in Mathematics are the following:

- Imaginative thought – especially needed by architects, engineers, and so on.

- Diligence – mathematical models are often complicated and a great amount of hard work is required to grasp concepts and theories.

- Innovation – be open to exploring and adopting new ideas

- Solve problems efficiently

- Work effectively both as an individual and as a part of a team

Study Options

When choosing to study Mathematics, the first decision one needs to make is whether to take Mathematics alone, or combine it with another subject. As already discussed, it can form the fundamental ground for a variety of options, such as finance, statistics, engineering, computers, teaching, and so on. Combining mathematics with other options may be a good choice if you wish to attain a larger pool of skills, such as communication, presentation, and report writing.

Going back to the point that Mathematics offers an enormous range of opportunities, it can be taken both as an undergraduate degree with the intention to go on to postgraduate study, or combine it with another area of interest. A great number of mathematicians have a doctoral degree, and many of them have completed post-doctoral studies too.

Finally, when choosing an undergraduate or postgraduate degree in mathematics, one needs to know that there are study options in terms of applied or theoretical mathematics. The first involve the practical application of the subject in the areas of business, architecture, engineering, and so on; while theoretical mathematics may work on developing a new theorem, for example.

Career Options

An undergraduate degree in mathematics can act as a prerequisite for a good range of careers, while a 2009 study demonstrated that the top three jobs in terms of income were suitable for math majors. Another survey shows that the 15 highest-earning college degrees have mathematics as the core element.

Some career paths, following from a degree in Mathematics include:

- Mathematical Modeling – mathematics is applied to describe how real world systems work, and an example are mathematicians, working for financial companies to examine financial models and make predictions, based on statistical facts.

- Finance – both banks and Wall Street have been employing math majors.

- Statistics – again, statistics has a wide range of applications, and one of the most popular ones is insurance; the specialists coming up with insurance rates are called actuaries.

- Computer Science, Cryptography, and Biotech are also very popular and well-paid career paths for mathematics majors.

Job roles include Actuary, Mathematician, Auditor, Numerical Analyst, Controller, Statistician, Engineering Analyst, Market Research, Cryptologist, etc.

Possible employers in the Private/Non Profit sector are: Banks, Computer Firms, R & D Firms, Engineering/ Manufacturing, Stock Brokerage, Houses Investment Firms, Aerospace Companies, Market Research Firms and others.

Government positions can also be found: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Capital Budgeting and Planning, Health Care Financial Administration, etc.

Study Medical Anthropology

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Study Medical Chemistry

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Study Medical Office Assistant

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Study Metallurgy

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When the Hittites found out about extraction of iron from ores, they wasted no time conquering neighboring kingdoms that had no choice but succumb to the military superiority of the Hittites as their iron implements made bronze weapons obsolete. Because of the discovery of iron, the need for superior metals have become the thrust of ancient military powers which inadvertently led to the development of metal casting which would be later known as Metallurgy.

Metallurgy is the science that deals with the physical and chemical behaviors of metallic elements and their mixtures or more commonly known as alloys.

In modern times, the use of metals is just too many to count but normally we see them as base materials for transport vehicles like airplanes, maritime ships, automobiles and spacecrafts, we also see metals being used as foundations for structures such as skyscrapers, bridges and houses and, of course, being used as the main component of military hardware. Truly, life as known today would not come about had metal had not been discovered.

Since a lot of metals had been already discovered, most metallurgists today are concerned on how to efficiently extract ores with emphasis on safety and economics. Typically, metals can only be extracted with the use of blast furnaces that would subject the ores into extremely high temperatures and because of the dangers of these high temperature processes to the workers and to the environment, the process of extracting ores cheaply and in a safe manner remains a work in progress for leading metallurgists.

Another important aspect of Metallurgy is the mining of ores and pinpointing of sites where there is abundance of ores could be found. Basically, metallurgists would be looking for locations that would be rich in iron, aluminum, copper, zinc and magnesium; the five most used metals in the world. Using modern equipments, they can do sampling and they would know if a site could be a potential ore mine.

Probably, the most popular path of metallurgists is going to production engineering of metals. The fate of the extracted metals would be on the hands of production engineers depending on what type of consumers would they cater to. Usually, the weight, strength, toughness, hardness, corrosion resistance and performance in extreme temperature are the main considerations depending on the client’s specifications. For example, IBM Computers plans to manufacture laptop computers that have internally heat resistant materials that would not conduct heat generated internally, a common problem by current models. The metallurgist who would have to solve this conundrum would have to do a series of tests on different kinds of metals and alloys on a temperature commonly reached by laptops internally. Once the right material has been identified, production of these superior laptops would commence. Of course, cost of producing a specified metal is always in consideration. Although, the metallurgist can mixed the perfect alloy that would meet the specified metal but the cost of producing such metal is economically not feasible, then probably, the client might not push through with their plans of mass producing their new models.

The field of Metallurgy is, indeed, could be considered crude but with advancements in computer and laser technologies, room for further advancements and opportunities is like a big door waiting to be opened by those who would take courses in metallurgy.

Study Meteorology

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Meteorology is a multidisciplinary field of study that looks at weather patterns and the atmosphere in a scientific manner. Meteorological studies observe weather variables such as temperature, air pressure, water vapor and the gradients and interactions of these variables. Being a multidisciplinary study, other notable field of studies under or together with meteorology is climatology, atmospheric physics, and atmospheric chemistry.

In the old days, those predicting the weather were considered to be practicing witchcraft. However, in modern times, especially in the latter half of the last century and after the development of computers, following weather patterns became a more precise science and predicting immediate weather conditions could be done by anybody who has studied Meteorology.

The importance of studying weather is perhaps one of the most important fields of studies. In historical studies of species of animals like the dinosaurs and other animals that perhaps only paleontologists would or could fully fathom, the terrifying conclusion of their extinction usually points to one phenomena and that is extreme changes in the weather. If this really were the causes of extinction of most prehistoric species then it is really a tall order to understand the weather and so that proper precautions could be set in case a catastrophic weather phenomenon would happen in the immediate future. Right now, meteorologists are sounding off warning signals that the drastic climactic changes happening all over the world are at an alarming proportions particularly the El Nino and La Nina phenomena and other signs as well like hurricanes all over the world are registering unprecedented velocities and ferocity.

The science of Meteorology is highly dependent on instrumentations. Since it was discovered that there are variable factors that contribute to the overall conditions of the atmosphere, meteorologists now take into account changes on these variables factors and they usually measure these variable factors with the use of equipments.

Thermometers, pressure, wind velocity and humidity can be measured by simple equipments such as the thermometer, barometer, anemometer and hygrometer but upper air data readings would usually employ a complicated network of radiosondes which are aided by aircrafts. Like in cases of tracking a hurricane, which could traverse continental divides in a matter of days, satellite imaging is usually used. Practically, to save on expensive equipments, different countries’ meteorological offices have agreed to share resources and information as a weather phenomenon in one country could very well affect another.

Prediction of weather in a precise manner would come in handy for military operations, energy production, the transport industry, agriculture and construction. It cannot be stressed enough that a wrong weather prediction could cause innumerable damages to lives and property and so that’s why meteorological offices are usually government controlled and also because the cost of equipments used can only be afforded by governments (like the use of satellite imaging).

Meteorologists usually have different approaches in making an accurate reading of the weather. One approach is the boundary layer meteorology which studies the air directly above Earth’s surface, including ocean surfaces, where significant fluxes of heat are being monitored. Another method employed by meteorologists is the dynamic meteorology which usually is concerned with the physics of the atmosphere. This takes into account temperature, density, pressure and other variables that may characterize the state of the air.

Truly, a full understanding of the weather would only benefit mankind as most important decisions are dependent on the weather. If there is one person who can accurately say what the weather will be tomorrow or any other day, it would be another golden age for man as it would translate to better food production and zero accidents brought about by the weather.

Study Molecular and Cellular Biology

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Molecular and Cell Biology is a relatively new field, a branch of biology concerned with the study and examination of the structure and properties of molecules found within cells. This is an area which also has links with biochemistry, where the chemical reactions of biological molecules are examined. The distinctive trait of molecular biology is that it looks at the interactions of molecules; molecular biologists try to understand how the various systems of the cell interact with one another, or how the cell works with the molecules found within it.

Except for studying the relationship between structure and functions of the cell, molecular and cell biologists also tend to look for similarities between different kinds of cells or between cells belonging to different species. Besides, a cell biologist is likely to be very interested in proteins, as there are many different kinds of proteins within cells, each of which has a purpose within the cell. A fact worth mentioning is that there are a number of other fields, closely linked with molecular and cell biology; a cell biologist’s work could relate closely to genetics, chemistry, or other fields. An example is cell division, which is described as the process in which cells split to produce more cells. An important part of this process is the division of strands of DNA, and therefore this is closely related to genetics. Physics and chemistry can also be very important, especially as they relate to the molecular composition of proteins. Therefore, a cell biologist would usually be knowledgeable in a variety of different fields.

Personal Qualities

An aptitude for sciences is definitely an important prerequisite for those, aspiring to become molecular and cell biologists. It is a demanding field, requiring true dedication to study and research. Here are other qualities to consider.

  • Excellent research skills
  • Very good written and oral communication skills
  • Ability to work individually and as a part of a team
  • Analytical and problem-solving qualities
  • Dedication and perseverance
  • Attention to detail

Study Options

Preparation to become a molecular and cell biologist would require a significant amount of education. The best idea would be to start by taking science subjects at high school and participating in various science workshops, clubs, societies, projects, and so on. Molecular and Cell Biology is a double degree introduced by some universities in response to the recent and impending changes in biology. Such a degree is designed to better match the most current developments and requirements in the field. This is why you should be prepared to assimilate a vast amount of knowledge and seek ways to participate in research, whilst keeping up to date with the latest information in the field. Furthermore, a bachelor’s degree would not be sufficient if you are serious about pursuing a career in molecular and cell biology. You would be expected to advance with your education to earn a master’s and probably even a PhD. A PhD would definitely be required for you to secure some research positions.

Career Options

Cell biologists are normally employed in research labs, working in government or academic settings. They may also conduct individual research.

Study Molecular and Environmental Biology

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Study Molecular Biophysics

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Study Molecular Biotechnology Cellular and Genetics

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Study Molecular Genetics

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Study Molecular Physiology

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Study Molecular Sciences

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This branch of science deals specifically with the study of matter at a molecular level. It focuses on studying the characteristics and structure of atoms, molecules, molecular bonds and other particles. It can be useful in a wide variety of areas, from environmental to medical science. Those pursuing this study can be diagnostic molecular scientists, molecular biologists or nano-technicians.
All molecular science students will need to study at an accredited college or university, as these are the only institutions that provide a thorough education in this field. Students will need to earn a minimum of a bachelor’s degree in order to work, though many jobs will only hire candidates with a master’s or doctorate degree. This means students will be in study for molecular science anywhere from 3 to 10 years. There are also scientific institutes that specialize in molecular science and related fields. Most of these programs require added work experience and laboratory training.
There is no other institution where molecular science can be studied in full. Sometimes, workshops will be offered through a college relating to the field of molecular science, but these are usually for professionals, employees or students already studying this science. Some extremely basic courses are offered to the public by science institutes. None of these alternative study methods provides any certification or degrees.
Skills, Qualifications, and Prerequisites for Studies in Molecular Science
To study molecular science, candidates must attend a college or university to achieve a bachelor’s,  master’s or a doctorate. This means they must meet any admissions requirements to the higher education institution. If the student continues to pursue study at a master or doctorate level, they must possess a bachelor’s, and pass admission exams to higher programs.
This field of study requires years of education and should only be undertaken by motivated, dedicated students. A significantly high intelligence is essential for this study, due to the amount of scientific knowledge students are required to memorize. They should own a very analytical mind and a fascination with exploring, understanding, and solving problems at a molecular level.
Molecular scientists very often work independently, so candidates should be able to work long hours on their own without losing focus. They must pay high attention to detail and be able to take clear, accurate records of their work – meaning some excellent writing and language skills are also required.
Skills and Qualifications Acquired from Studies in Molecular Science
Molecular scientists will acquire a significant amount of knowledge and skills before working in their field of choice. Some essential expertise for a study in molecular science include:
  • Advanced chemistry, biology and physics.
  • Microbiology, biophysics and biochemistry.
  • Understanding of molecular systems and characteristics.
  • Understanding of molecular reactions and properties.
  • Ability to use scientific tools and techniques.
  • Laboratory and research skills.
  • Understanding, devising and completing molecular analyses.
  • Disease and viral characteristics at the molecular level.
Disciplines usually focus in areas like nanotechnology, engineering, biology, virology and diagnostic molecular science – in which case, additional classes in those focus areas must be added in with the major.
Careers for Studies in Molecular Science
A study in molecular science provides opportunities to a variety of careers, depending on other focuses of study. Molecular scientists work in medical research facilities, technological corporations, chemical plants and government science organizations. They may produce chemical products, evaluate genetic material, develop pharmaceuticals or research disease causes, preventions and cures. Some molecular scientists work in nanotechnology and other molecular technological developments while a few work as college professors.

Study Molecular Toxicology

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Study Mortuary Science

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The field of science that deals with the study of dead bodies is known as Mortuary Science. The study is carried out through mortuary work. Individuals who have taken up this course can pursue careers as funeral directors or as morticians. On the other hand, there is also the study of embalming which is taken up as a supplement of Mortuary Science.

The students taking up this course study the basic and general principles of embalming and at the same time the specific procedures I order for them to earn their licenses as morticians and embalmers. The topics of their instructions cover pathology, anatomy, microbiology, religious funeral rites and cremation. Other topics include systematic pathology, pathogenic microbiology, gross anatomy, embalming, clinical mortuary, restorative art, applicable regulations and laws and other special services like cremation and preparations for the requirements of specific communities.

The principal mission of the program of Mortuary Science is to deliver the students with broadened education, which puts in order the students for successful career paths in funeral service or whatsoever field the students choose. The derivative mission is to adequately train the students to take the National Board Exam administered by International Conference of Funeral Service Examining Boards, which is an examination required for licensure in majority of the states.

The students of Mortuary Science show enviable, work habits and ethical attitudes, good communication skills whether verbal or written, problem solving, creative thinking, good judgment, team cooperation, self-reliance, acceptance of change, commitment to learning, technology usage and support of diversity. They should also demonstrate all the proper techniques in the preparation of human remains together with handling communicable diseases, universal precautions and embalming remains both autopsied and unautopsied. They are also responsible in communicating with the clergy of different religious sectors in order to present a very much honored funeral experience for the perished, and they also facilitate the interaction with other people as well as with the general public in a way that the public and the funeral service will benefit as a whole.

Activities of funeral directors involved the process of embalming which is the procedure of preserving and disinfecting the dead body in laboratories. They also learn makeup application to the deceased. They are also focused in gaining familiarity with the quality, pricing and types of burial vaults and caskets. They also spend time in studying state, local and federal laws as well as regulations of funeral services, learning to counsel the mourning people and learning many and diverse funeral customs.

Mortuary Science is initially an occupation for human service.

Although funeral directors focus their work on human remains, they too spend a great deal of time to help out families who needing emotional support. Funeral directors provide families with guidance in dealing with the process of grieving, they deliver options and dealings with death’s clinical details. They facilitate order to an emotionally grating period which at some point is very rewarding. As a profession, it is a stable one, as the demand remains constant regardless of the economy.

Study Museology

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Do you enjoy the experience of going to a museum, so much so, in fact, that you are considering pursuing a career in the museum industry?  If you answered yes, a graduate degree program in Museology may be the perfect choice to help jumpstart your career.  In almost every major city and country, museums consistently rank as some of the top attractions for visitors and locals alike, which is why for every interest and curiosity imaginable, you can probably find a museum to match.  From ancient history and modern art museums, to museums that feature old railroad and baseball memorabilia, these institutions offer visitors a unique opportunity to explore their passion in a cool and comfortable setting.  And because museums are so prevalent around the world, there is a constant demand for trained professionals who can competently staff these institutions and offer the best possible experience for visitors.  Fortunately, this is exactly what a degree in Museology will train you to do.  To help you get started, below we will briefly describe the various degree programs in Museology, and outline several of the career positions available for qualified graduates.
Museology Degrees Explained
The Master of Arts and PhD degrees in Museology, also known as Museum Studies, are graduate-level programs designed for individuals interested in pursuing a career in the museum industry.  Both of these degrees offer a sound academic grounding in museum theory and practical experience, allowing students to choose an emphasis of their choice (art, history, botany, etc.), while participating in a comprehensive course of study that involves seminars, practica and internships.  The degrees are a perfect complement to many other applicable Master’s and Doctorate degrees, pairing nicely, for example, with degrees in history, botany, art history, anthropology, zoology, English, education, tourism, recreation and sports management.
Thousand of colleges and universities around the world now offer graduate programs in Museology, but before deciding on a school that’s right for you, it’s important to ask a few questions before making a final commitment. Some of these questions include:
  • What are your main interests, and in what area(s) do you want to specialize?
  • Does the school you’re considering offer the concentration that matches your interests?
  • Does the undergraduate or graduate degree you currently possess qualify you for admission into the institution?
  • Does the school offer internships and practical training, allowing you to obtain real-world field experience?
  • Does the school have a positive relationship with museums and institutions pertinent to your degree and career interests?
Graduate Degree in Museology:  Careers
With a Master’s or PhD degree in Museology, graduates are eligible to pursue any number of career opportunities related to the museum industry.  Some of the titles these professionals may take include:
  • Museum archivist
  • Museum curator
  • Conservator
  • Director
  • Tour guide
  • And more…
Regardless of the particular field of study, museum employees will be consistently called on to understand objects and their contexts—cultural, historical, etc—and maintain, display and explain those objects to museum visitors.  These are fascinating careers requiring skills in leadership, business, organization, imagination and attention to detail—skills students will gain while pursuing one of the many available graduate degrees in Museology.

Study Music Therapist

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Music therapists help people of all ages overcome various learning, emotional, social, psychological, or intellectual difficulties or disorders through the appropriate application and use of music. What is involved in their job is to first assess the group’s or individual’s needs and abilities, and then decide on the most suitable approach to solve the particular problem. For instance, a music therapist can assist in the rehabilitation of alcohol or drug addicts through the encouragement of the creative expression of feelings. The therapy can include not simply listening to chosen music, but also teaching patients how to play instruments, write songs, or express their emotions through the use of dance. Finally, the music therapist has to assess the effectiveness and constantly adapt methods and approaches.

Personal Qualities

A quite obvious thing is true love of music, but most importantly appreciation of different styles of music. Music therapists work with individuals and groups of all ages, which suggests that they need to have a repertoire to suit many tastes. Other qualities are:

  • Patient and gentle personality
  • Excellent level of musical ability
  • Open-mindedness and the flexibility to co-relate with people of all backgrounds and ages
  • Ability to create various techniques to heal and support people

Study Options

A music therapist is required to have at least a bachelor’s degree in Music Therapy. It is crucial that the institution has gained accreditation, and like other similar degrees, you need to check in which regions you would be able to practice with a certificate from your chosen university or college. There definitely are different credentialing agencies in different countries, and you should most certainly research the ones in yours. For example, in the United States, there is the American Music Therapy Association, while Canada has the Canadian Association for Music Therapy.

You should also keep in mind that even in big countries this program may not be very wide-spread in universities and colleges. Some universities may provide the program at master’s level, too, and a few offer doctorate programs as well.

Career Options

A music therapist job usually requires more than 1,000 hours of clinical observation, together with the ability to play one or more instruments.

Musical therapists can work in a variety of settings; they can either organize their own classes of music therapy, working with groups and individuals, visit people’s homes, or work in special rehabilitation centers and clinics. It is very important to understand that music therapists are not career coaches for musicians wishing to advance in their careers, but they help people with various emotional problems or diseases like autism, Alzheimer’s, while also carrying out research about what contributions the therapy has made to these people’s health condition and overall state.

Study Nanophotonics

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Study Nanoscience

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The word nano is derived from the Greek word “nanos” or Latin word “nanus” both words meaning “Dwarf”. Nano is referred to as a unit of measurement, which is one billionth of a meter. So we now have a clear picture that nanoscience is about very tiny things. Nanoscience is the study of atoms, molecules and objects ranging from 1 to 100 nanometers and the manipulation of their biological and chemical structures. Compared to other sciences it is still a new field of study. Nanoscience along with Nanotechnology was recognized as a field of study only in the early 1980's or less than thirty years ago. This was made possible through scientific breakthroughs made at that time and the creation of highly powerful microscopes like scanning tunneling microscope and the atomic force microscope. These microscopes allowed scientists to see and “touched” objects at their atomic or molecular level.

Nanoscience is an interdisciplinary field. It involves quite a number of fields like computer and earth science, engineering, biology, chemistry and physics. Although nanoscience is still a young field of study, its current applications are already being used in various consumer and industrial products, ranging from computer chips, clothing, disinfectants, household appliances, even sunscreens and cosmetics. Its potential application in the fields of science, medicine, engineering, the environment, building construction and production of goods will greatly affect every aspect of our daily lives.

The current applications however are still quite few. Its many potential applications are still in the research stage and may take years to decades to be ready for use. What are some of these potential applications? In the field of medicine and health care, diseases could be detected earlier through the use of quantum dots. Nanofibers could be use to grow and repair body tissues. Nanopaints on cars are resistant to chipping and scratches. They can also be water and dirt repellant. Nanopaints on buildings could help reduce pollution. Nano particles like titanium dioxide could break down pollutants when exposed to ultra violet lights or the sun. Building materials like steel could be made stronger and lighter with the use of carbon nanotubes. Nano solar cells will be a cheap energy alternative as they could be painted on vehicles, roofs and even clothes!

Graduates of Nanoscience can expect a bright job and career prospect ahead. Companies from around the globe are pushing ahead in creating and developing these nanoscience applications. They need people who could make these potential ideas into a reality. Because Nanoscience is an interdisciplinary field, there will be a growing demand and need for scientists and engineers schooled in Nanoscience from various industries like biotechnology, chemical, clothing industry and information technology. Needless to say in the near future virtually all industry sectors will use some form of nanoscience application. Graduates could primarily find work and make a career in research and development, product design or product development. But still one could also choose a different career path like becoming an independent inventor or consultant.

Study Natural Ecosystems Management

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Study Natural Resources

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Studies in natural resources – otherwise known as natural resource management – were developed to research, manage, and solve several problems pertaining to the harvesting, use, distribution and sustainability of natural resources. It ties in closely with environmental and scientific studies, and typically more courses are available in any country where land preservation and environmental protection are either national and/or corporate concerns.
Studies in this field are mainly offered in higher education institutions such as colleges and universities (including online courses), while some colleges even specialize in natural resource and environmental studies. A natural resource management degree is available as a bachelor’s and as a master’s.
Some environmental and resource management companies offer certification courses for future employees at a certain cost. Students may also receive training from specifically educated consultants, though this training will usually not provide any certifications.
Skills, Qualifications and Prerequisites for Studies in Natural Resources
Since most programs for natural resource management can be found in higher education institutions, an applicant must adhere to the qualifications for admission to such an institution. This may include the country’s version of secondary school certificate, or the passing of an examination. If applying for a master’s degree in natural resource management, a bachelor’s in the same or related field is required. Online courses and resource company programs will have their own application process, usually requiring some official educational or other documentation.
It is preferred that students of natural resource studies enjoy the outdoors, harbor an eco-friendly attitude, communicate effectively and display excellent problem-solving skills. Since much of natural resource management involves addressing complex issues of human versus environmental needs, students should have a high ability to understand and interpret a multitude of complex factors.
Skills and Qualifications Acquired from Studies in Natural Resources
Since natural resource studies cover a broad range of skills, it is possible to specialize in certain areas, such as forestry or wildlife, which requires further credits pertaining to the specific area of study. Basic natural resource courses, however, will usually cover nearly all of the following topics:
  • Methods of environmental conservation, preservation and restoration.
  • Types of environmental management (water, forest, etc.)
  • Laws, policies and regulations relating to natural resources.
  • Management and resource inventory.
  • Energy management and conservation.
  • Ecology.
  • Surveyi ng.
  • Basic chemistry.
  • Basic biology.
  • Statistics and economics.
Graduates from studies in natural resources will either receive a scientific certificate or a science degree. Those pursuing natural resource studies often find jobs as natural resource managers, who assist in construction projects, restoration projects, wildlife monitoring, historical site maintenance and park and nature conservation. Managers may also assist companies with serious environmental concerns such as farming, mining and lumbering. They typically support or work for various environmental protection and regulation initiatives, and are involved in educational outreach.
Natural resource managers can work for a variety of employers. Various companies that harvest natural resources require the expertise of managers. Government organizations also need such experts on local, state and federal levels to address environmental issues. Non-profit organizations, educational institutions and nature centers also provide careers.

Study Nature Sciences

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Those interested in the environment and the complex inner workings of natural systems are ripe for nature science studies. Nature science, or natural science, is the overarching term used to describe scientific studies of the natural world. It focuses mainly on environmental science, biology, and the properties governing natural phenomena.
Nature and natural science is often studied in colleges and universities. Some technical institutions or science academies will also offer courses in this field. Usually, natural science will be pursued as a major, and students will minor is a more specific science area. These courses will require fieldwork, internships, labs, or other types of hands-on experience along with educational classes. Degrees under the title of ‘nature science’ are often only earned at a bachelor level, with more specific natural science areas being earned at a master’s or higher.
Environmental societies exist which will hold classes or workshops, educating participants on natural science topics. Museums, nature centers, private educational workshops, government initiatives and some university programs will offer courses in certain natural science subjects for the public.
Skills, Qualifications, and Prerequisites for Studies in Nature Sciences
To enter a nature science program in a higher education institution, candidates will have to qualify under the college, university, or technical institution’s admission requirements. This usually means having already obtained some form of a secondary school completion certificate,
Any classes not offered by a higher education institution are unlikely to have very many admission requirements. In fact most workshops will be available to the general public. However, these courses typically cover the most basic learning on this subject, and will not provide any degrees or certifications.
The top candidates for this field of study will already have a high aptitude towards science and some mathematics. They must enjoy the outdoors and love exploring natural and biological processes. This is a hands-on science with a need for critical thinking skills, analytical thought processes and effective problem-solving skills. Graduates from these studies often work closely with a research team, so the best candidates will be hard-working individuals able to compromise, share and otherwise function effectively on a work team.
Other helpful qualities for this field of study include:
  • Communication and presentation skills.
  • Organization skills.
Skills and Qualifications Acquired from Studies in Nature Sciences
While candidates may choose to focus their attention in specific areas of natural science, a generic course of study will cover at least some of the following areas:
  • Astronomy.
  • Chemistry.
  • Biology.
  • Physical sciences.
  • Ecology of various geological formations.
  • Geological and geographical studies.
  • Conservation,
  • Evoluti on and history of the earth.
  • Types of ecosystems and their properties.
  • Relations and affects of humans on nature.
Careers for Studies in Nature Sciences
Many graduates from nature science study programs pursue teaching at primary, secondary and post-secondary educational levels. They often work for educational institutions, research labs, non-profit organizations, environmental protection and conservation agencies, and industrial corporations. They can be geologists, astronomers, supervisors, geneticists, ecologists, surveyors, analysts, environmental protection specialists or consultants.

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Study Naval Sciences

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Ever wondered how it’s like to be a captain of a battle ship or a commander of a submarine? Would you like to try a career in the navy or marine corp? The Naval Science course could help you with that. The study of Naval Science can provide a professional starting point to students who desire to become a navy or marine corp officer. The curriculum is also designed to prepare the students in the areas of leadership, ethics, management and technical know how.

First, students will be given an introduction to this course by learning the navy and marine corp command and control structure, principles and their practices, logistics, functions and services of the various components within the organization. From here, the students could already decide on what kind of naval career they would like to attain. Then the students will familiarize themselves with various ship types and their characteristics. This includes the hull, electrical, damage and control and other ship systems. One will also be acquainted to the theories and designs of various propulsion engines like steam, gas, and diesel as well as nuclear. The students will be taught some basic leadership and management skills by studying management theories and their practical functions as well as exposure to various situations involving ethical, leadership and managerial issues. The concept and use of sea power and various naval strategies will also be studied.

Further on, the course will proceed to more specialized topics like navigation, naval operations, strategies and weaponry. In navigation, students will be taught how to pilot and maneuver a ship. One will also learn the rules of the nautical road. The course can help the student become a competent navigator by learning about the tides and currents, using both electronic navigation instruments and visual aids like compass, maps and charts. In the absence of such tools one will learn to use the skies and stars to navigate the seas. The students will also learn about actual naval operations, ship formations, tactics used and ship employment. One will learn the history and evolution of naval warfare, the various strategies used and current thoughts on conducting war at sea. The student will develop a working knowledge on the various navy and marine corp weapon systems. One will learn the theory and employment of such weapon systems. Some of these systems include radar, sonar, electronic warfare systems, warheads and fire control systems. The course will further enhance and develop student’s leadership and management skills in the areas of communication, counseling and direction of the people under them. These skills will be enhanced by learning the concept of naval personnel management, material or logistics management and the administration of discipline and military justice. One will also be taught about origins and history of amphibious warfare, its concepts and how it is conducted.

In the United States, those that take the Naval Science course under the Naval Reserves Officers Training Corps or NROTC program and successfully graduated get to be commissioned officers in the U.S. Navy or Marine corps.

Study Nephrology

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Study Neurosurgery

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Study Nuclear Physics

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The Chernabyl disaster would forever remind the world of the danger posed by nuclear power. Although the incident took place for over two decades since April 26, 1986, the environmental dilemma continued to haunt Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia not to mention the health issues, alongside. In fact, these particular spots are to be opened for tourism in 2011. Now people can readily see for themselves the grave devastation brought about by some form of technological plague. Consequently, it is significant to inquire on the fundamentals of Nuclear Physics to better understand this historical mishap that reached level seven of the International Nuclear Event Scale.

Isn’t it ironic that the Chernobyl explosion happened almost a century after the introduction of nuclear studies? Indeed, it was in late 19th century when Henry Becquerel discovered radioactivity that marked the commencement of nuclear physics inquiry. Not so long after such breakthrough, further studies triggered greater interests such as the discovery of electrons courtesy of J. J. Thompson’s experiment. In early 20th century, more relevant experimental ventures led to the development of this science. In the same way, it made remarkable contributions in the advancement of nuclear technology hence its many different applications in weaponry, archeology, medicine, etc.

Modern nuclear physics has become even more comprehensive considering the advancement of science and technology. In particular, the query on the atomic structure fascinated physicists as more and more discoveries have been revealed. For instance, the atomic model turned out very specific exhibiting not only atomic constituents but likewise their interaction. Some of the prominent frameworks include liquid drop model, shell model, and interactive boson model. All these are equally critical in the interpretation of nuclear physics fundamentals such as nuclear decay, nucleosynthesis, nuclear fusion, and nuclear fission. As powerful as these components sound, this scientific expertise demands responsible scientific application attributed to its large scale implication.

Nuclear Physics course programs are offered in many different colleges and universities all over the globe. More often than not, it is under the College of Science specifically Department of Physics. In the United States, it is readily tendered in 44 universities such as Purdue University, Stony Brook University, University of Michigan, and University of Illinois. Similarly, it is accessible in United Kingdom’s top universities such as Nottingham Trent University, University of Central Lancashire, University of Liverpool, and University of West Scotland. Best thing is that, it has equally competitive academic programs both in graduate and undergraduate schools.

The extensive array of Nuclear Physics technology simply implies the extent of career opportunities available to graduates. Among others, research is likely to be the most attractive field of employment considering the international demand for in depth inquiry on nuclear technologies. Great news is that nuclear research is widespread in several industries such as medicine, weaponry, carbon dating, etc. Educational institutions are likewise considered as ideal venue to land a job since majors of this particular discipline are fit to teach Nuclear and General Physics across all levels in the academe. Other job posts include site officer, field security administrator, staff scientists, etc.

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Study Oceanography

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Oceanography refers to the study of seas and oceans, estuaries, their boundaries and their various geographical nuances, coastlines, coastal and deep sea dynamics, marine life and the ocean bed. Oceanography is by itself a vast subject and there are various areas of specialization that come under the umbrella of oceanography. When you apply to study oceanography at colleges or universities, you must make a decision on the area of specialization that best interests you.

Qualifications Needed / Acquired

Oceanography is a challenging subject and requires its students to be able to grasp information as vast as the seas themselves. To be able to take up a course in oceanography, you must have a functional knowledge of biology, chemistry, geology, meteorology and physics, as this is an interdisciplinary subject. You need to be passionate about the specialization you choose as it will otherwise become an extremely challenging field of study.

Oceanography Courses

Here are the broad categories of courses offered by oceanography departments of universities:
  1. Geological oceanography explores the dynamics of the ocean crust which is much thinner compared to that of land masses. The tectonic activities of ocean floors, sedimentation over millennia and the changes in ocean beds over particular time periods, etc, are all explored.
  2. Biological oceanography explores marine life, the ecosystem, plants and animals (from mono-cellular plankton to blue whales) and the evolving food systems in the seas. You will also study how marine beings are adapting to physical and geological changes in their environments.
  3. Chemical oceanography deals with the chemical changes in coastal and deep-sea waters. You will study chemical changes that occur over a few nanoseconds to those that take place over thousands of years. The solubility of various chemicals and their effects on marine ecosystems are all scrutinized here.
  4. Physical oceanography deals with elements like tides, water currents, waves, transmission of light and sound across the waters, interactions between the oceans and the atmosphere and other such factors.
Career Options

Oceanography is a subject with comparatively limited employment opportunities. As a student of oceanography, you will mostly find employment with research facilities owned by private agencies or governments. You will have ample on-field work ahead of you and desk jobs at labs are also available.

Geological researches are employed to study the sedimentation of ocean beds and entails collections of sample and data, usage of sophisticated equipment to get your data in line. In all, this could mean long hours out on and in the seas and oceans you study.

Marine geochemists or chemical oceanographers may be employed by environmental departments to study the effects of pollution on the oceans, study desalination of the water, etc

Physical oceanographers can be asked to engage in tasks like measure the temperature changes in the water bodies and the effects of the same on marine ecology, waves and tidal densities and ocean-coast and ocean-atmosphere interactions.
Marine engineers and archeologists employ their knowledge for practical purposes like excavating ship wrecks, controlling the effects of hazardous events like oil spills and the like.

Study Organic Chemistry

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Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with carbon compounds. This is a very interesting branch of chemistry, especially the laboratory part. You can say that it is a creative science. In taking up Organic Chemistry you will learn about the chemical structure of the different elements in our surrounding. A simple thing like soap and how its chemical structure can attract dirt and stain is just an example of the many discoveries and knowledge that you gain in studying this field.

Nomenclature or naming of compounds is another area of Organic Chemistry that you will learn. Certain elements in the chemical structure of a compound will affect its nomenclature. For example, an organic compound can be name an alcohol if it contains the hydroxyl group (OH) in its chemical structure.

Application of Organic Chemistry in everyday life can be very interesting. Having knowledge about the chemical structure of the things that we use on a daily basis will help us make a more intelligent way of choosing products. Though Organic Chemistry can be a complex subject matter it can help you with the analysis of simple things like what is the difference between a liquid soap and a bar soap, a margarine and a butter or an isopropyl and ethyl alcohol.

Also part of Organic Chemistry is balancing chemical equations which can be complicated at times. It is a vital part since a chemical equation will show you the exact amount of chemicals needed to form a new substance or compound. Think of it like a recipe from a cookbook where you will need the exact amount of ingredients to make that delectable dish.

Another area of studying organic is the laboratory part. The lab part is the actual application process of making compounds. Learning how to make your own distilled water, vinegar or even soap are some of the basic things that they teach in laboratory part of Organic Chemistry. Of course, after the basic stuff, there will be other more complicated compounds to make. It is a great way to apply all the things that was discussed in the theoretical part of the study. Actual performance of the different chemical reactions learned on the lecture part will make understanding Organic Chemistry easier and better.

Depending on your knowledge and skill as an organic chemist, there are many opportunities to choose from if you want to pursue a career in Organic Chemistry. Pharmaceutical companies are one of them. Researching and making new drugs to cure illnesses can be a rewarding career. Available to us now are new medicines to cure illnesses because of this field. Other careers in the industrial sector like paint and petroleum companies and other companies that manufacture consumer-based products like soap, toothpaste and shampoos are also available and is as challenging as well. Being a researcher or a scientist in the field of Organic Chemistry can be enjoyable. Impart your knowledge by becoming a teacher, but the competition in this industry can be stiff.

To be successful in this career, attention to details is a must. Mixing contaminated chemicals can be dangerous, not to mention it will affect the product result. As a chemist, research and development is always part of the job and being creative, discipline, and innovative are all necessary to achieve your goals. There are endless discoveries that you can make; new molecules, new compounds or chemical structures, the possibilities are limitless. Organic chemistry is an art of creating, synthesizing, and developing new applications for molecules that contain carbons. Developing and constantly updating your skills will help you to be successful.

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Study Osteopathic Medicine

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Osteopathic Medicine deals with treating and evaluating people in a holistic way. Although specialists in this field, often referred to as DOs, could be equally trained as MDs, they apply a different approach to treating patients. Their aim is not simply to treat problems, but also prevent such by examining the person’s lifestyle, psychological traits, and possible health risks. This means osteopathic medicine professionals form a closer relationship with patients, trying to gain an in-depth view of their home and work life, levels of stress, as well as the impact of the disease on the whole body, not just on a part of it.

Osteopathic medicine specialists can also focus on a given field like psychiatry, pediatrics, or surgery, for example. It is most likely that they are trained to become general practitioners, though. Except for the broader approach that they undertake, these practitioners are able to pass all the examinations on a patient that a regular MD would do, for which reason both professions are now considered equal in countries like USA and Canada.

Personal Qualities

To practice osteopathic medicine, you need to have keen interest in the sciences, be prepared to explore and learn innovative techniques of treating patients, and nurture a love of helping others. Here are some other qualities to consider:

  • Patience and compassion
  • Excellent listening skills
  • Great communication skills
  • Ability to transform complex information into everyday language
  • Perseverance and hard working nature
  • Prepared to work long hours.

Study Options

First and most important fact to consider is that studying osteopathic medicine in European or Commonwealth countries greatly differs from the osteopathic medicine taught in the USA and Canada. In the latter, this type of medicine is more or less a supplement to conventional medicine, whereas in Europe an osteopathic practitioner does not normally have similar training to traditional doctors. In colleges in USA and Canada, osteopathic medicine students tend to study for much longer.

In relation to this, when choosing an osteopathic medicine college in which to study, you should consider whether it teaches your preferred type of medicine, as well as the license you will be issued with. It is worth mentioning that if you have graduated from an osteopathic college in the UK, you would not be allowed to practice in the USA. It is crucial that you check in which regions of the world you would be able to practice once you graduate. Similarly, you have to ensure that the institution you choose has the required accreditation, and finally make a list of the osteopathic colleges that best suit your future career expectations.

Career Options

Career prospects for osteopathic practitioners are excellent, as there is a growing amount of people in the world, turning to alternative methods of treatment and healing. Depending on the region of the world you wish to live in, you could work in elementary schools, medical institutions, or military organizations, along with traditional doctors; or, you can have your own private practice where you accept and treat patients by employing the methods and techniques you have learned.

This profession also offers great opportunities of researching and creating new healing methods, which of course should always be aligned with the safety of each patient.

Study Paleontology

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Paleontology is mainly a scientific area of study that focuses on elements of prehistoric life. This may include a variety of courses in fossil excavation and examination, evolution, animal and mineral classifications, prehistoric animals, biology and paleobotany (the study of prehistoric plants).
Almost no other institutions, aside from accredited colleges and universities, will provide programs applicable to the field of paleontology. It is important to note that, depending on your location, it is sometimes difficult to find higher education institutions that provide courses of study specifically in paleontology. Paleontologists often acquire other related science degrees, such as earth science, geoscience or geology. The pursuit of multiple degrees is also highly popular among paleontologists.
Depending on the level of degree obtain, a student can attend a college or university for 3 to 8 years. Many bachelor or master’s programs include a fieldwork, study abroad or internship requirement.
Online courses are available for paleontology and provide degree levels similar to traditional colleges. Other paleontology classes are sometimes offered at museums, and though they provide certifications, such documentation is not always as valuable in the job market.
Skills, Qualifications and Prerequisites for Studies in Paleontology
Since paleontology studies can be pursued almost exclusively in higher education institutions, candidates must meet the admission requirements of their college or university. This usually includes some form of a secondary school completion certificate, aptitude test or other standard admissions exam. Individuals may not need such previous credentials in entering an online or museum program, though completion of secondary school is preferable.
Students seeking a career in paleontology should display an analytic thinking style and already be notably successful in the maths and sciences, as these subjects are fundamental to paleontology practices. Good candidates should also be extremely detail-oriented and capable of taking specific, relevant and research-benefiting notes – meaning some clear communication and language skills are also required. Patience is also heavily associated with paleontologists due to the often delicate and time-consuming nature of their work.
Other skills that will increase a student’s likelihood of success in paleontology studies include:
  • Fluency in a second language or multiple languages
  • Ability to cooperate and work well on a team.
  • Fluency in technology (this is of huge importance for paleontologists, who work with a variety of mapping, surveying, research, data recording and other scientific software and technology).
Skills and Qualifications Acquired from Studies in Paleontology
While many paleontologists will acquire a separate science degree, a strictly paleontologist field of study will at least cover these basic topics:
  • Animal classifications and characteristics
  • Soil and mineral classifications and characteristics
  • Prehistoric plants and animals
  • Geology or geosciences
  • Earth history
  • Identification and classification of fossils
  • Evolution
  • Biology
  • Field data, research and reporting documentation and technology
  • Various other sciences and mathematics
Most paleontologists will either earn a certification or university-level degree from their studies – and while there are some paleontology careers available to those possessing a certification or bachelor’s degree, many jobs in this field will require candidates to hold a master’s or doctorate for consideration. Graduates can generally expect employment with private or government research programs or in geological mapping and surveying projects. They can also work as professors for universities, museum curators, or company consultants.  

Study Pathobiology

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Pathobiology is described as the study and practice of pathology, with greater emphasis on the biological rather than the medical aspects. Pathology, on the other hand, is an extremely varied field of science, which deals with the study of diseases. Bringing these two together, pathobiology tries to understand the nature of disease and its impact on humans and animals. Pathobiology researchers contribute to the national and global community by trying to find different solutions to health problems through discovery, application, and education. They follow the mission to improve disease prevention and treatment through research as well as the development of innovative clinical programs for sick patients. Pathobiology is also very multi-disciplinary in nature, bringing together knowledge from life sciences, clinical medicine, and other areas of study. Therefore, pathobiology researchers often work together with scientists from related fields to discover the casual factors of diseases, gain new knowledge and understanding about disease processes, as well as finding out means for disease detection and identification; discovering factors responsible for disease dynamics in a population, and novel measures of disease prevention.

Personal Qualities

Pathobiology is a field, requiring great attention to detail and self-discipline. Here are other qualities to consider:

  • Good communication skills
  • Excellent problem-solving and analytical qualities
  • Good at research
  • Self-confidence
  • Ability to work with advanced technology and equipment
  • A high degree of motivation; a self-driven personality

Study Options

If you would like to pursue a career in pathobiology, by all means you need to gain a medical degree first. This means that you need to become a doctor, a dentist or a vet. Therefore, it would be best to start considering this type of profession early in high school by taking subjects like biology and chemistry. Once you complete your medical degree (in most cases this takes about five years) and do your foundation years, you can apply to become a pathology trainee. This type of training also takes about five years and is quite demanding in nature. On the other hand, if you are already a graduate in sciences, or another health-related degree, you might be able to take a shortcut to a medical degree, and then apply to pathology (and later on specialize in pathobiology).

At the undergraduate level, coursework in pathobiology is likely to involve pathovirology science, microbiology, biochemistry, genetics, nutrition, immunology, and cell biology.  You should check whether your chosen institution would be offering opportunities in research projects that will enhance your knowledge and experience as well as options for student employment in the field. Seminars and workshops organized by the university are important, too as this will enable you to get in touch with scientific investigators, who carry out research and are an important knowledge resource for students.

Career Options

Career opportunities in the study area of pathobiology vary a lot, depending on whether or not you hold a bachelor's degree in the field or an advanced graduate degree. It is also very important where your specific area of interest within the field falls. Some job titles to look at include veterinarian, forensic pathologist, biomedical technician, biomedical researcher, microbiologist, pathobiologist, immunologist, and teacher.

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Study Physical Chemistry

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Are you the type of person who enjoys experiments; someone who loves to get to the bottom of how things work and the manner in which materials behave and interact with each other?  Do you dream about an employment position that would allow you to get paid—often very handsomely—for this sense of innate curiosity?  If so, you should definitely consider one of the many available degrees in the field of physical chemistry.  To help you get started, below we will provide a brief definition of physical chemistry and outline some of the topics a degree in this field is likely to cover.  We will also describe some of the employment opportunities currently available for those who have earned their in this exciting field.
About the Physical Chemistry Degree
Physical Chemistry is an academic discipline that is offered at both the undergraduate and graduate level at colleges and universities throughout the world.  These programs are designed to provide students with a fundamental understanding of how materials behave and how chemical reactions occur at both the molecular and atomic level, knowledge that is relevant in nearly area of chemistry.  Graduates with a degree in Physical Chemistry generally work in laboratory positions, studying and analyzing a great diversity of topics, from biochemistry to the properties of materials to the design and development of quantum computers.
While earning a degree in Physical Chemistry and by later working in the field, students will have the daily opportunity to help unravel a variety of mysteries.  These could range from how nanostructures are formed and behave, how biomolecular motors work, how proteins fold into their active state and how global phenomena originates, such as the stratospheric ozone hole.  They do this by developing theories about certain properties, analyzing materials, and ultimately coming up with potential uses for those materials that have not yet been discovered.
Physical Chemistry is a field that applies physics and math to problems that are of great interest to chemists, biologists and engineers.  Scientists in this field use theoretical constructs and mathematical computations to understand chemical properties and describe the behavior of molecular and condensed matter, work that often involves the manipulation of data as well as materials.  The program is perfect for students who have a shared love of science and mathematics, allowing them to discover how powerful mathematics can be in predicting and deciphering the properties of chemicals.
Physical Science Degree:  After Graduation
Following graduation, those who have earned a degree in Physical Chemistry are consistently in high demand in a variety of different industries—industries in which the main goal is to seek out, test, and comprehend the fundamental physical characteristics of a material—be it solid, liquid, or gas.  Fortunately, one of the greatest benefits associated with earning a Physical Science degree is that it provides students an interdisciplinary approach to problem-solving and a broad range of knowledge—knowledge that can position them very nicely to work in these industries.  Many physical chemists will ultimately find work as analytical chemists, working for product-based companies and conducting applied and basic surfactant research that helps with product development.  Others may set their sights on more emerging fields, such as materials science, molecular modeling and biosensor development, fields in which their analytical skills and ability to predict the behavior of physical properties will make them a great asset.

Study Physical Geography

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Study Physical Metallurgy

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Did you know that the super alloy has already been developed? Thanks to the California Institute of Technology that successfully made a breakthrough on Liquidmetal. License is but exclusively acquired by Liquimetal Technologies that introduced this amorphous alloy into the market in 2003. In particular, this alloy is absolutely noncorrosive hence resisting development of rusts not to mention its robust components comparable to titanium and steel. As a matter of fact, it is characterized by top-of-the-line metal properties such as tensile strength, corrosion resistance, co-efficient restitution, and durability. Expertise in metal technology such as this one is integrated on physical metallurgy studies along with intermetallic compounds and alloys.

Metallurgy has been a well renowned science since 5000 BC while the Egyptians made weapons out of meteoric iron since 3000 BC. The Bronze Age back in the 3rd millennium BC was even significant for the introduction of Bronze into the civilization. Specifically, this particular alloy is a mixture of melted copper and tin. In the 12000 BC, the Iron Age came into the world courtesy of the Hitites although the Philistines were believed to have developed the ore extraction technique which brought them advancement. Indeed, development of metal expertise took many years before it was given its official scientific designation as metallurgy in the 16th century. The name was used by alchemists which means the process of extracting metals out of minerals.

Through the years, improvement in science and technology brought about the improvement of physical metallurgy as a discipline, too.

Undoubtedly, it is likewise attributed to the extravagant collection of minerals that are potent for the production of more alloys. No wonder, metallurgy has a broad scope of studies which include metallic properties alongside intermetallic compounds. In the same way, it also involves inquisition and formulation of metallic mixtures known as alloys. In turn, all these are inimical in the growth of metalwork technology which likely comprises another field of scientific inquiry.

Attributed to the expansion of metal industries, there is a growth in the demand for metallurgy specialists. In turn, educational institutions responded by offering course programs on physical metallurgy studies. These include academic programs commonly under the Material Science and Engineering department in undergraduate (Metallurgy and Material Studies, Physical Metallurgy Studies, Process Metallurgy Studies, and Material Engineering Studies) and graduate schools (Mater of Science in Metallurgical Engineering, Masters in Mining Engineering, and Master of Arts in Applied Science).

Universities offering these scholastic programs are RWTH Aachen University (Germany), University of Surrey (England), University of Tasmania (Australia), University of London (United Kingdom), University of Washington (United States), etc.

There are many different employment opportunities for Physical metallurgy specialists. In particular, the pool of experts on this material science can likely land jobs both in private and public industries. In fact, research and development teams of metal producing companies are continuously making innovations on metal properties and alloys hence the continuous search for the next super metal. Other job posts include university instructor, metallurgist engineer, laboratory manager, quality technician, metallurgical executive and material scientist.

Study Physician Assistant

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Study Physics

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Physics is a science applying scientific methodologies to understand fundamental principles in nature. This includes the understanding of fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics; mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub-atomic structures and processes; as well as knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, and their interrelationships.

There are a great number of areas that physics cover, while physicists usually fall within one of three most common roles. There are physicists, who deal with the theoretical part of the subject. This involves developing theories or models of how various aspects of the world work. There are also experimental physicists, who are concerned with testing these theories, attempting to determine their limits and suggest different approaches. Finally, there are the applied physicists, who actually apply all the findings in practical settings – in industry and with the introduction of new technologies.

Personal Qualities

An early drive towards sciences is probably the most important quality you should have if you wish to thrive in this subject area. Concepts can be complicated, requiring a lot of patience and attention to detail, so here are some other qualities you could consider:

  • Great analytical skills and ability to solve problems
  • Taking joy in research
  • Ability to visualize and communicate complex ideas and information
  • Ability to perform well both individually and as a part of a team.

Study Options

If you feel truly driven to physics, you can definitely look for an undergraduate physics course that will give you a good depth into the subject, and will also introduce you to courses like advanced mathematics and computer science. When researching the institutions that offer such degrees, it would be a good idea for you to carefully study whether the course they offer specifically prepares you for a given profession, or is a general physics course.

Such a degree will also open to you great opportunities to participate in unique research and even have your work published in various academic journals. Most of these are provided in postgraduate level of study, though, and continuing their education after completing an undergraduate degree is not uncommon for physics students. At the master’s level students normally decide to specialize in areas like nuclear physics, geophysics, nanotechnologies, etc. For this reason, the research record of the school you are choosing is crucial, together with the years of study it takes to complete the program and the success rate of graduates.

Career Options

Usually physicists work in the sectors of government agencies, private firms, or universities. Within these three areas, work encompasses research, product development, or both. Government agencies offer amazing opportunities to work on both the application and development of new technologies. An interesting option for you may be to pursue a job within the space or defense department of a given country, as it will most surely involve both research and development in a wide pool of areas.

As far as the private sector is concerned, it most typically employs physicists in manufacturing and engineering services firms. The career prospects in this sector are a bit more limited, due to the expense of the equipment required for long-term research projects.

To end with, some roles within the physicists world you might with to explore before taking a final decision are astrophysicist (exploring the solar system, starts and galaxies); environmental physicist (the interaction of the different aspects of the environment); medical and health physicist (involving the development of medical radiation therapy equipment); nanotechnologies, nuclear technologies, optical physicists, etc.

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Study Physiology

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One can find many definitions of Physiology. But no matter how complicated the definition is, Physiology deals with one thing and that is function. Physiology is a very interesting field of study because it defines the many mysteries of life. This field of study offers answers and it helps us understands the processes inside our own body as well as the simple things that go unnoticed around us. In studying Physiology, one can comprehend why a specific structure is important to a living organism or why a simple change in the electrolytes in our body can be deadly. There are many branches of Physiology and each contributes to having a better understanding of the potential that each living organism can offer.

Human Physiology dates back to 420 BC, during the time of Hippocrates. Other scientist like Aristotle studied the relationship between a structure and its function while Galen was the first one to use experimentation to learn more about the functions of the different parts of the human body. Many scientists followed their footsteps and through their experimentation and analysis, human physiology evolved.

Plant physiology is another branch that focuses on studying the different plant processes like growth and propagation or reproduction. Just like in human physiology, scientist did a lot of experimentation to be able to know things that are necessary to facilitate growth in plants. They established the necessary nutrients and minerals to assist in plant growth. Nutrient transportation and gas exchange were also explored. Organic and inorganic elements that can influence plants were also studied. This information can be useful to other specialize area of study like agriculture.

There are countless careers to choose from in this field. Being a researcher is one example where a physiologist will have the opportunity to conduct experimentation and discover endless possibilities can lead to rewarding and fulfilling career. Specializing in a specific branch is also an option. Animal physiology will open wonderful path to veterinary science. If agricultural science is your choice, studying plant physiology will help a lot. This will offer the chance to study land resources, prevention of plant diseases and cure as well.

Medical physiology and human physiology are other great fields to venture into. Medical researcher, pathology technician, microbiologist, teacher, and sports specialist are just few of the many careers that you can have. Specializing in pathophysiology will lead to a greater understanding of the different disease processes in man and development of treatment through experimentation which is valuable to all of us.

Physiology is a unique field of study. Because it deals with the function of the structures found in every living organism, it offers a rare chance to probe and experiment on the limitless potential that can be beneficial to us in the future. It can be a new drug or way to increase harvest of certain crops. Physiology does not limit your option career-wise and it offers immense information and knowledge. It is the science of the past, the present, and the future. Every new discovery is an improvement of what was done in the past and still has an impending greatness in the future.

Psychology, to put it simply, is the study of behavior and experience. In other words, this study focuses on explaining how human beings, and likewise animals, perceive, think, learn, and recognize. Psychology is dedicated to collecting facts about behavior, experience, and other relevant individual information and systematically, as in any science, organizing such facts into theories that aid in predicting the potential future behavior of humans.

Psychology, traditionally, is divided into many subfields of study; these fields, however, are interrelated and moreover, normally intersect. Physiological psychology, for one, is the study of how the brain and the nervous system function jointly. Psychologists use this knowledge in experimentation, where they develop tests and researching methods to discover how human beings learn and retain information.

Some subfields in the Psychology program are defined in terms of subjects of application. As an illustration, social psychology is concerned with the ways in which people influence one another and the way they relate when they come together. Industrial psychology, on the other hand, is the study of the behavior of people in the working environment. Likewise, in the school setting, there are also psychologists, or more often called guidance counselors, who are tasked to guide students in their personal, as well as academic, endeavors.

Psychology originated with Plato and Aristotle, among other Greek philosophers, when they addressed some of the basic questions of the science, which are, up to date, continuously being studied. These curiosities included matters on abilities, personality, and the effect of external factors as environment and experience on such.

In contrast to this philosophical background, modern psychology was most influenced by Physiology, which involves the study of the functions of organ systems of the body. This started a different and more scientific perspective for Psychology, where factors such as internal body processes, external environment, and the like, are related to the interpretation of human behavior.

There are several major areas of research in the Psychology program. To cite a few:

• Physiological Psychology, as the name implies, deals with the physiological aspect of an individual’s behavior. The two body systems focused on in this area are the nervous and circulatory systems.

• Conditioning and learning studies in Psychology include the ability of humans to learn, recognize, and retain certain information. Although sometimes also applied to animals, most studies concern cognition of human beings. In this area, the learning curve and likewise the curve of forgetting were established.

• Psychological testing is the area where tests and measurement devices are developed, including the most widely used psychological tool – intelligence testing. Other tools are tests for personality, emotional quotients, interests, just to name a few.

• Abnormal Psychology is the most common notion of Psychology that people have. This area involves the study of human traits and behaviors that deviate from the norm.

• Clinical Psychology includes behavior therapy, where psychologists try to alter the behavior of a patient and take away undesirable symptoms by use of proper conditioning techniques.

The Psychology program enriches students’ skills in research and experimentation. This is why a number of graduates opt to apply in research institutes, where they handle tasks like developing tests and reviewing current ones. Such research may be involved in the private or public sector.

Other graduates move on to careers in the academe, not only as Psychology professors but also as educational or school psychologists. Some choose to in the clinical setting, where often they diagnose, care of, and inhibit cases such as substance abuse, mental disorders, and the like.

Study Planetary Sciences

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Study Plant Breeding

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2011 World Hunger and Poverty Facts and Statistics revealed that there are over 900 million of people suffering from hunger both in developed and undeveloped countries. Aggravating the current condition is the projected Food Shortage in 2020 triggered by the significant impact of climate change in agriculture. As a matter of fact, decline in the number of potent arable lands is expected by 2025 particularly in Africa being the hottest region in the world. As a result, decline in crop production is likely to arise even in the Mediterranean specifically in France, Italy, and Spain as grape and olive harvest is anticipated to slow down. Consequently, these concerns are being responded accordingly by further research and studies in Agronomy and Plant Breeding.

Agronomy is described as the science and technology of plant production for many different purposes such as food, feed, fiber, fuel, and reclamation. As it encompasses an array of subjects, it involves interrelated fields of study like plant physiology and genetics, soil science, and meteorology. Major facets of learning are agroecology, biotechnology, plant breeding, soil and sciences. Furthermore, it is multidisciplinary in nature that deals with relevant sciences like biology, chemistry, physics, earth science, and genetics. Diverse specializations are likewise accessible that include plant breeding and physiology, irrigation and drainage, soil classification and fertility, crop rotation, etc.

Among the many different aspects of Agronomy, Plant Breeding happens to be an interesting faculty. In particular, it is regarded as the art and science of altering the genetic components of flora life for the gain of humanity. In the same way, it entails the process of plant selection to come up with desirable properties manifested in new and improved plant variety with the advent of molecular biology. Fundamental procedures consist of variety creation, selection, evaluation, release, multiplication, and distribution. For systematic observation of the process, certain techniques can be employed such as Maker Assisted Selection, Reverse Breeding and Double Haploids, and Genetic Modification.

Agronomy and Plant Breeding studies are accessible in colleges and universities worldwide. What is even more interesting is that relevant course programs range from undergraduate to graduate studies. Bachelor’s curricula many include Agronomy and Crop Production, Agronomy and Plant Genetics, and Agronomy and Horticulture. Graduate studies consist of Master in Agronomy and Crop Science, Master of Science in Agronomy, and Doctor of Philosophy in Agronomy. Short course programs are also offered such as Associate of Applied Science in Agronomy and Certification Program in Agronomy and Soil Sciences.

Career opportunities await agronomists and plant breeding specialists. National governments through its many different agencies under the Department of Agriculture comprise an attractive employment niche to eligible professionals. Non-government organizations with offices all over the globe such as UN Food and Agriculture Organization, World Sustainable Agriculture Association, and International Cooperative Agriculture Organization can also tender job placements. Agronomy degree holders can also land jobs in multinational companies in the likes of Cargill, Inc., Archer Daniels Midland Companies, and E.I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company. Academic institutions also offer teaching posts for graduate school professionals who can handle courses on Agronomy studies in the academe. Job posts may include an array of responsibilities which may include administrative, supervisory, teaching, and research functions.

Study Plant Pathology

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Are you a student interested in the study of plants, particularly in the study of plant diseases and their causes?  Have you considered pursuing a Bachelor of Science Degree in Plant Pathology?  In the Bachelor of Science degree program in Plant Pathology you’ll have the unique opportunity to study and learn about plant diseases and the pathogens that cause those diseases.  Graduates of this degree are currently in demand, especially in areas of the world that depend on the agricultural and forestry industries as a significant part of their economy. If this sounds interesting to you, below, below you will find a brief course description of the Bachelor of Science degree in Plant Pathology and an introduction into some of the coursework you’ll encounter while participating in the program.
Bachelor of Science Degree in Plant Pathology
As mentioned above, the Bachelor of Science Degree in Plant Pathology is a program that takes an in-depth look at plant diseases and their causes.  The program, which typically spans three to four year in duration depending on the institution, is currently being offered by hundreds of colleges and universities throughout the world.  It involves core and elective coursework, the latter allowing students to focus on topics/areas that are of particular interest to them.  Like all undergraduate degree programs, students must also satisfy the general education requirements laid out by the specific college or university, taking these classes either before the core and elective coursework or simultaneously with the required program material.
By its very nature, the study of plant pathology is a multidisciplinary field, one that integrates microbiology, plant science, environmental science and other disciplines.  It covers many different areas of study, including the fundamental biology of plant pathogens, plant genetics and molecular biology of disease resistance, plant disease management, epidemiology, plant pathogen ecology, and biological control.
To be eligible to enroll in the Bachelor of Science Degree program in Plant Pathology students must possess, at minimum, a high school diploma or its equivalent and be in good standing with the college or university.  Some institutions may also require a passing score on an entrance examination, either as a prerequisite for program admission or for admission into the university itself.
Coursework for the Bachelor of Science Degree in Plant Pathology
The core coursework for the Bachelor of Science degree in Plant Pathology is fairly standard from one institution to the next.  Among other classes, it includes:
  • General Chemistry and Chemistry Lab
  • Survey of Calculus with Applications in Statistical Methods
  • Organic Chemistry I and II
  • Introductory Physics
  • Plant Biology
  • Introduction to Plant Physiology
  • Biology of Fungi
  • Introduction to Plant Genetics
  • Introduction to Microbiology
  • Plant Pathology and Disease Pathogens
  • Diseases and Insects of Forest and Shade Trees
  • Undergraduate Seminar and Research
In addition to the core coursework listed above, students will also need to choose from a variety of elective courses, including, but not limited to, Introduction to Crop Science, Introduction to Forestry, Principles of Horticulture, Principles Weed Science, Ecology and the Fundamentals of Soil and Landscape Science.

Study Plant Protection

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Are you a graduate student, perhaps with a bachelor degree in botany, horticulture or environmental science, and seeking an advanced program in which to focus your graduate studies?  Have you considered pursuing an upper-level degree in Plant Protection, a program that focuses on the application of scientific principles for curbing or eliminating the various threats to our plant population?  The Master of Science Degree in Plant Protection is a very interesting course of study; an ideal program for any graduate student, particularly those who are plant lovers or just interested in the science of plant behavior.  To give you a better idea about what this degree entails, below we have compiled a brief overview of the program, including a course description, a sample of some of the core and elective coursework, and the eligibility requirements for admission.
Master of Science Degree in Plant Protection:  Course Description
The Master of Science Degree in Plant Protection is a two to three-year graduate-level program that is currently being offered by hundreds of colleges and universities throughout the world.  The main emphasis of the program lies in the use of scientific principles as a means to controlling animal and weed infestation of domesticated plant populations, including agricultural products.  It also focuses on the prevention/reduction of the economic loss that often accompanies these infestations and the control of environmental pollution and degradation related to pest infestation and pest control measures.  Students receive advanced instruction in topics such as entomology, applied animal sciences, plant pathology and physiology, weed science, crop science and environmental toxicology.
Master of Science Degree in Plant Protection:  Coursework and Eligibility
The M.S. program in Plant Protection allows students to develop core disciplinary knowledge and skills in plant protection, with an emphasis on tropical and subtropical aspects of the field.  Through the core and elective coursework that makes up the program, students can focus their studies in one of several key areas, including tropical pest management, agricultural entomology, plant pathology or weed science.  The goal is to produce graduates with a keen understanding of the principles and practical applications of Plant Protection—individuals with excellent communication and problem-solving skills who are able to work cooperatively with other team members in conducting field and laboratory research.  Some of the courses students will encounter as participants in the program include:
  • Plant-Microbe and Insect Interactions
  • Advanced Insect Identification and Taxonomy
  • Introduction to Plant Pathology
  • Principles of Weed Science
  • Terrestrial Arthropods
  • Principles of Integrated Plant Protection
  • Horticulture
  • Bio-se curity Plant Pests
  • Graduate Research Project
To be eligible to participate in the Master of Science Degree program in Plant Protection candidates must possess, at minimum, a bachelor degree in a related field (plant sciences, environmental sciences, botany, agriculture, horticulture, etc.), with a combined grade point average of 2.5 or better in all core and elective coursework.  Some institutions will also require two to three letters of recommendation, a personal interview with a panel of faculty and/or a passing score on the Graduate Record Examination or GRE (United States).

Study Plant Sciences

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Study Plastic Surgery

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Study Police Investigation

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Study Policing and Private Investigation

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The United State’s first era of financial depression during the 1930’s was a bad decade for the police and other private security firms. The depression hit their image the most due to the corruption brought out by the famous alcohol prohibition. The mob capitalizing on the police’s man power for protection and the private firms served as bodyguards and “muscles”. As tainted as the image of the Police and Private Investigators are, a career in that particular field may still be lucrative if not fulfilling.

Any national police academy usually offers this particular course. The scope basically involves psychology, criminology, field forensics and all other subjects regarding the career. This field has also been commented as a good pre-law undergraduate course for those who may want to take their skills to the next level in the immortal words of the legendary writer Mario Puzo author of The Godfather. “A lawyer can steal more with a briefcase than a hundred men with guns.” Then again if you’re in it for the action why not stay on the street as a beat cop and bust crime like dirty Harry catching criminal punks just to make your day. The rise technology has also developed hi-tech ways of solving crimes under the process of forensic science. That may be considered as the higher step in this particular course where you will get the opportunity to solve crimes using forensic methods as a crime scene investigator.

However there is still the reality regarding the level of financial income if one chooses public service as a career under this course. Serving as the main reason why private firms find it hard to clean up their image. Today in the streets, private investigator is synonymous to bodyguard, bounty hunter, mercenary and hit man. Before, the services offered by private firms was commonly isolated to VIP protection and Private Investigation which basically involved solving cold cases for private clients or tracking down missing persons. Still then P.I.’s (Private Investigators) were widely mistrusted due to the mindset that they were simply people scamming desperate clients who would pay large amounts for a particular crime to be solved or for a love one to be found. Another source of mistrust is that not everyone who wants someone to be found is a love one which is why being a P.I. is synonymous to a bounty hunter. However unlike professional bounty hunters who collect rewards offered by the state to capture wanted criminals also in some cases, under the preset of the terms “dead or alive”. Private clients may have underlying intentions as to why they want a specific someone to be found. It is also the reason why in some occasions P.I.’s are sometimes regarded as hit men.

Sadly, an education in Policing and Private Investigation is perfectly suited for such a career. Currently, it is widely known that due to the onset of 9/11 private security firms now accept private contracts from their perspective governments. These firms apparently view the conflicts in the Middle East as an opportunity to earn huge amounts of money. Which is why when working for private firms one may also be regarded as a mercenary. However a military background is recommended if one decides to be employed under such companies. Simply because the job ranges from guarding oil pipes and supply line s from terrorists and insurgents and also training the local forces in the arts of war.

Study Political Economy

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Those interested in understanding the relationship between political issues and economic trends are ripe to pursue studies in political economics. Hinging on the idea that politics and economics are more or less inseparable, these courses cover the basics of economic markets and political structures before analyzing, evaluating and often predicting the effects on both.
Technically, any individual can become an expert in political economy through research, political activity and basic education. Certain global-interest organizations, companies and institutions will even train future and current employees in political economy basics. Sometimes, universities will provide publicly accessible workshops on political economy. However, these methods typically do not provide any degrees or certifications.
A preferred option is to attend a college or university for a bachelor’s course of study, usually two to four-year course. While some colleges offer political economy majors, other students may not have the option and need to earn a politics, political science or economics degrees. As long as the student takes a variety of political and economic classes during college, they will be well prepared for life as a political economist.
Skills, Qualifications and Prerequisites for Studies in Political Economy
Any individual can undertake political economy studies, with or without the aid of an institution – in which case, no prerequisites are required. However, if they choose to attend a higher education institution, they must adhere to the admission requirements outlined by the college or university. This usually includes the completion of a secondary school or a passing score on an aptitude test, entrance exam or other standardized test.
While students do not necessarily need highly developed aptitudes in certain subject areas, it helps to be highly knowledgeable of mathematics, economics, history, government and law before attempting a course in political economy. Ideal candidates should be involved in modern politics on various local, national or international levels. Previous experience with marketing or economic research is also beneficial.
Much of political economy requires students to relate cause and effect factors, analyze data, make predictions and understand a variety of viewpoints, beliefs and political positions. Along with this, students must compare trends and economic data. It calls for a very perceptive, open and scientific mind, capable of forming meaningful connections.
Qualifications and Skills Acquired from Studies in Political Economy

Political economy covers a range of topics, including:
  • Political Science
  • Economics and basic economic structures
  • Sociology
  • General national and world history
  • Political and economic history
  • Modern political structures
  • Global trade, markets and security
  • Products of interest
  • Current issues
Career Opportunities for Studies in Political Economy
Ideally, political economists work as consultants to government organizations, non-profit organizations, political parties, global companies and even help monitor international relations. There is a huge demand for political economists in the global marketplace due to their insight into economic trends. Political groups, parties and movements also employ political economists, but less often than do industries, companies and institutions.
They can be anything from economists to political scientists, lobbyists to historians, researchers to trade specialists. Political economists can also enjoy employment in variety of other career paths, including: investment, analytics, company or project management, financing, sales, marketing and education.

Study Political Science

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Political science is a branch of the social sciences which is concerned with the analysis, description, and prediction of political behavior, political systems and politics. Political science is considered to be a "soft" science, which means that it depends more on subjective interpretations than hard data.

Professionals in political science typically specialize in a particular field, such as conducting research and surveys on public opinion, advising politicians and important government officials, or providing comments on policy decisions. Moreover, experts in this field construct and carry out surveys and research projects to analyze poverty rates, pollution levels, water and food quality, the condition of roads and public structures, and the effectiveness of government initiatives, together with many other similar things. They use this information to write reports, educate officials and the public, and promote change. Some skilled political scientists may work for a specific politician or official, conducting research and providing expert advice on political decisions. He or she might specialize in certain types of policies, such as international affairs, Homeland Security, health care, education, or business development. Finally, political science professionals help lawmakers determine the need for new approaches to public policies and suggest ways to achieve success.

Personal Qualities

  • Good at research and analysis
  • Excellent oral and written communication skills
  • Interested in politics and current affairs

Study Options

If you wish to pursue a career in political science you would have to obtain a bachelor's degree at minimum from an accredited institution. A lot of undergraduate students decide to pursue master's or doctoral degrees in the subject to enhance their understanding of political systems and improve their chances of finding better jobs and employment. Most new employees in government, law offices, and journalism institutions begin their careers as assistants to established professionals in the field, where they have the opportunity to observe the detailed work involved in such jobs. This is why the way your course is structured may be crucial – especially if it involves an opportunity for internships and other activities allowing you to enter the field and get in touch with the right people.

Career Options

Nonprofit groups, research institutions, and government offices are popular job locations for political science graduates. There, you might be responsible for researching historical policy decisions or analyzing the effectiveness of present ones, using information from public surveys and records. Many policy and survey analysts outline detailed reports which are used by politicians, judges, and other members of government to influence future decisions.

On the other hand, there are a good number of graduates of political science programs, who choose to become involved in print, television, or radio journalism, where they apply their expert understanding of political systems to create reports about current events. Political scientists might cover elections, conduct interviews, or attend press conferences, where they often have the opportunity to ask questions. Another possible profession is this of the political advisor. Political advisors are political science expert, who work alongside politicians and government officials, helping them make important decisions in a number of different situations. Advisors for city or state officials often focus on local affairs, such as raising money for schools or health institutions. In other cases you might be focusing on proposing international agreements, changing environmental policy, raising or lowering taxes, or making important economical decisions.

Job positions for Political Science:

Political Affairs Officer

Those who are very much interested in the issues surrounding politics can apply for the position of Political Affairs Officer. Companies are willing to hire those who have good professional and family background. Hired applicants will be able to get agreeable compensation and benefits. Normally, the higher ups require the individuals eager to work to pass a competitive examination before they can be a part of the team.

There are a lot of responsibilities that a Political Affairs Officer must be able to handle. You will usually be under the supervision of the company’s director as you review, monitor and check the developments in the region. You will also conduct researches and even prepare analytical materials that are related to the political progress in your assigned area. In addition, you will be preparing the briefing materials as well as the official communications that are intended for the senior administrators. You will also need to act as the note taker when the higher-ranking officials request you to do so. It is also important that you participate in the mission of your company and assist even the regional organizations to cooperate with your company. It is also your job to supervise the interns.

When it comes to the skill requirements, a Political Affairs Officer should have the ability to control and direct thorough researches and should be able to reach conclusions about the probable causes and explanations to the problems concerning political matters. It is also important that the applicant has good speaking and writing skills so that eh tasks will be carried out smoothly and effectively. In addition, he or she should be a good listener and possesses the ability to interpret the messages from other people correctly. Open-mindedness is also a god quality that many companies are looking for when it comes to hiring the suitable person for the job.

It is also important that the Political Affairs Officer is totally aware of technology since there are tasks that require the use of some machinery and other related tools. Concerning the work assigned to the officer, it is necessary that he is able to determine which of them should be prioritized or is able to adjust for the activities and the events assigned to him. Working with colleagues is essential to meet the organization’s goals, which is why there are a number of companies that are searching for a good candidate who is able to place the team’s agenda before his own. Also, it is quite inevitable to experience shortcomings but as a team, he should be able to take responsibility for it.

Qualified and interested applicants are always encouraged to apply to try their luck in their chosen career. A Political Affairs Officer often possesses a great educational background particularly the degrees related to politics such as political science, law, international relational relations and political communication. Fluency in English is always an advantage for the potential applicants. Usually, the companies do not place restrictions when it comes to eligibility of the individuals as long as they possess the necessary skills which can make them a good Political Affairs Officer.

Study Polymer Science

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We talk of Polymer the rubber- the widely used commodity for vehicle buffs; Polymer the plastic-the most common material and one of the great breakthroughs of the modern world; and Polymer Science the course that is taken in schools as anchor throughout the span of the graduate’s career.

This time we give more consideration to polymer as course in school. The course is the study in polymer, a compound of plastics and rubbers, dedicated to the field of chemistry that deals with plastic materials, synthetic fibers and plastic. The science of the study of polymer is often times termed macromolecular science which is categorized into polymer physics, polymer chemistry, and polymer characterization.

Students are introduced to polymer; its basic phenomena and systematic explanations in the physical behavior; enables the students to get acquainted to the design, scientific principles and structure, and its conduct to the physical world. Studies are concerned with

1. free radical polymerization kinetics,

2. kinetic chain;

3. nature of scientific writing and report;

4. molecular weight determination;

5. polymer as random coils in dilute solution;

6. effect of plasticization, etc.

The Polymer Science involves two or more different subjects or areas of learning which comprise chemical, physical, engineering, processing, and theoretical feature. The goal of the course is to provide the basis for the formation and classification of polymeric substance and comprehension for structure and property relationship. Having polymer science increase the value of the daily life of man, modern functional materials, gears, and devices became its basic parts.

As rudimentary requirement, students should have understanding of chemistry and interest to study polymer and material science. On the other hand, professionals are heartened to study the course as developmental process to their profession, and serves as experience enhancement.

Modules were developed for use by students. These cover a broad area of subjects and business of interests from polymer engineering, physics, chemistry, biomaterials, and nanotechnology. It is being understood that polymer are very essential materials that make life effectively organized, unusual, and pleasurable. Man has all the elements he need in life from transport vehicles or aircrafts down to the smallest yet smart mobile phones. Polymer science is the reason for having all these sophisticated materials created. The heavy indebtedness of man for having to light the nature of polymer is genetically from school, educator, and learner.

Whatever the interest we have, polymer is wise choice as the discipline for learning. The reason is the vast field of opportunities lying ahead to students. As it is, polymer directs its route toward plastic and rubber industries. As a vivid illustration to polymer championship in the field, there is the application in plastic wall or building parts, and the manufacture of vehicle tires using the inherent polymer physical substance. Polymer’s extraordinary quality is its being able to process and create different designs and shapes from its physical nature.

Polymers are everything around: paper products, medical products, polyvinyl chloride blood pressure cuffs, polyester and nylon materials, and toys. Polymers are used as essential element in the structural part of the A380 Super Jumbo Jet, and the new Boeing 787 Dreamliner. It is highly expected that aircraft fuselage would be made of carbon fibre composites, a polymer strength-commanding compound.

If Polymer Science is not around, Madame Shopper would be having her grocery items kept in disposable bags that become messy and trash after use.

Study Pre-Health

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Study Probability Theory

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When Aristotle expressed the mind-boggling aphorism “Probable impossibilities are to be preferred to improbable possibilities,” he might not be aware that this sentence would confuse the whole universe with one of the most perplexing subjects that have ever been created: Probability Theory. What was Probability about that makes a lot of fuss in the minds of laymen but much less to mathematicians particularly to a Fermat’s or Pascal’s?

Probability Theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with analysis of random. (Boggled?) Probability Theory is a division of mathematics that deals with measuring or establishing quantitatively the possibility that an occurrence or experiment will have a particular outcome. (Still confusing?) Probability defines the chance of something or event happening. (It comes clearer now.)

Students of Probability Theory, with minds free from worries and problems can hack it more easily. They know in school that habitual use of the theory comes from repeated experiments of the interpretation of probability. Probability is used to provide the amount of beliefs based on opinions and feelings rather than of facts. It is the inner sense of a gambler that he could win in a game of betting.

Students taking up the course should have in mind that the content of Probability Theory is naturally mathematical. To understand it fully, the chief instrument to use is a genuine grasp of Calculus: differentiation and integration. The course familiarizes the students with the idea of chance. To make them cope with the doubt, provide their needs with any kind of subject – economics, signal processing, engineering or scientific course – where uncertainty happens. By showing examples and illustrations, general principle and problems are explained.

Mathematical background comprising calculus and linear algebra serve as a condition to the study of probability theory. Learning the aspect of the theory prepares the students to the courses that include applied statistics, stochastic processes, mathematical finance, and actuarial science. Students should also learn the formulation of probability samples that describe the fundamental production of development and progression.

Probability with applications is introduced that include: basic probability samples, random variables, discrete and continuous probability distributions, calculation mathematical expectation and variance, independence, and simulations about probability. As the course concludes, every student should (1) have the full comprehension about probability theory regarding its principle or idea as an abstract material; and its methodology or system and approaches in the areas of practical, statistical, and experimental; (2) makes comparison with, or calculate its importance or value, and carry out the process of replication through the use of another; (3) the student should be able to employ the Minitab program in evaluating “probability distributions” (such as when the presumption of current for both negative and positive are evenly distributed, the body or material could be electrified); use Minitab in investigating data and encapsulating the result after conducting the review.

Let’s take a look at a demonstration on probability theory. When we toss a coin, we are experimenting. In the experiment, one or more possibilities would come out: heads and tails. (Of course, it would not stand on its circumferential edge.) This is true with the rolling of the die: there would be six possible results. The products of the experiments would be the probability theory.

Probability theory is not as early as the many parts of mathematics. In the 16th and 17th centuries, it sprouts through the investigations made by Cardano, Fermat and Pascal. Thanks to these famous mathematicians and philosophers that our mind were boggled up once more.

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Study Psychology

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Psychology is a very broad discipline engaged with the study of the human mind, the human behavior, and other processes associated with the way people feel and think. Psychology can be approached in a great number of ways, from taking into consideration biology’s role in mental health to examining the role of the surrounding environment on one’s behavior. There are a lot of sub-disciplines of psychology that are worth mentioning; examples are social psychology, clinical psychology, occupational health, and cognitive psychology.

Common tasks that a psychologist would perform include conducting therapeutic interviews, carrying out psychological tests, evaluating sources of different problems, and adopting specific counseling and treatment techniques. Psychologists can also provide support in areas like study motivation, teaching skills, occupational behavior, and team dynamics. They can evaluate mental and emotional states of both individuals and groups of people, offering various treatment solutions.

Personal Qualities

A crucial quality to being a psychologist is patience. Curiosity and willingness to learn in a constantly developing subject area can turn out to be key, too. These other skills can also be considered:

  • Excellent communication skills
  • Strong intuitive feeling
  • Great analytical and problem-solving skills
  • Feel naturally connected to people

Study Options

In order to practice as a psychologist, you undoubtedly need to have at least a bachelor’s degree in Psychology, or one of its sub-disciplines. You can definitely start preparing from high school by taking subjects like chemistry, biology, and physics; you should also be prepared that the admissions procedure for disciplines like psychology is highly selective, and you need to keep your academic scores very high. Furthermore, subjects like sociology, literature, and history would give you some view of what motivates people, which is a good background for any mental health profession.

The institution you choose has to be an accredited one and have a good ranking for the research it carries out – research is an essential part of the discipline of psychology. Your degree should be a good balance between theory, practice, and clinical studies. Most psychologists take their studies further, and an option would be to either pursue a Ph.D. (which is perceived to put equal emphasis on research and clinical training), or a Psy.D., which is a newer professional degree, offered by the professional schools of psychology, emphasizing clinical practice with only a minimum of research training. Both options take at least five years to complete.

Career Options

There is a large pool of career opportunities for psychologists, especially since today’s society is becoming more stressed on a daily basis. A traditional approach is to provide counseling or to teach. You can work at a university, a community college or a professional school, where you can teach or conduct research. There is also the possibility to work at a hospital, a government agency (the military, law enforcement, or the penal system), or a community agency. You can also manage your own private counseling, where you decide on the type of patients you wish to work with.  Many larger companies need the service of psychologists, too, to help management with issues like work-life balance, team dynamics, and other employee life and health-related issues. No matter what your career aspirations are, remember that this is a profession that should mainly be driven by your own willingness and passion to help people.

Job positions for Psychology:

Rehabilitation Psychologist

Psychologists who have studied applied psychology may work as Rehabilitation Psychologists. Rehabilitation psychologists are focused on helping those who have suffered physical deprivation or loss. Majority of these people are amputees, patients with terminal illnesses, those suffering with permanent disfiguration and patients with disability.

A Rehabilitation Psychologist develops methods and approaches that would best help those who are undergoing depression and psychological problems due to physical and permanent damage to their body. The goal of Rehabilitation psychologists is to aid the in the adaptation process of the person who is affected and to alleviate the feeling of worthlessness and self-pity. They are trained to be able to assess patients properly and to effectively evaluate each case that they handle. The psychologists also find ways to improve the functioning of a disabled or handicapped person. They usually develop alternative activities and socialization techniques for people who have closed their doors on society due to their condition. Most clients of Rehabilitation Psychologists are military veterans who have been sent home due to their disability or loss of body parts. In these cases, the counseling is much harder because it primarily involves removal or taming of the trauma they have experienced before focusing on their adaptation to their conditions. Rehabilitation Psychologists are also trained in elderly care, since the elderly are more likely to develop depression due to their old age and incapability. For them, a different approach is also needed.

The Rehabilitation Psychologists must be well trained in assessment of psychological conditions and various stages of recovery from a loss or trauma. They are also experienced in psychotherapy and clinical counseling where they perform battery tests and other measurements to determine the patient’s recovery level. They are well oriented with the theories of adjustment and provide interventions with family members and those involved with the patient. They should also be able to use non-pharmacological anxiety treatments and methods like breathing and relaxation techniques.

A Rehabilitation Psychologist has a background and understanding of basic anatomy, neuroanatomy and pathology that is related to the cases they are concerned with. They are able to interpret neuropsychological screening instruments. They should be able to impart essential clinical information to the health care team and be able to explain complex findings in a simplified way to the family members and to the patient. A Rehabilitation Psychologist usually works in the rehabilitation unit of a hospital, clinic or an outpatient facility, although some hold their private clinics or conduct home services. A license may be required to practice their profession depending on the area that they work in. As part of the medical rehabilitation team, they are usually very well compensated.

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Are you a post-graduate student with a Master’s degree in Statistics, Mathematics, Quantitative Methods or something closely related and seeking a doctoral program in which you can develop and perfect your quantitative analysis skills?  Have you considered earning a Doctor of Philosophy degree in Quantitative Methods?  The Doctor of Philosophy Degree in Quantitative Methods is the perfect program for individuals who hope to develop and investigate methods of assessment and quantitative analysis, allowing them to become experts in their particular field in the use and application of such methods.  Below we will take a closer look at this cutting-edge degree program, including a brief course description, a sample of the coursework students will encounter and the eligibility requirements for admission.
Doctor of Philosophy in Quantitative Methods:  Course Description
The Doctor of Philosophy degree in Quantitative Methods is a post-graduate program now being offered by scores of colleges and universities throughout the world.  The program is designed to arm students with the required skills in the field of Quantitative Methods, Measurement and Analysis—skills that will allow graduates to pursue an advanced career position in which these skills are regularly employed and needed.  Graduates of the program are eligible to teach college and university-level courses in educational measurement, statistics and program evaluation, and they are often involved in theoretical and applied research projects that deal with the various problems of measurement and quantitative methods.  Those who complete the program can also occupy leadership roles in educational and governmental agencies concerned with quantitative methods and measurement.  Students learn to analyze research data and are given opportunities to develop and carry out research studies, in which research design, data analysis and evaluation are used to solve certain problems.  These skills are important in a number of career sectors, particularly education and behavioral science, as students will learn how to develop and evaluate new statistical and psychometric models for research and measurement.
Doctor of Philosophy Degree in Quantitative Methods:  Coursework
The Doctor of Philosophy Degree in Quantitative Methods involves a number of core classes in addition to the theoretical and applied research students are expected to complete.  Some of these classes include:
  • Educational Inquiry and Research
  • Quantitative Methods in Educational Research I and II
  • Practicum in Research Design and Data Analysis
  • Construction of Psycho-Educational Instruments
  • Psychometric Theory I and II
  • Item Response Theory
  • Multivariate Data Analysis
  • Evaluation of Educational Programs and Policies
  • Synthesis of Educational Research
  • Probability and Statistics I and II
  • And more…
Once students complete the coursework, they must then prepare a dissertation proposal for approval.  Once approved, they must they must then complete, present and defend that dissertation to the program faculty.
Doctor of Philosophy in Quantitative Methods:  Admission Requirements
Like most PhD level programs, applications for admission into the Doctor of Philosophy program are reviewed by the faculty and approved on a case-by-case basis based on certain factors that indicate a high probability for success.  Among other clues, these success indicators include a superior level of prior academic success at the both the undergraduate and graduate level, a high combined score on the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) and positive references from past instructors.

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Study Radio Physics and Electronics

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Are you a physics or engineering student who is currently in the process of selecting a specialty in which to focus your graduate education?  Have you considered pursuing a Master of Science degree in the exciting field of Radio Physics and Electronics?  Radio Physics and Electronics is a cutting-edge discipline which offers enormous employment potential for qualified graduates.  Although the field is highly technical and quite advanced, those who persevere and undergo the appropriate education and training will find a world of opportunity awaiting them on the other side.  To help you become more familiar with this field of study, below we will briefly define Radio Physics and the various branches associated with it, and introduce you to some of the coursework you’re likely to encounter, as well as the eligibility requirements for entry into the program.
What Is Radio Physics?
Radio Physics (also written as Radiophysics) is a branch of physics that deals with the theoretical and experimental study of certain types of radiation, including its emission, propagation and interaction with different mediums.  In the educational world, the term can have several meanings, including:
  • The study of radio waves (this was the original area of research when radio physics initially became part of the academic curriculum).
  • The study of radiation used in radiology (x-rays, etc.).
  • The study of other ranges of the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation in some specific applications.
Among the many applications of radio physics, the most notable are radio communications, radiolocation, radioastronomy and radiology.
There are several branches of radio physics now being offered by colleges and universities at the graduate and post-graduate level.  These include classical radio physics, the branch that focuses on radio wave communication and detection; quantum radio physics, a branch founded by Nikolai Basov of the former Soviet Union that deals with the physics of lasers and masers; and statistical radio physics, a specialty used primarily by electronic engineers.
Master of Science Degree in Radio Physics and Electronics:  Eligibility Requirements and Course Content
The Master of Science degree program in Radio Physics and Electronics is a three-year graduate field of study now being offered by colleges, universities and technical institutes throughout the world.  To be eligible for the program, students must, at minimum, possess a Bachelor of Science degree in a related field (electronic engineering, physics, quantum physics, electrical engineering, etc.) with at least a 3.0 grade point average in all core courses related to their degree.  Many institutions will also require a passing score on an entrance examination aimed at measuring student proficiency in mathematics and science.
The Master of Science degree in Radio Physics and Electronics combines both seminar courses and laboratory practice.  Some of the courses students are likely to encounter include:
  • Analytical and Numerical Methods
  • Electromagnetic Fields and Waves
  • Physics of Semiconductor Devices
  • Analog Circuits
  • Circuit Elements and Measurements
  • Network Synthesis and Transmission Networks
  • Logic and Switching Circuits
  • Microelectronics Materials and Technology
  • Guided Wave Transmission
  • Analog Electronics and Simulation
  • Transmission Line and Antenna Experiments
  • Computer Organization and Architecture
  • Analog Instrumentation and Measurements
  • Space Climatology and Weather 
  • Microwave and Millimeter-wave Engineering
  • And more…
The graduate degree program in Radio Physics and Electronic will typically culminate with a group or individual capstone research project which students will present to the faculty of the Department of Physics and/or Department of Engineering for evaluation.

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Renewable Energy is energy obtained or generated from natural resources and replenished by nature. Examples of these natural resources are sunlight, geothermal heat, wind, rain, tides and biomass or biofuel. Currently, almost twenty percent of Earth's final energy consumption is supplied by renewable energy. Compared to fossil fuel which pollutes the environment renewable energy is clean and generally environmental friendly.

Energy from sunlight can be harness using solar cells which will convert it to electricity. The power of the wind can be harvested by wind turbines. Traditionally, energy from water can be extracted using dams and mini hydro plants. These dams are almost always situated in large rivers or water-rich areas. But there are new technologies that can harness energy from water in several remarkable ways. Power or energy can be extracted out from the ocean currents, thermal energy, tides and waves. Geothermal energy is extracted from the heat of the Earth itself.

Biofuel which is liquid could either be a bioalcohol like ethanol or oil like biodiesel or vegetable oil. Motor vehicles or engines use biofuels either as an alternative or as mixture with fossil fuel. Presently, vehicles using biofuels are a minority compared to vehicles using petroleum-based products. But fossil fuels are not renewable and will soon dry up. Biomass meanwhile is solid and use primarily as combustible fuel. It is not ideally suitable for motor vehicles though. Biogas on the other hand is produced from wastes like paper, sewage or animal waste.

While renewable energy is not the world's primary source of energy that will soon change. The world's supply of fossil fuel is steadily running out. This will make renewable energy the energy source of the future for most if not all of our energy consumption. Countries and industries are turning to renewable energy to satisfy their energy needs. The world is slowly decreasing its dependence on fossil fuels and is to turning renewable energy. In Kenya a large number of households own small solar power systems ranging from 20 to 100 watts. In Brazil, their production of ethanol fuel derived from sugar cane is providing around one fifth of their country's automotive fuel. Wind power is widely used in several European countries and the United States. Building of equipment and infrastructures like solar panels and wind turbines are also increasing worldwide. But they also need people, a lot of them to create, built and maintained these infrastructures for renewable energy.

The market and the production for renewable energy will no doubt continue to increase. For those who would like a way to enter this exciting and dynamic field, taking a course or degree in Renewable Energy is the right way. The course will introduce students to the sources and kinds of renewable energy. Students who successfully finished the course will be able to design, build and repair renewable energy systems that will either produce or save energy. There are plenty of job opportunities in the Renewable Energy sector ranging from Electricians, Technicians, Engineers or Plant Managers. New jobs peculiar to this industry are also being created such as Wind Energy Engineer or Solar Designer.

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Study Sciences

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Those interested in the science disciplines can easily pursue a course of study in multiple scientific fields.  Studies in science are not typically considered one unit of study; they encompass several specific science branches, such as physics, biology, mathematical science, forensics, chemistry and dozens of other areas. Students in this field develop skills, credits and knowledge related to basic science standards and their preferred primary branch.
Science studies often require advanced education, training and hands-on experience for credible expertise. Colleges, universities, technical institutions and science academies all offer higher education courses in science studies. Many of these studies, regardless of scientific focus, will include required lab courses, internships or other hands-on training experience. Some lower degree may be achieved using online programs. Possible science degrees range from associates, bachelors, masters and PhDs.
Museums, medical institutes and some research companies are known to offer basic science courses for both beginners and practicing scientists. Educational workshops are offered at local schools, universities, nature or science centers, science camps, and even some government-funded programs.
Skills, Qualifications, and Prerequisites for Studies in Sciences
In order to undertake a science study at an accredited college, university or other higher educational institution, candidates must adhere to any standard admission requirements. This usually entails earning a secondary school completion certificate or passing a standardized aptitude test or entrance exam. Students pursuing higher degree will need to achieve at least a bachelor’s degree before attending graduate school, and many will need to pass standard admission tests – especially in the medical fields.
Publicly offered workshops, programs, camps or other training will often not require any prerequisites, unless the offered training is specified for those already working in a science field.
Those wishing to study the sciences need to possess a basic foundation in science, mathematics, physics, and other crucial subjects related to their field. As most science studies require years of work, dedication, perseverance and attentiveness are key. It is helpful if candidates can work proficiently both in independent settings and on a work team.
Skills and Qualifications Acquired from Studies in Sciences
Acquired skills in a science course study will vary depending on the scientific disciplinary focus, so it is difficult to outline specific qualifications. However, a science study will most likely allow candidates to choose from expertise in the following science areas:
  • Biology and biomedical sciences
  • Social Science
  • Anthropology
  • Astronomy and Meteorology
  • Environmental Science and Ecology
  • Chemistry
  • History of Science
  • Political Science
  • Geology, Geography or Oceanography
  • Computer Science
  • Neuroscience
  • Forensic Science
  • Engineering Sciences
  • Health and Nutrition
  • Natural Sciences
There are possibly dozens more specific science areas than currently listed here, though these are some of the more popular majors. It is very helpful for candidates to select one department of science study, rather than try to major in science studies generally, as this field is complex, diverse and applicable in numerous professional settings.
Careers for Studies in Sciences
The field of science study is vast, and careers are as diverse as the disciplines students may study. Many scientists work in research programs in medical, geological, industrial and technological fields. Many government departments, from defense to health to agriculture, will employ many graduates from a variety of science majors. Professors, technicians, doctors, psychologists, criminal investigators, physical therapists, engineers, zoologists, product developers, salesmen and even lawyers are all known to have extensively studied the sciences.

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The study of Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing involves the study of mathematical tools and algorithms for numerical approximation that is used in solving hard problems. These problems include weather predictions, accurate computing of spacecraft trajectory, designing car crash simulation for improving safety standards of vehicles, calculating value of stocks, so on and so forth.

Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing is no doubt an interdisciplinary subject requiring knowledge of different subjects like mathematics, computer science and engineering. Skills in mathematical modeling are basic necessities in the study and practice of this subject.

Course Structure and Eligibility

Both undergraduate and post graduate courses are offered on Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing by most of the state and private universities. A student seeking admission to any of the above courses should have a basic knowledge of calculus as well as linear algebra. A fair idea of a high level programming language is also desirable. For admission to post graduate courses, the minimum qualification is a Bachelors degree in Computer Science, Mathematics or an engineering subject like Information Technology or Electronics and Telecommunication, etc. Students may also pursue doctoral and post doctoral research programs in universities, but they have to be cautious about the quality and acceptability of the specific program.

A general course module of Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing would include papers on numerical methods, methods of applied mathematics, fluid dynamics, fundamental algorithms, etc. Special papers and elective courses however would vary from one institute to another depending on the level of the course. There is the scope of studying different subjects within the field of Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing. These include probability or statistics, cryptography, etc. A study of cryptography, for example, helps in keeping personal information absolutely safe say while using an ATM or a credit card swipe machine. Another application in the field of Numerical analysis and scientific computation is computational forensics. This is a quantitative approach to forensic science. The process involves computer modeling and simulation which is used in solving various forensic problems.

Different types of software are used for Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing. These are such as MATLAB and its clones, Scilab, LabView, FlexPRo, etc. It is important for those who want to expertise in this field to have fair knowledge of handling at least some of these software.

Career Prospects

Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing is indispensible to any scientific investigation and technological advancement. Students of this subject have high chances of getting absorbed into government laboratories, research facilities, and universities and also in the private sector. Those having expertise in modern computing tools and hands on training in handling different projects are always given preference.  Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing are vastly used in the fields of Chemistry, Molecular Biology, etc. because these fields extensively use computer simulations. Drug designing, gene therapy and other engineering companies like aerospace, power and research and development labs also provide high profile jobs to experts in Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing.

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